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Musket wars

by Basil Keane

Hikohiko ana te uira, papā ana te whatitiri i ngā pakanga mau pū a ngā iwi Māori. Neke noa atu i te 20,000 ngā tāngata i mate i ngā riri pū a ngā iwi.


Musket wars overview

Te wā o ngā riri pū

He pakanga ngā riri mau pū i waenganui i ngā iwi Māori. Ko ngā pū tuatahi he ngutu pārera, (he mea mau mai e te Pākehā). Ko te nuinga o ngā pakanga i tū ki waenganui i te tau 1818 me te tau 1840. I tua atu i tērā ko te pakanga o Ngāti Whātua me Ngāpuhi i Moremonui i te takiwa o te tau 1807-08. Ahakoa he rākau Māori anahe ā Ngāti Whātua, ka haukotia a Ngāpuhi e mau pū ana. Arā anō ētahi riri poto i tū i muri i te tau 1840.

Ō mua ō muri

I mua atu ko te kōhatu me te rākau ngā patu a te Māori. Nō te urunga mai o te pū kua āhei te tuku riri mai i tawhiti. I roto i te rua tekau, toru tekau tau, ka āhua tohunga tonu te iwi Māori ki te ngā tikanga o te pakanga ki te pū.

I muri i ngā riri mau pū ko ngā pakanga whenua, arā, ko ngā pakanga o ngā iwi ki te Karauna me ōna iwi kūpapa.

Te horapatanga o te pū

Ko ngā riri pū te riri i marara nui ki te motu whānui ki te Ika-a-Māui, Te Waipounamu, whakawhiti atu ki Wharekauri. Ko tētahi o ngā hua nui i puta i ēnei pakanga ko te whakanekeneketanga o ngā rohe ā- iwi. Kāti, i runga anō i te whakatau a te Kōti Whenua Māori, ka noho tonu ngā rohe whenua iwi ki te āhua i te wā i hainatia ai te Tirti o Waitangi.

Te Taupori

Ko te whakaaro e 20,000 ngā tāngata i mate i ngā riri pū, engari tē mōhiotia te tatau tika. Nā te roa o ēnei riri i mate ai te mātinitini; otiia i pākia ngā tōpito katoa o te motu, tāne mai, wahine mai, tamariki mai. Ahakoa ngā ngaunga kino a te pū, ko ngā tahumaero kē te kaikōhuru i te iwi i ngā tau maha. 

Ngā riri taewa

I ngā wā o mua he puta taua, he puta māra hoki ngā mahi ki te tāne. Hui katoa he mahi ka tatū i te raumati. Nā te tapu, mā ngā tāne rawa e whakatipu te kūmara. Ko te rīwai nā te Pākehā i heri mai. Nā tōna noa ka āhei te tangotango e te hunga taurekareka, e te hunga wāhine hoki i wātea kau iho ngā tāne te haere ki te pakanga. He nui ake hoki te rīwai ka tipu i te heketea kotahi, tērā i hua o te kumara. Ko ngā rīwai ka toe mai, ka haere katoa hei hoko pū, hei kai rānei mā te ope taua. 

Tawhiti pāmamao

Nā te tōnuitanga o ngā ohaoha me te pukahu o te kai ka tawhiti ake te totoro haere o ngā taua. Otirā he nui ngā pakanga ka whakamahia ngā kaipuke a ngā Pākehā hei kawe atu i a rātou ki ngā whaitua mamao, pērā i te pito tonga o Te Waipounamu me Wharekauri.

E rua ngā ope taua i kīia ai ko Te Āmiowhenua. Ko tētahi ko ngā iwi o Hokianga me Kāwhia ngā kaihautū, ā, ka kōpikopiko mā te tai hauāuru, ahu tonu atu ki Wairarapa i te tau 1820-21. Ko tētahi ka rangaia ki raro i te awe o ngā amorangi o Kaipara me Waikato-Maniapoto. Ka tae tērā ki Rotorua, ki roto o Te Matau-a-Māui, whakawhiti atu ki Wairarapa, tau iho ki roto o Taranaki, tau rawa atu ki roto o Waikato me Kaipara. Ko te rangatira o Ngāti Tama ko Te Pūoho i takahi i te nukuroa o Te Waipounamu.


Acquisition and use of muskets

Te utu mō te pū

Ko ngā pū tuatahi a te Māori he koretake, he pūhore, he nui te utu. Inā rā, e 200 ngā kete rīwai, 15 rānei ngā poaka mō te pū kotahi. Ka roa te wā kātahi ka heke te utu.

Kātahi ngā iwi ka rikarika ki te hāpai i te pū. Engari i huri kē te iwi ki te mahi taonga, ki te hokohoko taonga hei utu i ngā pū.

