Kōrero: Te tāpoi Māori

Whārangi 2. Ngā mahi tāpoi Māori, 1900

Ngā whakaahua

Te mana whakahaere a te Karauna

Taka mai ki te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1900, ka hokihoki ngā tūruhi ki Rotorua i te whakamahutanga ake o ngā mahi tāpoi atu i te hūnga o Tarawera i te tau 1886. I a te kāwanatanga te mana pupuri ki ngā waiariki katoa o Rotorua me Taupō. I te tau 1901, ka taka ēnei ngāwhā me ngā waiariki ki raro i te Tari Tūruhi me ngā Whakatauanga Hauora, e hautūngia ana e T. E. Donne. Ka riro i a Donne te mana whakaari i ngā toi Māori ki raro i te tari tāpoi. Ka whakamātau a ia ki te hanga hou i te ao Māori tawhito ki Whakarewarewa. Ka whakatahaina te Māori mai i te ohanga tāpoi, ā, ka whakamahia rātou hei taonga mātirotiro mā te tūruhi.

Ka whakawhitikina te mana whakahaere

I te tau 1903 ka whakarewa te tari tāpoi i te Waimangu round trip, arā, he haerenga ka huri taiāwhio i ngā wāhi o te hū. Ka mīharotia tēnei haerenga i waenganui i ngā tūruhi nā te hītekiteki atu ki te waiariki o Waimangu. Ko te kaiārahi ko Alfred Warbrick o Ngāti Rangitihi, hāunga, kāre a ia nō Tūhourangi, te iwi nōna ake te mana whakahaere o te rohe. Kātahi ka whakawhitikina te mana whakahaere mai i te iwi ki te Tari Tūruhi me ngā Whakatauanga Hauora. I te rironga o te mana whakahaere i a Tūhourangi, ka tahuri rātou ki ngā mahi pāmu whai oranga ai, me te kāwanatanga i ngā wā mōrearea.

Ngā kaiārahi o Rotorua

I te rau tau 1800 ka whakamahi te hunga tūruhi i ngā tāngata Māori hei ārahi haere i a rātou. Tokorua ngā wāhine ōwhiti, ko Sophia Hinerangi rāua ko Kate Middlemass. Ka haere tonu tēnei tikanga i a Mākereti Papakura, tana tuahine a Bella me Rangitīaria Dennan.

Mai te tika ki te hē

Ka whakamātau te tari tūruhi ki raro i a T. E. Donne ki te hanga hou i tētahi pā ki runga i te pā tawhito o Rotowhio, he puke e tū ana ki waengarahi i ngā waiariki o Whakarewarewa. Ka tāorohia te pā tawhito ki te whakatū i te pā hou. Ka tīmata ngā Māori te karo i tōna tūturutanga me te kī ake, he ‘paraka hōia’ kē.

Te paheketanga

I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900, ahakoa te muia o ngā pā o Ōhinemutu me Whakarewarewa i te tūruhi, korekore ana te kāwanatanga me te kaunihera ā-rohe i tahuri ki te whakatikatika i tōna āhua. He karukaru ngā whare, ā, ka noho ko Whakarewarewa anake te wāhi kīhai he pūnaha para kei roto. I te tau 1902, ka toko ake i a Donne te hanga i te tauira o tētahi pā. He nui te wenerau i puta i te āhua o tōna hanga. Nō te tau 1910 ka tuwheratia te pā nei.

Nāwai rā, he marae puehu te pā. Kātahi ka rongo te motu mō te āhua rawakore o ngā pā kāinga o Ōhinemutu me Whakarewarewa. Hāunga ko te māharahara kē ko te mate ki te ao tāpoi, ā, kaua ki te noho rawa kore a ērā iwi. I te tau 1926 ka hī ake te rōpū kāwanatanga hei tirotiro i te take nei. Ko te tohutohu a te rōpū kia whakahouhia ngā whare o ngā pā, heoi korekore rawa te whakaaro nei i whakatinanahia, ā, ka paheke tonu te noho. Ka tūtū hoki ngā pihi o te hunga tūruhi, i puta ai te hau kino ki te motu.

Te tātāu o te mahi tāpoi

Ka noho tonu ko Rotorua tētahi wāhi haere mā te tūruhi, engari kua huri te aro o te nuinga mai i ngā roto wera ki ngā roto makariri me ētahi atu wāhi mīharo o Te Waipounamu. Nō te tekau tau 1860 tineia ai ngā mana whenua Māori ki te nuinga o ngā rohe o Te Waipounamu, nā reira kāre i whai wāhi ngā Māori ki ngā mahi tāpoi ō reira.

Nō te putanga o ngā waka rererangi torohaki ki Aotearoa i te tekau tau atu i 1960, ka waipuketia te motu i te tūruhi. Nō te whakataunga o te Tari Tāpoi ko 1966 te ‘Haere-mai Year’, he maha ngā whakahē a ngā Māori nā tō rātou kore whai take ki taua ingoa rā.

Te whakahaere tūruhi Māori

Nā te whakaturenga o te ture ki roto i te Paremata i te tau 1963, ka whakatūhia te Wānanga Toi Whakaari Māori ki Whakarewarewa. I tua atu i te wānanga, he whāiti noa iho ngā huarahi pakihi tāpoi ki te Māori. Hāunga, he tūranga matua tō te ao Māori ki te whakatairangatanga ake o Aotearoa ki te hunga tūruhi.

He iti noa ngā pakihi tāpoi ki Rotorua i roto i ngā ringaringa Māori. Ka whakahaere tonu a Ngāti Rangiteaorere i te waiariki o Tikitere. Ko Mokoia i noho ki raro i te Kaitiakitanga o Mokoia, me ngā iwi whai pānga a Ngāti Whakaue rātou ko Ngāti Rangiteaorere, ko Ngāti Rangiwewehi me Ngāti Uenukukōpako. I te paunga o te rau tau 1900, ko Rotorua tonu te pokapū o te tāpoi Māori – tae rawa ki Tamaki Māori Village (he kape o ngā pā tawhito), Whakarewarewa Village me Te Puia, e tū ana i te taha o te Wānanga Toi Whakaari Māori.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Paul Diamond, 'Te tāpoi Māori - Ngā mahi tāpoi Māori, 1900', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tapoi-maori/page-2 (accessed 20 August 2019)

Story by Paul Diamond, published 11 Mar 2010