This is Te Kooti’s personal battle flag, known as Te Wepu (the whip). Te Kooti captured it from Ngāti Kahungunu in 1868. The flag was very large, measuring 16 x 1.2 metres. The crescent moon is a portent of a new world, and the red cross is the fighting cross of the Archangel Michael. The mountain represents New Zealand, and the bleeding heart the suffering of the Māori people.
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Permission of the Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand, Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa, must be obtained before any re-use of this image.