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Te Rauparaha

by Steven Oliver

Biography

Na, ko Te Rauparaha te tama a Werawera o Ngāti Toa rāua ko tana wahine tuarua a Parekōwhatu (Parekōhatu) o Ngāti Raukawa. E ai ki ngā kōrero e tamariki tonu ana i te taenga mai o Kāpene Kuki (James Cook) ki Aotearoa nei. Mehemea kei te tika tēnei, e tinga ana nō te tekau tau atu i 1760, te wā i whānau ai ia. Kāore i te mōhiotia menā i whānau ki Kāwhia, ki te kāinga rānei o tana whaea i Maungatautari. He uri nō Hoturoa o Tainui waka. Ko ōna mātua i heke ngātahi mai i ngā tūpuna taketake o ō rāua matawaka. Ahakoa ehara nō te kāhui tumu whakarae, i riro i a ia te tūranga kaingārahu o tōna iwi, nā runga tonu rā i tōna hikareia ki te tiaki i ngā take e pā ana ki tōna iwi, me tana pūkenga hoki i te kauhanga riri. Ahakoa te potopoto o te tū, he tangata pakari, he kōpaka rā hoki. He rite te ihu ki tō te ngutu kākā ina anga kōtaha mai ana. I a ia ka nanawe, ka kanapa ngā karu ka piko whakararo te tupere o tana ngutu o raro.

Nō tētahi otaota kīnaki kai e mōhiotia nei he rauparaha, te takenga mai o tōna īngoa. Nō muri tata mai i tōna whānautanga, ka patua, ā, ka kainga mai tētahi o ōna whanaunga e tētahi toa o Waikato. Me te whakaweti mai anō o tērā ki te tunu i te tamaiti rā i rō rau rauparaha, hei kai māna. Ka tapaina tonutia atu taua tamaiti rā ko Te Rauparaha, hei whakatōrea i taua whakatuma. Ko Māui Pōtiki tētahi īngoa i tapaina ki a ia i tōna taiohinga, he rite nō āna mahi hauora, mahi raweke hoki ki ā Māui. Ko te roanga ake o tōna whanaketanga i pau ki te iwi o tōna whaea i Maungatautari, ēngari, tērā pea i whakaakona ia i te whare wānanga i Kāwhia.

I ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau 1700–1799, e whawhaitia ana ngā whenua haumako ki te raki o Kāwhia. Ko ngā hoa tauwhāinga ko Ngāti Toa rātou ko ōna karangatanga whanaunga maha, pērā i a Ngāti Raukawa rā, ki a Waikato whānui tonu. Kia puta noa te rongo kua patua he ihorei, kua whakamaniorotia, kua pīhia rānei tētahi taha e tētahi, ka kaha kē atu te tutū o te puehu. I whai wāhi a Te Rauparaha ki te maha o ngā take whakatutū puehu, i te wā e pakari haere nei te taupatupatu o te riri. Nāna te taua ki te whenua kūraruraru ki te raki o Kāwhia, kia hinga ko Te Uira, he kaingārahu nō Waikato. I tētahi wā anō, nāna te hikutoto i whakarewa atu ki Whāingaroa (Raglan Harbour). He ngaki i te mate o ana irāmutu wāhine i roto i tētahi tira o Ngāti Toa i patua mai i reira. He kaingārahu whakatuki i pirihongotia e te hunga pīpī i roto i ngā mahi kawe a riri.

Ka kaha haere nā te taupatupatu o te riri, ka hinga ki a Ngāti Toa a Te Aho-o-te-rangi, he rangatira nō Waikato i haere ake ki te tuki i a Kāwhia. Ka whakatika mai ko te waitaua a Te Rauangaanga ki te pikitoto i te mate o tana tupuna o Te Aho-o-te-rangi. Na, ko Te Rauangaanga te matua o Te Wherowhero, ā, hei mokopuna tāne ki a Te Aho-o-te-rangi. Ka taieritia a Ngāti Toa ki te pito tonga o te whanga o Kāwhia ki te pā o Te Tōtara. I reira ka houhia te rongo. Kāore i roa kua whati. He haerenga nō te tira hopu ika a Te Rauparaha ki ngā taunga i kokorahotia e Ngāti Maniapoto. Ko Waikato tēnā kua tae ake hei tuarā mō Ngāti Maniapoto. Ka tū tā rātou ohiti, ehara, ko te horonga tēnā o Hikuparoa pā ki a rātou. I puta ora atu a Te Rauparaha ki Te Tōtara. Ka whawhai tonu, ā nāwai, nāwai, ā ka tuku te rau o te patu, ka mau te rongo.

