Customs duties were the major tax of the 1800s – stamp duty, gold duty, land tax and property tax were less important income sources. The government also gained revenue through land sales and duties, but this declined rapidly in the 1870s as government ran out of land to sell to settlers.
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Source: Paul Goldsmith, We won, you lost, eat that! Auckland: David Ling, 2008, pp. 16, 46, 71, 102.