Story: He Whakaputanga – Declaration of Independence



This 1836 image of Kororāreka (later called Russell) shows European buildings along the shore and mainly Māori waka (canoes) in the bay and on the shore. While it was originally a Māori settlement, it had become a base for Europeans by the early 1830s. Its lawlessness was one of the reasons that Māori began to appeal to Britain for protection. In 1833 James Busby was sent to New Zealand as British Resident (an official position).

Using this item

Alexander Turnbull Library
Reference: PUBL-0115-1-front
Aquatint after a drawing by Joel Samuel Polack

Permission of the Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand, Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa, must be obtained before any re-use of this image.

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How to cite this page:

Basil Keane, 'He Whakaputanga – Declaration of Independence - Background to the declaration', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, (accessed 3 December 2023)

Story by Basil Keane, published 20 Jun 2012