This diagram shows how water was used in hydraulic mining. Safety considerations and the drive to obtain as much coal as possible from an area led to the progressive replacement of underground mining by opencast mines. Underground mining in New Zealand was also revolutionised by the use of high-pressure water jets to extract the coal, which was then transported out of the mine by the water.
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Source: Paul Mahoney, Charming Creek history album. Hokitika: New Zealand Forest Service, 1985