Story: Te Ao-kapurangi

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Te Ao-kapurangi

fl. 1818–1830

Ngati Rangiwewehi woman of mana, peacemaker

This biography, written by Angela Ballara, was first published in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography in 1990.

Te Ao-kapurangi was born probably in the late eighteenth century. One of her parents was Pare-puwhenua and the other possibly Te Whangongo. Descended from Tama-te-kapua of Te Arawa canoe and from Hoturoa of the Tainui canoe, she was a woman of mana, who belonged to Ngati Rangiwewehi and Tapuika hapu. Her two brothers, Te Kohuru and Te Waro, were considered to be most sacred tohunga. Te Ao-kapurangi's first husband was Rauru of Tapuika. They had two sons: the elder was Tarakawa-te-ipu, whose son Takaanui Tarakawa left a record of her life; the younger son was Te Hihiko, later baptised Hone.

In 1818 Te Ao-kapurangi was captured by Hauraki, the Nga Puhi leader who had gone with Te Morenga on an expedition of vengeance to the Bay of Plenty and East Cape districts. Brought back to the Bay of Islands by Hauraki, she became one of his wives. They had a child, who was accidentally burned, and the incident is remembered by Hauraki's taking an additional name, Te Wera (the burning).

Te Ao-kapurangi became involved further in Nga Puhi warfare. In 1822 a number of Nga Puhi, led by Te Pae-o-te-rangi, had been killed by Tuhourangi people on Motutawa (the island in Rotokakahi), and some of the fugitives had been killed at Ohinemutu by Ngati Whakaue. In February 1823 a great war expedition set off from the Bay of Islands to avenge these deaths. Te Ao-kapurangi went with them. At Tauranga they heard that many Te Arawa had withdrawn to Mokoia Island, and to reach there they decided to proceed inland from Waihi along the Pongakawa river valley. Te Ao-kapurangi told Te Wera Hauraki that she was concerned for the safety of her Ngati Awa relatives who were living in this valley. He allowed her to address Nga Puhi leaders, and Te Koki agreed that his quarrel was only with Tuhourangi and Ngati Whakaue who had killed his nephew Te Pae-o-te-rangi.

At Rotorua Te Wera asked his wife what they were to do about her Te Arawa relatives, and again permitted her to address Nga Puhi. Again she reminded them that those responsible for Te Pae-o-te-rangi's death did not include her own people, Ngati Rangiwewehi and Tapuika. Once again Te Koki agreed that his quarrel was only with Tuhourangi and Ngati Whakaue. Others agreed and Te Wera sent Te Ao-kapurangi with Taku, another of his wives, to Mokoia Island. When their canoe came close, Te Ao-kapurangi was recognised and given permission to speak by her kinsman Hikairo, a Ngati Rangiwewehi leader. Calling from the canoe, she proposed that her relatives should go to a separate place, where they would be safe from Nga Puhi. But Hikairo, although pleased by Nga Puhi's consideration, refused to abandon his other Te Arawa kin.

Te Ao-kapurangi returned, and told Nga Puhi that if she was to save her kinsfolk, she would need to be present at the battle. This was agreed to, but Hongi Hika decreed that Nga Puhi would spare only those who passed between Te Ao-kapurangi's thighs. Next day the attack was launched at Mokoia. As soon as she had landed on the island she hurried to the house, Tama-te-kapua, and stood on the roof astride the ridgepole, calling for her people to save themselves. They crammed the house, and Nga Puhi allowed them to enter it and respected it as a place of refuge. This is the origin of the saying, well known to Te Arawa and used when many crowd together in a house: 'Ano ko te whare whawhao a Te Ao-kapurangi' (How like the crowded house of Te Ao-kapurangi).

Among those who escaped from the island were Te Ao-kapurangi's close kin, Hikairo, Te Waro and Te Hihiko. They returned to the island in the night and joined the other survivors in Tama-te-kapua. The next day peace was made by Te Wera Hauraki and Nga Puhi, both with the survivors and with the rest of Te Arawa. Nga Puhi were persuaded not to take the conquered land for themselves, and not to pursue the fugitives. A permanent peace was established; Te Ao-kapurangi had played an important part in bringing this about.

With her husband and her two sons she travelled on to the East Coast where Te Wera established himself at Nukutaurua on the Mahia peninsula. The ally and protector of various tribes, he was assisted in his many battles by Te Ao-kapurangi's sons. Little is known of her later life, however; not even her death is recorded. But after her death her grand-daughter, Rangiwawahia, composed a famous lament for her.

How to cite this page:

Angela Ballara. 'Te Ao-kapurangi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/1t25/te-ao-kapurangi (accessed 19 December 2018)