Nō muri i tēnei ka hiki atu a Te Rauparaha i Kāwhia, heoti, i tōna hokinga mai ka uru atu ia ki tētahi taua whai takapau mō te matenga o Tarapeke. He toa ahurei a Tarapeke nō Ngāti Toa, i hinga i te tuku mātātahi i waho o Te Tōtara pā. Ka ahu whaka-te-raki te ope whakaea i raro i a Te Rauparaha. Ko Te Wharengori o Ngāti Pou te ika. Ka urutomokia anō a Kāwhia e Waikato. Ka tū mai ko Ngāti Toa ki te taiari, ka hinga. Pēnei tonu ā nāwai, nāwai, ā ka taui a Ngāti Toa ki Ōhāua-te-rangi pā. Na, tērā ētahi o ngā ngare o Waitohi, te tuahine o Te Rauparaha, i roto i ngā kaituki. Nā Waitohi te rongo ā whare i whakarite i waenga i a Ngāti Toa rātou ko ōna whanaunga, ka ū.

I ngā wā o te waikanaetanga ka takahia e Te Rauparaha te nuku o te whenua ki te toro i ngā iwi e rata mai ana ki a Ngāti Toa. I Maungatautari ia i te wā e whakahemohemo ana a Hape-ki-tūārangi, rangatira o Ngāti Raukawa. Nō te putanga o te ōhākī a tērā, arā, ko wai rā hei whakakapi mōna, kore rawa i hamumu ngā waha o ana tama, o ana whanaunga rānei. Ka tū atu ko Te Rauparaha, ka taka ki ōna pokohiwi te pūeru o te rangatira rā. Taro ake, ka moea e Te Rauparaha a Te Ākau, te pouaru a Hape, hei wahine tuarima māna. Ko ana wāhine o mua atu ko Marore rātou ko Kāhuirangi, ko Rangitāmoana, tuahine o Marore, ko Hopenui hoki. I ngā tau atu i 1810 ki 1815 i a Ngāti Maru i Hauraki, a Te Rauparaha. I reira ka whakawhiwhia ia ki tana pū tuatahi. I toro pērā atu ia ki a Ngāti Whātua i Kaipara i taua wā. Ko te whakaaro ko tana kaupapa haere, he waihanga i tētahi whakakotahitanga hei huaki i a Waikato. Ko wai ka hua, ko tētahi kaupapa anō pea ko te kimi wāhi noho mō tōna iwi.

Kua roa kē a Ngāti Toa e noho haumi ana ki ngā iwi o Taranaki ki te raki. Nō aua iwi te rohe e kāpīpiti ana ki te ripa tonga o Ngāti Maniapoto. Na, nō te tau 1816 ka tū he kai whāngai, arā, he hākari pākūwhā mō Nohorua rāua ko tētahi wahine o Ngāti Rāhiri. Hei tuakana te Nohorua nei ki a Te Rauparaha. I whānau rā hoki ki te wahine matua a tō rāua pāpā. Hei utu i te kai whāngai ka rewa atu ngā waka o Ngāti Rāhiri ki Kāwhia. Ehara, ka huripoki ngā waka, ka kōharihari te kaihaukai. Nā te kaha o tō rātou whakatakariri i tēnei aituā ka huakina e Ngāti Rāhiri a Ngāti Toa. Nō te wā e potapotae ana i te tau 1818 ka rautupua a Taranaki e te marau a Ngāti Toa. I piri atu a Murupaenga rāua ko Tūwhare ki taua waitaua. He rangatira te tokorua nei nō Ngāti Whātua ki te raki o Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland). Ēngari, nā te mea he uku a Ngāti Rāhiri nō Ngāti Toa nō mai rā anō, ka houhia te rongo i tō rātou pā o Te Taniwha. I rongona tuatahitia te pakū o te pū ki roto o Taranaki i taua hohounga i te rongo. Taro ake, ka puta mai ko Te Pūoho-o-te-rangi ki te tuki haere i ērā o ngā iwi o Taranaki. I piri atu a Te Rauparaha ki taua pahī i mua i tana hokinga ki Kāwhia.