Te whiwhinga i te pū

He rereke te āhua o te hoko pū i tēnā wā, i tēnā wā.

  • I te tīmatanga he itiiti, he koretake noa iho ngā pū ka hokona mai. He pai ake ēnei pū mō te whakamataku i te hoariri.
  • Taro ake, inā kē te tini o ngā pū nā ngā iwi i hoko. Engari nā te werawera o te rae i whiwhi ai ki te pū. I roto i ēnei pakanga kei raro ngā iwi kore pū e putu ana.
  • Nāwai rā ka rahi ngā pū,  kua hoki anō ki ngā mahi a te iwi. 

Te whanaketanga o ngā mahi taua

He maha anō ngā whanaketanga ki te keu i te pū.

  • I te tīmatanga he kuare te Māori ki te pū. Kāore i āta mōhio ki te pupuhi, kāore i rahi te pāura, te matā rānei hei whakaharatau. 
  • Ka roa kātahi ka rahi ake ngā pū me ngā matā hei whakaharatau, i taunga ai te Māori ki te whakakeko pū ki te hoariri.
  • I te otinga ka whakawhanakehia ngā rautaki pakanga tōtika mō te ope mau pū – pērā i te āta tukutuku i ngā waipū. He tino rerekē ēnei whakatakataka taua i tō ngā pakanga rākau Māori.

Ngā pā whawhai

Nō konei ka kite te Māori me hanga anō he pā kia rite mō te pū.

E rua ngā tūwatawata o ēnei pā. Ko te mea o waho hei ārai i ngā kōkiri mai a te hoariri. Kei roto mai he tūwatawata anō, ā, mā konei keu ai ngā kaiwawao i ā rātou pū. Kei muri atu ko ngā maioro me ngā tūwatawata anō. Nāwai ka tīmata ngā iwi ki te hanga pīnakitanga kia āhei ai te tuku i ngā waipū kōtaha ki te hoariri; ka whiria hoki he whakangungu harakeke hei aukati i ngā matā.


Warfare from the north

Hongi Hika

Ka rongo ana te taringa i te kupu pakanga mai pū, ka tere tāpiritia mai e te hinengaro te ingoa o te rangatira o Ngāpuhi, o Hongi Hika. I ngā tau 1807-08 ka kakari rātou ki a Ngāti Whātua o Kaipara, ko Murupaenga te amorangi. Hāunga te kore pū a Ngāti Whātua, ka āpiti tūtia e rātou te hoariri, ka hinga a Ngāpuhi. Tokorua o ngā tungāne o Hongi ka patua i tēnei pakanga. I te tau 1819 ka pakanga a Ngāpuhi ki te raki (i raro i a Hongi) ki a Ngāpuhi ki te tonga i raro i te awe o Te Morenga. Nā runga i ngā whanaungatanga, ka whakatahangia ngā pū mō tēnei riri, ka hīkina ko ngā rākau Māori. 

Te whakarewanga o Ngāpuhi

Tae rawa ake ki te tau 1818 kua riro i a Ngāpuhi te mahi a te pū, ā, i raro i te awe o Hongi Hika rāua ko Te Morenga, ka tāorotia te rohe o Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. I te tau 1821 ko tana hokinga mai i Poihākena me te hia rau pū. I taua tau ka whakaekea e ia te pā o Ngāti Pāoa, a Mauinaina, ki roto o Tāmaki-makaurau, ā, i te tau i muri mai, ka whiria e ia a Ngāti Maru ki roto o Hauraki; ka patua hoki ngā iwi o Waikato ki Mātakitaki. I te tau 1823 ka mīere i a ia a Te Arawa ki Mokoia, ki Rotorua. 

Te mura o te ahi

I te tau 1825 ka hinga a Ngāti Whātua i a Hongi ki Te Ika-a-Ranganui ki Kaipara. Ka taki whāia e ia te mōrehu i rere ki roto o Waikato. I Nohoawatea ka tukia anō te hoariri. I te tau o muri mai kua ngaki katoatia ngā mate o Ngāpuhi, kua hinga a Ngāti Whātua, kua patua a Murupaenga. I te tau 1827 ka pūhia a Hongi Hika i te pakanga ki ōna huānga o Hokianga. Ka mate ia i ōna taotū i te tau i muri mai. 

Ko Pōmare rāua ko Te Wera

Ko Pōmare rāua ko Te Wera Hauraki ngā rangatira o Ngāpuhi i takahi i te ara o riri whakauaua ki roto o te Tai Rāwhiti, Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi me Te Matau-a-Māui. I te tau 1820 ka whakaekea a Ngāti Porou ki Te Whetūmatarau. I te tau 1822 ka kōkiritia a Tūhua.

