The only other Europeans besides the English to play a significant part in mapping New Zealand’s coastline were the French. They became interested in the Pacific at about the same time as the English. Louis Antoine de Bougainville crossed the Pacific on his 1766–69 voyage, in the wake of British explorer John Byron.
At the same time that Captain Cook was rounding the top of the North Island in a storm in December 1769, perhaps as close as 40 km to the south-west a French explorer was battling the same heavy seas. Captain Jean François Marie de Surville had left India on the St Jean Baptiste in March 1769 for a voyage of trade and exploration to the South Pacific. Sailing via Malacca and the Solomon Islands, he reached the western coast of New Zealand (he was the first European to see it since Tasman) on 12 December 1769. His crew was drastically diminished by scurvy. After just missing Cook off the top of the North Island, he anchored in Doubtless Bay for two weeks. There, in a storm in late December, the St Jean Baptiste lost three anchors. After some Māori were seen with a ship’s boat that had been lost in the storm, de Surville took savage reprisals which included killings and kidnapping a friendly chief. This incident has marred his reputation in New Zealand. From Doubtless Bay de Surville sailed east, eventually losing his life trying to land on the coast of Peru.
Marion du Fresne
Not far behind Cook and de Surville came another Frenchman, Marc Joseph Marion du Fresne, who had served on French India Company ships. He undertook to return a Tahitian, brought by Bougainville to Paris, to his home island. He was also to seek out the legendary southern continent. His ships the Marquis de Castries and Mascarin sailed from Mauritius in October 1771, called at Cape Town, then headed east. After landfall at New Zealand’s Cape Egmont, he sailed around the top of the North Island.
A long stay in the Bay of Islands was necessary in order to repair his ships, which had been damaged by a collision in the Indian Ocean. The ships were anchored in the bay from 4 May to 12 July 1772. Many of the initial encounters between Māori and the French were friendly, and the expedition left an extensive record of Māori life.
However, the situation in the Bay of Islands was volatile, as Ngāpuhi tribal groups were gradually displacing the earlier Ngāti Pou inhabitants. The French presence destabilised the situation further, and misunderstandings were rife. In mid-June, Marion du Fresne and 24 others were killed by Māori. What sealed his fate seems to have been an inadvertent violation by the French of a sacred restriction placed by Māori on a particular bay. The French took savage revenge for their captain’s death before returning to Mauritius via the Philippines.
D’Entrecasteaux and Duperrey
In March 1793 Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni d’Entrecasteaux, commanding the Espérance and the Recherche, sailed past New Zealand while searching for another French explorer, Jean François de Galoup, Comte de la Pérouse. La Pérouse had sailed from Botany Bay in 1788 and not been seen since. D’Entrecasteaux had brief contact with Māori off far northern New Zealand, but he did not land. On his way to Tongatapu he named the Kermadec Islands, discovered previously by a homeward-bound convict ship.
Louis Isidore Duperrey sailed from Toulon on the Coquille in 1822. By 3 April 1824 he had reached the Bay of Islands, where he stayed until 17 April before continuing his circumnavigation.
Duperrey’s second-in-command on his 1822–25 voyage was Jules Sébastien César Dumont d'Urville. The expedition that Dumont d’Urville led in 1826 is considered to be the last important voyage in the story of the European discovery of New Zealand.
Dumont d’Urville came with the intention of completing Cook’s chart of New Zealand. Sailing from Toulon on 25 April 1826 in the Astrolabe (the Coquille renamed), he sighted the west coast of the South Island on 10 January 1827. After exploring Cook’s Blind Bay (now Tasman Bay), he made his celebrated passage of French Pass into Admiralty Bay.
He went on to examine the east coast from Cape Campbell to Whāngārei Harbour, a journey that included the Hauraki Gulf, Waitematā Harbour and Coromandel Peninsula. He spent a week in the Bay of Islands before leaving New Zealand.
Dumont d’Urville returned to the east coast on his 1837–40 Astrolabe and Zélée voyage to Antarctica, but without adding significantly to the knowledge of New Zealand’s coasts.
Danger and discovery
One of the most dramatic events in the European exploration of New Zealand’s coast was Dumont d’Urville’s passage through French Pass. At the eastern side of Tasman Bay he found a channel which, he wrote, resembled ‘a gorge between two ranges of high mountains’. It was blocked by reefs which created ‘whirlpools of incredible violence’. Dumont d’Urville decided the passage ‘could be navigated if great precautions were taken’, though the enterprise ‘might have sinister consequences’. It did not, and the names French Pass and D’Urville Island are reminders of the commander’s skilful seamanship. 1
Explorers of the 1830s
Other Frenchmen called at the Bay of Islands in the 1830s, including Cyrille Pierre Théodore de Laplace, Jean Baptiste Thomas Médée Cécille and Abel Aubert Dupetit-Thouars. That decade also saw a similarly brief visit by the Beagle, a British naval ship which was circumnavigating the globe after surveying southern South America.