Nō te tau 1819 ka maranga mai te waitaua nui mau pū o Te Tai Tokerau, i raro i a Tūwhare rātou ko Patuone me Nene mā. I hiki atu rātou ko Te Rauparaha mā ngā whenua o Te Āti Awa, arā, te uku o Ngāti Toa, ki te pū o Taranaki. Ko Ngāti Maruwharanui tērā ka huakina, ka horo. Waihoki ko te pā o Te Kerikeringa me ētahi atu. Ngākau kore ana ngā toa kātahi anō nei ka kite i te mahi a te pū. Ka ahu whakarunga te waitaua nei ki Te Moana-a-Raukawa me te tuki haere tonu. I momoho a Ngāti Ira ki te wawao i tō rātou pā i Pukerua. He rākau Māori noa iho ā rātou. E ai ki ngā kōrero, nā Te Rauparaha te tono maungārongo ki a Ngāti Ira, ēngari he parau, ka hangarautia rātou. Nō te hoki whakararotanga iho o te taua nei, ka tauria a Ngāti Apa i Rangitīkei. Ka mau herehere ko Te Pikinga, ka moea e te irāmutu o Te Rauparaha, e Te Rangihaeata hei wahine māna. Ka tae ki Kāwhia ka tukuna e Ngā Puhi ētahi pū ki a Ngāti Toa. Ko tō rātou hokinga atu tēnā ki Te Tai Tokerau.

Na, ka kaha haere ngā rīriri ki a Waikato, ka kaha haere anō hoki te noho kore whakamarumaru o Te Rauparaha mā i Kāwhia. He rapu kāinga hou mō tōna iwi pea te take i uru atu ai ia ki te waitaua o ngā tau 1819–20. I a ia i Te Moana-a-Raukawa ka kite a Te Rauparaha i tētahi kaipuke e rere ana. Tērā pea ko tētahi o ngā kaipuke o te kahupapa o Rūhia (Russia), i raro i a Bellingshausen. Nā tētahi o ngā amorangi o Te Tai Tokerau i kī atu ki a Te Rauparaha, arā, he pai ngā tāngata o aua kaipuke, ā, mehemea ka neke whaka-te-tonga ake ia, e kore e hapa ka hau tōna rongo i Te Moana-a-Raukawa, i te mahi whakawhitiwhiti taonga mō te pū, i ngā kaipuke e toro mai ana.

I tēnei wā ka patua mai a Marore, te wahine matua a Te Rauparaha, i a ia i tētahi tangihanga i Waikato. Hei utu, ka patua e Te Rauparaha rātou ko ngā whanaunga o Marore, tētahi rangatira o Waikato. I patua i tētahi ara i tohua kia wātea i te turaturatanga, mō te tangata haere noa. Ko te marangatanga mai tēnā o te mano tini o ngā toa o Waikato me Ngāti Maniapoto, ka urutomokia a Kāwhia. E tū tata ana ki te roto o Taharoa ko Te Kakara wāhi. Ka tukia, ka hinga a Ngāti Toa. Ko Waikawau pā tērā i te tonga o te koutu o Tīrau ka tukia, ka whakarautia. Ko te whakatahitanga tēnā o Te Rauparaha ki Te Arawī pā e pātata atu rā ki te whanga o Kāwhia, kātahi ka awhitia. Na, ko ētahi o ngā kaipakipaki hei whanaunga ki a Ngāti Toa. Kāore rātou i pīrangi kia hoepapatia a Ngāti Toa ki te korehāhā. Nā te kaingārahu o Ngāti Maniapoto nei nā Te Rangituataka, i tuku huna atu he kai ki te pā. Nāna anō te whakamāherehere ki a Te Rauparaha kia rere ki a Te Āti Awa i Taranaki noho punanga ai. I uru anō te whakaaro ki te hinengaro o Te Rauparaha ki te whati pērā ki ōna whanaunga ki a Ngāti Raukawa i te rāwhiti, ēngari e āraia mai ana te huarahi e ngā hokowhitu tauwhāinga. Nā te mea he whanaunga te tokomaha o Ngāti Toa nō ngā iwi o Waikato, i tukuna ai rātou kia haere noa atu i Kāwhia. Ko te tīmatanga tēnei o te wāhanga tuatahi o te heke whaka-te-tonga, e kīia nei ko Te Heke Tahu-tahu-ahi.

