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Te Heuheu Tukino IV, Horonuku

by Steven Oliver

Biography

Ko Te Rapa te toi whenua o Horonuku. He wāhi e tū tata ana ki Tokaanu, e tū mai rā i te tonga mā uru o Taupō moana. Ko te whakaaro ko te tekau tau atu i l82O pea te wā o tōna putanga hei tama mā Mananui Te Heuheu Tūkino II rāua ko tana wahine, ko Te Mare. Ko tōna īngoa karanga i a ia e taiohi ana, ā, āhua pakeke noa, ko Pātatai. Ko te ariki nui o Ngāti Tūwharetoa tōna pāpā, ā, hei ariki anō hoki ki a Ngāti Tūrumakina. I noho mokopuna tōna whaea ki a Te Rangituamātotoru, te ariki o Ngāti Tūwharetoa i mua tonu atu i a Herea Te Heuheu, te matua o Mananui. He hononga whānau ō Pātatai ki a Ngāti Maniapoto me Waikato, ā, pau katoa te nuinga o ōna tau tōmua e tipu ake ana i waenganui i a rātau.

Ko 1845 pea te tau o tōna haerenga ki tana tipuna wahine, ki a Rangiaho noho ai. I Pāmotumotu te kāinga o tērā, he wāhi e tū tata ana ki Wharepūhunga. I a ia i reira i te pō o te 7 o Mei 1846 e tino kaha ana te heke o te ua. Nāwai rā, rere papahoro tonu mai tētahi powharu kaitā nei i Karamea maunga, whakangaromia tonutia atu a Te Rapa, te pā o tōna pāpā. Ko te hunga i hinga, ko te pāpā rāua ko te whaea o Pātatai, ko Te Waaka, he tuakana ki a ia, ko te maha noa atu o tōna ngare me ētahi atu o te whānau ā-whare o tōna matua. Nō te hokinga o Pātatai ki Taupō ka tangohia e ia a Horonuku hei īngoa mōna, he whakamauharatanga ki te nukuhanga o te horo nā reira rā i whakamate tōna pāpā. Kua tū i nāianei ko te teina o tōna pāpāko Iwikau, hei ariki nui mō Ngāti Tūwharetoa.

I tautokona e Iwikau te whakatakotoranga i te kaupapa o te Kīngitanga i te tekau atu i 1850. Hei tuarā i taua take ka hiki rāua ko Horonuku ki te pā o Wī Tako Ngātata. I Te Taitai (Taita) wāhi i te riu o Te Awakairangi, arā, i Heretaunga (Hutt Valley), te pā o te amorangi o Te Āti Awa nei. Ko Horonuku tētehi o ngā kaiwhaowhao i te pātaka i a Nuku Tewhatewha i a ia i reira. Ko tētehi tēnei o ngā pou i whakaarahia hei tohu mō te Kīngitanga. I whai wāhi anō a Horonuku ki ngā mahi whakairo i Hīnana, te pātaka whakapaipai o Iwikau i Pūkawa, ā, ko ia anō hoki tētehi o ngā kaiwhakairo o te huhua noa atu o ngā pātaka i whakaarahia hei toko i te Kīngitanga. Nō te Oketopa o 1862 ka hinga a Iwikau. Ka ara mai ko Horonuku hei whakakapi mōna, ka karangatia tonutia atu ko Te Heuheu Tūkino IV. I tēnei wā kua moea e ia a Tahuri Te Uaki; taihoa ka puta ngā tamariki tokorima.

Ahakoa tana tautoko i te Kīngitanga, i whakatū wāteatia e ia a Ngāti Tūwharetoa i te mura o te ahi o 1860 i Taranaki. Heoti, nāna te kupu ki te mihinare rā, ki a Te Kerēhi (Thomas Grace), menā ka huakina a Waikato, ka āia a ia ki te āwhina i a rātau. I runga i te whakapae kua takoto te tātai a te Kīngitanga kia whakaekengia a Ākarana (Auckland), ka whakahaungia e Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) kia urutomokia te whaitua o Waikato i te Hūrae o 1863. Ko te marangatanga ake tēnā o Horonuku ki te whakatutuki i te kupu taurangi a tōna matua kēkē. Ko te Hepetema pea te wā i aratakina ai e ia he taua e 200 pea te kaha. Ka hoea a Taupō moana ki tōna tāwaha, ā, mā te awa o Waikato ki te pae o te riri. He akutō rawa, nō te taenga atu kīhai ia i whakauru ki te puta o Rangiriri o te 20 o Noema. Kāre he kōrero i tuhia menā i whai wāhi a ia ki ngā riri o muri mai. Kia tae rā anō ki te 31 o Maehe 1864 kātahi anō ka puta te rongo, arā, nāna i taki te whakatau ki te taunaki i te hunga e awhitia ana i Ōrākau pā. Nō te takanga o te whakatau ki te wāhi i ngā rārangi hōia kaiawhi a Peretānia, ko te hokinga tēnā o Horonuku rātau ko āna toa ki te haukāinga. Nō te tau l866 ka puta te pūrongo e arotau ana ia ki te whakauru atu ki te whawhai ki ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga i te pito tonga o Taranaki. Heoi, ko te nuinga o rātau i te hui nui a te iwi i tū ki Poutū, kāre i pai kia whītiki, ēngari menā ka urutomokia te rohe o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, ēngari anō tēnā.

