New Zealand’s conifer–broadleaf forests are quite different from northern hemisphere temperate forests. They are evergreen and rich in plant species, with a layered structure. Massive trees emerge above a canopy of tall trees and an understorey of shrubs and tree ferns. Climbing and perching plants are common and clothe most of the large trees. The forest floor is dominated by ferns, mosses and liverworts.
Download Herbert Guthrie-Smith’s vivid description of the forest from his 1921 book Tutira: the story of a New Zealand sheep station (76 KB).
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Archives New Zealand - Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga
Reference: AAQA 6500 Col1500
Photograph by John Johns
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