Ka tahuri a Te Rauparaha ki te tahu i tana whare whakairo i Kāwhia, kātahi ka takitakina e ia he apakura mō Kāwhia. Ka hiki atu tana ope ki Pukeroa pā. Ruarua nei ngā māero te tawhiti o taua pā ki te tonga o Kāwhia. Hei whanaunga ngātahi ki a Ngāti Toa rāua ko Ngāti Maniapoto te iwi o taua pā nei. Ko te nuinga o ngā wāhine rātou ko ngā tamariki me te hunga i whara, i mahue ki reira. Ko ngā toa i haere whaka-te-tonga atu, ka whakawhiti i te awa o Mōkau ki te rohe o ērā uku o rātou o Ngāti Tama. I hoki a Te Rauparaha me tana hokotahi mau pū, ki te ārahi mai i te hunga i mahue atu rā ki Pukeroa. I mōhio ia e whāia mai ana rātou e Ngāti Maniapoto. Ka kākahuria e ia tana iwi ki te kākahu whero, kātahi ka tukuna e ia kia hau te wawara, arā, he taua mau kākahu whero nō Ngā Puhi kei taua rohe. Nā tēnei i āta waihotia ai e Ngāti Maniapoto te ope taurewa nei. Nō te pō, i te tira taurewa e tatari ana ki te whakawhiti i te awa o Mōkau, ka whakatakotoria e Te Rauparaha tana nuka hei māminga i te hoariri. Hei tuku i te tokonga whakaaro he taua rahi tāna, ka ūhia ngā rake rākau ki te korowai, ka tahutahuna te tini o te ahi, ā, ko Te Rauparaha kei runga e whaikōrero ana ki taua hunga nei. I te tonga o Mōkau ka noho tōpū anō a Ngāti Toa. E potapotae ana ki te 1,500 rātou o Ngāti Toa i whakatika atu ki Te Kaweka wāhi i Taranaki. I reira ka tīmata rātou ki te pou mahinga kai i te whenua i tukuna e Te Āti Awa ki a rātou. Nō te whakamutunga o te tau 1821 nō te tīmatanga kē rānei o te tau 1822, ka puta whaka-te-tonga ake a Te Wherowhero me tana ope o Waikato ki roto o Taranaki, heoti i patua ki Motunui. E ai ki ngā kōrero, nā Te Rauparaha te kupu ohiti ki a Waikato kia kaua e hoki mā te raki ki te kāinga, i te mea ko Ngāti Tama kei reira e whanga mai ana. Nā te rironga o te tāhuna i Motunui a Ngāti Toa i noho māhorahora ai, i runga i te mōhio kua kore rātou e whāia mai.

I mahue ake a Ngāti Toa ki Taranaki, ka hoki whakararo a Te Rauparaha ki Maungatautari. Ko te kaupapa he whakamātau ki te whakakīkī i a Ngāti Raukawa kia whakapiri mai ki tana heke, arā, he hiahia nōna kia tokomaha ake ana toa mau rākau mau pū. Heoti, he kaupapa kē noa atu tā Ngāti Raukawa i Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay). Ka whakatika atu ia ki Rotorua ki te whakamanawa i a Te Arawa ki te huaki i tētahi waitaua nō Ngā Puhi. He ngaki i te patunga o ōna whanaunga o Ngāti Maru e Ngā Puhi, te take. I uru atu ētahi o Tūhourangi ki taua hikutoto ki a Ngā Puhi, ka mutu, ka whai atu rātou i a Te Rauparaha ki Taranaki.