Nāwai ka tau te maungarongo a Te Wera ki a Ngāti Kahungunu e noho ana i Te Māhia, ā, ka noho koia hei kaiwhakamaru mō te iwi. I te tau 1834 ka haumi a Te Wera ki a Ngāti Porou i te pakanga ki a Te Whānau-a-Apanui ki Toka-a-kuku. 

Te otinga

I muri i te matenga o Hongi Hika ka tāmōmō te kaha o Ngāpuhi, kua kore e taea te whakamaruwehi i ngā taua o te hoariri pērā i te wā o Hongi. I te tau 1830 ka pakaru mai ngā pakanga hapū o roto i  a Ngāpuhi; he riri i takea mai i ngā tohetohe o ētahi o ngā wāhine. I te tau 1832 ka kauparetia te whakaekenga o Ngāpuhi e Waikato. Taka rawa ki te tekau tau 1830 kua kore e rongonuitia a Ngāpuhi i roto i ngā riri pū. 


Waikato

Ngā pakanga tuatahi

Whai muri i ngā kakari i waenganui i a Waikato me Ngāti Toa, ka tutea te rangatira a Te Rauparaha mai i Kāwhia. He wā anō ka houhia te rongo, ā, i taua tau hoki ka patua a Ngāti Tama ki Pārāwera e Waikato.

Nāwai ka mea a Te Wherowhero ki te whakaeke i a Te Rauparaha ki Ōkoki ki te raki o Taranaki. Nō te mātautanga ake, ka tukuna e Te Rauparaha ngā toro ki te whakapātari i a Te Wherowhero me Waikato ki te kokoti whakamoe. Ka patua a Waikato. Tata tonu a Te Wherowhero ka pūhia, engari ka whanaia e Te Rauparaha te pū ki te taha, kia āhei ai te tau mātakitahi. 

Te Matau-a-Māui me Taranaki

I te tau 1824 ka uru a Waikato hei uku mō Te Heuheu me Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki te pakanga o Te Pakakē i hinga ai a Ngāti Kahungunu. Ka mauheretia ngā tino rangatira o Te Whanganui-Orotu, ko Takamoana, ko Tāreha, ko Pāora Kaiwhata, ko Te Hāpuku, ko Tiakitai me Kurupō Te Moananui. 18 marama i muri mai ka tukuna rātou e Te Wherowhero.

I te tau 1826 ka whakaeke a Waikato i a Taranaki, i tauī ai ētahi ki te tonga. I te tau 1828, ka hinga a Ngāpuhi i raro i a Rangituke ki Te Pane o Horoiwi. Ko Ngāti Tipa o Waikato me Ngāti Paoa o Hauraki te hoariri. Ko te tau hoki tērā ka awhi te hokowhitu a Paiaka o Waikato, a Te HeuHeu me Te Whatanui i te pā o Te Wera me Te Pareihe mā i Kaiuku; takiwā ki Te Māhia. Ko Te Wherowhero i takahi ki roto o Whāngārei, ka pakanga ki Ōparakau.

Nga pakanga mai i 1830

I te tau 1830 ka kōkiritia a Ngāti Maru e Te Waharoa me ōna haumi o Ngāi Te Rangi me Ngāti Haua ki te pā o Taumatawīwī. Ko te taututenga tērā o Ngāti Maru i taua wāhi. I te tau 1831 ka patua e Ngāi Te Rangi me Ngāti Hauā te taua a Te Haramiti o Ngāpuhi i te moutere o Tūhua. 

I te takiwā o 1831-32 ka hopukina e Te Wherowhero te pā o Te Āti Awa a Pukerangiora, ki te taha whakararo o te rohe o Taranaki. Ka kauparehia a Waikato ki te pā o Ngāmotu, he tūtata ki Nu Paremata. I te tau 1832 ka tukia e Te Wherowhero a Ngāpuhi ki Tutukākā, takiwā ki Whāngārei. Taro iho ka rangatū ia ki roto o Taranaki, ko Mikotahi te pā o te riri. I te takutai ki Te Namu, ka āraia atu a Waikato. Ko Te Makatea te kaingārahu o Taranaki. I te tau 1834 ka karapotia e Te Wherowhero te pā o Te Ruaki ki te taha whakarunga o Taranaki rohe. I te tau 1836 ka whakaekea e Te Waharoa a Maketu ki Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. Nō te tau 1838 ka mate a Te Waharoa.

Te tineitanga o te ahi

No te tatūnga anō o ngā pakanga ka kitea te toa o Waikato ki te wawao i tōna rohe, ki te whakahoki i te riri ki ngā iwi o Ngāti Toa, o Ngāti Maru, me ngā kārangaranga hapū o Ngāti Raukawa. Inā anō te rongonui ki tō rātou ngārahu ki a Te Wherowhero. 


