The Otago region is a block of country approximately 100 miles by 100 miles. It lies in the south-east section of the South Island roughly bounded in the north by the line of the Waitaki River and the line of the Clutha River in the south, its western boundary being formed by the ranges of the Southern Alps. The limits of the region correspond with those of the following counties: Waitaki, Waihemo, Waikouaiti, Peninsula, Taieri, Bruce, Clutha, Tuapeka, Vincent, and Maniototo. These counties, together with their interior boroughs and cities, constitute the principal basis for the collection of statistics. Dunedin (Urban Area population, 1961, 105,003) is the principal city of the region. An account of the city is given elsewhere, but in order to present a full statistical treatment the figures for Waikouaiti, Peninsula, and Taieri counties, with their interior boroughs and cities, have been combined and are presented under the heading of the Dunedin region. In 1961 the population of the Otago region totalled 172,594 (7·14 per cent of the national total) of which 0·47 per cent were registered as Maoris.