Nō te tau 1869 ka tae mai te matawhāura ki te rohe o Taupō. Mea kawe mai nā Te Kooti me āna apataki i tō rātau rerenga mai i ngā maunga o Te Urewera. Tērā tētehi amorangi o Taupō i haere ki Waiōeka, ko te rongo kōrero he kanohi ia nō Horonuku. I reira ka tono ia i a Te Kooti kia haere ake ki Taupō. I te 8 o Hune ka pā te pīpī o te ope a Te Kooti ki ngā hōia tūao a te kāwanatanga i Ōpepe, l5 māero te tawhiti atu i Taupō moana. Tokoiwa o aua tūao i patua kia mate. Ka whakatika atu a Te Kooti ki a Horonuku, ā, ka haere rāua ngātahi ki a Tāwhiao, ki te Kīngi Māori, arā i Tokangamutu (Te Kūiti) e noho ana. Ka tono a Te Kooti kia mau rākau te Kīngitanga māna. Hei whakautu i te tono, ka maranga ake a Rewi Maniapoto me ētehi o ōna hoa amorangi, ā, hoki tahi atu ana ki Taupō me Te Kooti rāua ko Horonuku. Heoti, nō te matenga o te taua iti a Te Kooti i te tārua o Te Ponanga i Hepetema o 1869, ka whakarērea a ia e ōna uku o te Kīngitanga. He mōhio nō ērā e kore te kāwanatanga e hinga i a rātau. I noho pūmau tonu a Horonuku ki a Te Kooti. Arā a ia i Te Pōrere, te pā o Te Kooti, i te tukinga o taua wāhi e te hokowhitu a te kāwanatanga i te 4 o Oketopa 1869. Ka riwha a Te Kooti, ka kounu ki te Rohe Pōtae. I āpurua anō hoki a Horonuku me ōna tuarā o Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Ka āia kia whakatahi. Aoakewake, ka whakahauraro rātau. Ka riro ko ētehi rangatira o Ngāti Tūwharetoa hei kūpapa, ka amuamutia e Horonuku ki ō rātau mahuetanga i a ia; kāore he huringa ake atu i te whai i a Te Kooti. Kātahi rātau ko tōna whānau ka tonoa ki Ahuriri (Napier), ā, he wā i muri mai rātau i a Karaitiana Takamoana e noho ana i Pākōwhai. Tau rawa ki 1870 kua noho mai anō ki Taupō.

I te tekau tau atu i l88O ko Horonuku te kanohi o Ngāti Tūwharetoa i te Kōti Whenua Māori i te mea e tirohia ana tō rātau mana ahikā ki ngā whenua o te rohe o Taupō. I ngā tau 1882 me 1883 ka whakaae a Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki te tuku i tētehi wāhi rahi o ō rātau whenua ki roto i te Rohe Pōtae, kia noho kotahi katoa ai ngā whenua o ngā iwi e tautoko ana i te Kīngitanga. Ēngari, nō te tau 1885, ka unua e rātau tā rātau whakaaetanga, ā, ka tono ki Te Kōti Whenua Māori kia tirohia te katoa o ngā mana ahikā whenua. Nā runga i te mahi tautohetohe i ngā paenga, i tukua ai he whenua ki te uru ki a Ngāti Maniapoto. Tērā atu anō ētehi kerēme ki ngā whenua o Taupō nā ngā iwi i whawhai mā te Kāwanatanga ki a Te Kooti i whakatakoto. He take raupatu te kerēme a Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui ki te tonga o Taupō. I whawhai a ia ki a Te Kooti i Te Pōrere. Hei tāna, nāna i tahu āna ahikāroa i taua wāhi. E ai ki ngā kōrero, i tono a Horonuku kia whakaaturia mai ki a ia ngā takuahi. Ka whakatitoa e ia aua kōrero. Huri tonu atu ia ki te matapihi o te Kōti ka tuhi ki a Tongariro e auahi mai ana, ka kī, 'Arā taku ahi.' Nā tētehi whakataunga o 1886 i aukati ngā iwi i te poraka whenua nui o Taupōnui-a-Tia, ā, whakawhiwhia ana ki a Ngāti Tūwharetoa anake.

I te wā o ngā mahi whakarongo a te Kōti, ka whakaritea e Horonuku me tuku ngā maunga ki te Kāwanatanga hei whenua tāpui mō te motu, kia noho pūmau tonu ai tō rātau hau tapu. I Hepetema o 1887 ka whakawhitia ngā tihi o Tongariro, o Ngāuruhoe, o Ruapehu ki te Karauna, ahakoa te ātete a ērā atu o ngā ngārahu o Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Nō ngā rā whakapaunga pea o Hūrae 1888 ka hemo a Horonuku Te Heuheu Tūkino i Waihī, e tū tata ana ki Tokaanu. E ai ki ngā kōrero e 62 ōna tau. Ko te whakakapi ki tōna tūranga ariki nui o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, ko tana tama, ko Tūreiti.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Alexander, R. R. 'Te Heuheu Tukino IV (Horonuku) or (Pataatai)'. In An encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Ed. A. H. McLintock. Wellington, 1966

    Grace, J. Te H. Tuwharetoa. Wellington, 1959


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Steven Oliver. 'Te Heuheu Tūkino IV, Horonuku', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993, updated June, 2018. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2t19/te-heuheu-tukino-iv-horonuku (accessed 14 November 2019)