Story: Parliament

Implications of MMP

Implications of MMP

This cartoon depicts what many people saw as one of the drawbacks of the mixed-member proportional representation (MMP) electoral system. In the 1996 election – the first held under MMP – the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, gained the most votes, followed by the Labour Party, led by Helen Clark. New Zealand First, led by Winston Peters, came in a distant third, but was in a strong bargaining position when the two major parties sought a coalition partner.

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Garrick Tremain
Cartoon by Garrick Tremain

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How to cite this page:

John E. Martin, 'Parliament - Impact of MMP', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, (accessed 5 December 2023)

Story by John E. Martin, published 20 Jun 2012, updated 1 Feb 2015