Ngāti Toa and allies

Naporiana o te tonga

Ko Te Rauparaha tētahi toa rongonui. Kāore i tua atu i a ia mō te nui o ngā hautaka kua tuhia mō te tangata kotahi. Koia te Naporiana o te Tonga, i runga i tōna hautoa, me tōna poto hoki. 

Ngā riri i Kāwhia

Ko Kāwhia te tūrangawaewae ake o Te Rauparaha me tōna iwi. Ko Kāwhia he puna kai mō te tini o ngā hapū, nā reira i tukituki ai ngā iwi mō Kāwhia te take. Ka roa ngā pakanga, ā, i te tau 1821 ka hinga te iwi o Te Rauparaha ki Te Kakara, ā, ka panaia. Ka kōwhiritia te ranga awatea, ā, ka tukuna oratia kia wehe mai i Kāwhia. 

Ngā heke

Ko te heke tuatahi ko Te Heke Tahutahuahi. Ko te ahunga tērā o te iwi ki roto o Taranaki; arā, ki te mahi māra ki ngā whenua o Te Āti Awa. I te tau 1822 ko te heketanga o Ngāti Toa ki Kapiti. I kīia ai tērā ko Te Heke Tātaramoa, nā runga i ngā uauatanga i tūponotia ki a ia me ōna uku o Te Āti Awa. I pāhuatia e Te Rauparaha a Muaūpoko mō tō rātou kōkiri ki a Ngāti Toa. 

Ngā pakanga ki Te Ūpoko-o-Te-Ika

I tirohia a Kapiti he wāhi pai mō ngā tauhokohoko ki te Pākehā.  Ka riro tērā  moutere o Kapiti i a Te Pēhi Kupe o Ngāti Toa, i hinga ai a Muaūpoko. Ka pupū ake te riri i te whakaekenga o Waiorua i te tau 1824. I tētahi pō ka kōkiritia te moutere, engari ka hinga te taua i te whakaekenga atu. Nāwai ka piri mai ngā uku o Ngāti Toa, ngā iwi o Taranaki, me ngā hapū o Ngāti Raukawa. 

Ngā pakanga ki Te Waipounamu

He teihana tauhoko nui tō Te Rauparaha i runga o Kapiti, ā, ko tana hiahia kia riro i a ia ngā whenua o te pounamu, e takoto mai nā i Te Waipounamu. I te takiwā o 1827 ka whakaeke ia i te pā o Rangitāne ki Wairau; kātahi ka whawhai atu ki a Ngāti Kuia ki Te Hoiere, ko Te Āti Awa i whakaeke i ngā nōhanga i Te Ara-a-Paoa. I muri mai ko te patunga o Ngāi Tahu ki Kaikōura. Nō te haerenga o te taua ki te pā o Kaiapohia, ka patua a Te Pēhi Kupe i a ia e hokohoko ana i te pounamu.

I te tau 1830 ka utua a Kāpene John Stewart kia haria e ia a Ngāti Toa ki Akaroa, mā runga i te kaipuke Elizabeth. I reira ka hopukina a Tamaiharanui rātou ko tana wahine me tā rāua kōtiro. Ka tūkinotia, ā, ka patua. I te tau 1831 ka momoho te taua o Te Rauparaha ki te pā o Kaiāpoi me te pā o Ōnawe ki Akaroa. He nui ngā taiwhenua o Te Waipounamu i riro i a Te Rauparaha me ōna uku. Heoi kua riro anō i a Ngāi Tahu he pū, ā, kua uaua ake ki te riri atu.

Te Pūoho

Ko te riri whakamutunga i Te Waipounamu ki ngā iwi o te raki, nā te rangatira o Ngāi Tama, nā Te Pūoho, i ārahi. Ka takahi tana taua mai i Te Taitapu ki Te Tai Poutini, whakawhiti atu i Ngā Pukemāeroero tau atu ai ki Tuturau i Murihiku (takiwā o 1836, 1837 rānei). I te rongonga ake o te kaingārahu o Ngāi Tahu, o Tūhawaiki, kua tae te hoariri ki roto ki a ia, ka haukotia te pahī, ka patua ētahi. Ko Te Pūoho i patua, ko ētahi ka mauheretia.

Ngā pakanga i Wharekauri

I te tau 1835 ka whakaeke a Ngāti Mutunga me Ngāti Tama (he uku nō Ngāti Toa) i te tāhuna pāmamao rawa o Wharekauri. Ka urupatuhia ngā Moriori, engari ka tahuri ngā iwi Māori ki te riri ki a rātou anō.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Basil Keane, 'Ngā riri mau pū', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-riri-mau-pu/print (accessed 15 November 2019)

Story by Basil Keane, published 20 Jun 2012