The original staff for the new Department was largely drawn from the Department of Lands. In 1923 schools of forestry were established at Auckland and Canterbury University Colleges. This action proved to be an error in view of the limited field of employment for foresters, and neither school was strong enough to survive the economic rigours of the depression years. Recruitment in general into the newly formed Service almost ceased in those years in spite of a great expansion of work. It was not until after the Second World War that a vigorous programme of expansion, of recruitment, and training of all staff, was undertaken. Professional foresters now gain a basic science degree in New Zealand and then take two years of forestry training at the Australian Forestry School, Canberra, or at a British school. Sub-professional or ranger training is conducted by the Service itself on the basis of a two-year consolidated course and three years' field work.