Taka rawa ake ki te tau 1822 kua tīmata kē tērā wāhanga o ngā heke a Ngāti Toa, e kīia nei ko Te Heke Tātaramoa. Taihoa ake ka ū ki te motu o Kapiti. I uru atu ētahi o Te Āti Awa ki taua hekenga. E 250 māero te tawhiti o tēnei haerenga. I takahia mai mā ngā whenua o te hoariri, arā, mā ngā whenua nā Te Rauparaha mā i marau haere i ngā tau o mua tata atu. I te tīmatanga he aumārire te heke, nō te mea kua oti kē hoki i a Te Rauparaha te hohou te rongo, te whakamoe rānei i ētahi o ōna ki ngā iwi o reira. Ko ētahi anō i taui i runga i te mōhio, arā, he wetiweti ngā taua mau pū, ā, e noho matakana ana ki ngā whakaaro o Te Rauparaha. Ko ngā iwi o Whanganui i rere whakaroto mā te awa o Whanganui. I te tīmatanga e noho hoahoa ana a Ngāti Toa rāua ko Ngāti Apa o Rangitīkei. He karanga kaireperepe hoki i runga i te moenga o Te Pikinga ki a Te Rangihaeata.

Nō te taenga rawa mai o te heke ki te awa o Manawatū, kātahi anō ka tipu te raruraru. I a Nohorua mā e toro kai ana, ka whānakotia ō rātou waka. Hei utu, ka huakina tētahi o ngā kāinga o Rangitāne e Ngāti Toa. Ko ētahi i patua kia mate. Ko te marangatanga mai tēnā o ngā iwi o Te Manawatū me Horowhenua ki te ātete. I puta te tono a Toheriri ki a Te Rauparaha me tana whānau, kia haere ake ki tētahi hākari e pātata ana ki te roto o Papaitonga. I te pō, ka tīmata a Mua-ūpoko ki te patupatu i te whānau a Te Rauparaha. Ko Te Rauparaha i puta. Ko ana tamariki e mōhiotia ana i patua ko tana tama ko Te Rangihoungāriri, ko tana tamāhine ko Te Uira me ētahi atu. Ko te kī taurangitanga tēnā a Te Rauparaha, arā, ka patua e ia a Mua-ūpoko mai i te ata hāpara ā tae noa ki te pōrehurehu. Ka whakarautia ngā pā roto o Mua-ūpoko, kātahi ka patupatua. He whārona awatea, kore rawa tētahi i tohua.

Na, ko Te Pēhi Kupe te tumu whakarae o Ngāti Toa. Nāna i huaki ohorere a Mua-ūpoko i Kapiti, i hinga ai ki a ia taua motu. I taua wā e tuki haere ana a Te Rauparaha i ngā iwi o Horowhenua. Nō te whakatumatanga mai a Ngāti Kahungunu rāua ko Ngāti Apa i a Ngāti Toa, ka hiki atu rātou ki Kapiti whakamarumaru ai. Ahakoa rā, e tū tonu ana te pakanga ki te tuawhenua. Ko Rangitāne tērā i Hotuiti. I hohoungia te rongo ki a rātou ēngari he tipatipa. E noho warea ana kātahi ka patua kinotia. Ko 1824 pea te tau i huihui ai tētahi kahupapa waka nui o ngā iwi o te tonga. I whakahiato rātou mai i Taranaki ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington Harbour) i Te Ika-a-Māui, me ētahi mai i Te Waipounamu. Ka whakaekea a Kapiti i Waiorua i te pō, kātahi ka patua te hunga whakaeke. Nā te rironga o tēnei tāhuna i whakatūturu te noho a Ngāti Toa ki te tonga o Te Ika-a-Māui. I te tekau tau mai i 1824, he maha ngā heke mai i Taranaki, i Ngāti Raukawa ki ngā whenua raupatu i tukuna e Te Rauparaha ki a rātou. He uku rā hoki nōna.

