Formerly, being Māori was firmly connected to being New Zealand-born and bred. However, since 1990 an international Māori diaspora has arisen. This is concentrated in Australia, where the promise of higher living standards have lured many. In the 2016 Australian census just over 142,000 people recorded Māori ancestry – about one in six of all New Zealand and Australian Māori.
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Sources: Jeremy Lowe, The Australian Maori population: Nga Maori ki Ahitereria: a demographic analysis based on 1986 Australian and New Zealand census data. Wellington: New Zealand Planning Council, 1990; R. Bedford and I. Pool, ‘Flirting with Zelinsky in Aotearoa/New Zealand: a Maori mobility transition.’ In Population mobility and indigenous peoples in Australasia and North America, edited by John Taylor and Martin Bell. London: Routledge, 2004, pp. 44–74; Australian Bureau of Statistics 2016 Census