Kua tīmata kē te mahi hokohoko i Kapiti, a ngā kaipuke whaiwhai tohorā me ērā atu kaipuke o te Pākehā i te tau 1827. Nā te mea ko ia te rangatira mō ngā mahi hokohoko pū, hokohoko matā, te take i kaha kē ake ai te mana o Te Rauparaha i ō ōna uku. Mauria ai ngā herehere ki Kapiti ki te hāro harakeke hei hoko pū, hei hoko paura me te tupeka. I hiahia anō hoki ia kia noho ko ia te rangatira hei whakarato pounamu. Na, ko Te Waipounamu te pū o te pounamu. He whenua ngāwari ki te raupatu nō te mea kāore anō ngā iwi o reira kia whiwhi pū. Tua atu, nā ētahi o ngā ngārahu o reira a ia i whakamanioro, ā, i rewa te patu a ētahi ki a Ngāti Toa i Waiorua. Ko 1827 pea te tau i whakawhiti atu ai te taua a Te Rauparaha i Te Moana-a-Raukawa ki Te Wairau. I reira ka hinga ētahi o ngā pā o Rangitāne. Kotahi tau pea, neke atu rānei i muri mai, ka rewa atu te kahupapa waka āhua rahi tonu i Kapiti ki te urutomo i Te Waipounamu. Ko Te Āti Awa i wehe ki te tuki i ngā whenua i Tōtaranui Te Ara-a-paoa (Queen Charlotte Sound), ko Te Rauparaha i wehe ki Te Hoiere (Pelorus Sound). Ko te nuinga o tana ope e 340 tāngata e mau pū ana. Ka huakina a Ngāti Kuia i Hikapu kātahi ka patua rawatia. Ka ahu pērā ki Kaikōura. I reira ka mau ohorere a Ngāi Tahu, ka hinga. Ko ētahi i patupatua, ko ētahi anō i mauria hei taurekareka.

Ka whakatika atu a Te Rauparaha me tētahi matua o te waitaua ki Kaiapoi, he tino pā nō Ngāi Tahu. Na, ko Te Pēhi Kupe me ōna hoa ngārahu tokowhitu anake, i tomo atu ki te hoko pounamu. Ina hoki kua rongo kē te iwi o Kaiapoi mō te tukinga o ō rātou whanaunga i Kaikōura, ka patua e rātou ngā rangatira o Ngāti Toa nei, kātahi ka kainga. Ka āpititia te pā e Ngāti Toa, ā, kāore i momoho. Ko tō rātou tahuritanga atu tēnā ki te patupatu i ngā herehere o Ngāi Tahu i a rātou. Kotahi rau pea ngā mea i patua. Ko te hokinga atu tēnā o Te Rauparaha ki Kapiti. Nō te tau 1830 ka tīmata anō tana whakaeke i a Ngāi Tahu. I hunaia e Kāpene John Stewart 100 ngā toa o Ngāti Toa ki tana kaipuke, ki te Elizabeth, kātahi ka rewa atu ki Akaroa. Nāna i pātoi te amorangi o Ngāi Tahu rā a Tama-i-hara-nui ki tana kaipuke. He tipatipa nāna he pū āna hei hoko. Ka eke atu ka hopukina a Tama-i-hara-nui rātou ko tana wahine me tā rāua tamāhine. E whakahokia ana ki Kapiti ka nanatia e Tama-i-hara-nui te kakī o tana tamāhine kia kore ai e whakataurekarekatia. Nō te taenga ki Kapiti ka tūkinotia rāua ko tana wahine, kātahi ka patua kia mate.

I tūtaki a Te Rauparaha ki te minita, ki a Te Mātenga (Samuel Marsden), i tana haerenga ki Poihākena (Sydney) i te tau 1830. E ai ki ngā kōrero nā te kaipuke nāna ia i whakahoki mai, i mau rātou ko tana taua ki Rangitoto (D'Urville Island). I reira ka mau hereheretia e rātou ngā rerenga o Ngāti Kuia, ka whakahokia mai ki Kapiti. Nō te tau 1831 kei Kaiapoi pā anō a Te Rauparaha e awhi ana. Nā ana keringa me te tahunga o ngā pekerangi ka horo. Ka hoki anō ia ki Akaroa. Ko Ōnawe pā tērā ka tukia, ka hinga. Ko tōna hikinga atu tēnā ki Kapiti, ēngari i waiho iho ētahi ōna hei rangatira mō ngā iwi kua whakataurekarekatia nei.

I tēnei wā e noho tauwhāinga ana ngā iwi heke i te rohe ki te puāwanga o Te Ika-a-Māui ki a rātou anō, ā, ki te tangata whenua hoki. Ko te whenua me ngā wāhi kai, te take. Kua kore ngā iwi heke nei e aro atu ki te mana o Te Rauparaha. Nō te tau 1834 ka rewa te rau o te patu i waenga i a Ngāti Raukawa rāua ko Te Āti Awa. Nā te mea he uku a Ngāti Raukawa nōna ka whakawetihia te tūnga kaingārahu o Te Rauparaha. Ko ētahi anō o Ngāti Toa i raro i a Te Hiko-o-te-rangi, te tama a Te Pēhi Kupe, i tū hei tuarā mō Te Āti Awa. Ka maranga mai ēnei ka pakipakitia a Te Rauparaha i te wai o Rangiruru. Ka rere tana karanga ki a Mananui Te Heuheu Tūkino II, te kaingārahu o Ngāti Tūwharetoa kia haere ake ki te āwhina i a ia. Ko te whakaaro tuatahi o Te Rauparaha i te hohoutanga o te rongo, he hoki tahi me Mananui ki te raki, ēngari nā Te Rangihaeata a ia i whakakīkī kia noho. Ko tōna hokinga atu tēnā ki Kapiti. I te pokapūtanga o te tekau tau atu i 1830, kua raupatu katoatia e Te Rauparaha me ōna haumi te puāwanga o Te Ika-a-Māui me te nuinga o te pito raki o Te Waipounamu.

Ko tana hiahia i nāianei he raupatu i te toenga o Te Waipounamu. Ēngari, ko te mate kē kua whiwhi pū a Ngāi Tahu. He mea hoko mai nā rātou i ngā kaiwhaiwhai tohorā i Ōtākou (Otago). Kua kaha rātou i nāianei ki te ātete i a Te Rauparaha. Ko 1833 pea te tau i tata mau herehere ai ia i a Ngāi Tahu o Ōtākou, i Kaparatehau (Lake Grassmere). He pakanga anō āna i Ōraumoaiti me Ōraumoanui ēngari kāore i tutuki. I te tukinga a Ngāi Tahu i ngā teihana patu tohorā e whakamarumaru ana i raro i tōna mana, kāore i taea e Te Rauparaha te ārai. Nō te taenga ake o te taua a Ngāi Tahu ki Te Moana-a-Raukawa, kāore a Te Rauparaha i maranga mai ki te whakaangaanga i a rātou.

Nō te matenga o Waitohi i te tau 1839 ka tutū anō te puehu i waenga i ngā uku o Te Rauparaha. Hei tuahine a Waitohi ki a Te Rauparaha, ā, hei whaea hoki nō Te Rangihaeata. I muia tēnā tangihanga nui e te tangata. I kawea mai he takoha i Te Waipounamu e tētahi tangata nō Rangitāne ki te uhunga. He pononga taua tangata nā Te Āti Awa. Ahakoa te whakahē a Te Āti Awa ka patua taua pononga ka kainga. Nā te mahi kōwhetewhete i te uhunga, ka tutū anō te puehu i waenga i a Te Āti Awa rāua ko Ngāti Raukawa. Ko te pakanga o Te Kūititanga i Waikanae te hua. I whakawhiti mai a Te Rauparaha i Kapiti hei tuarā mō Ngāti Raukawa ēngari i tino patua rātou. Nā te eke ki runga i tētahi waka whaiwhai tohorā i puta ai ia ki te ora. I muri i tēnei whawhai kāore ngā tūpāpaku i pāhuatia, i kainga rānei, nō te mea kua taka kē hoki a Te Āti Awa ki raro i te awe o ngā tohutohu Karaitiana. He tikanga i whakahokia mai i Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands) e ngā mau herehere o Te Āti Awa i tukuna kia haere. I tanumia ngā tūpāpaku o Ngāti Raukawa me ō rātou kākahu, tae atu hoki ki ā rātou pū me ā rātou matā.

Nō te 16 o Oketopa 1839 i whawhaitia ai a Te Kūititanga. Taro ake, i taua rā anō ka tau te kaipuke o te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Company) a te Tory ki Kapiti. Ko Kānara Wairaweke (William Wakefield) tērā kua tae ake. E hiahia ana ki te hoko whenua inā kē te rahi. Ka whakariteritea te take, ka tau. Ka riro i a Te Rauparaha he paraikete, he pū me ētahi rawa hei utu. Nō muri mai ka noho hei take tohetohe te rahi o te whenua i hokona. Hei tā Te Rauparaha ko ngā whenua i Whakatū (Nelson) me Te Taitapu (Golden Bay) anake āna i hoko ai. I muri i te taenga mai o Rūtene Kāwana Wiremu Hōpihona (William Hobson) i te tau 1840, ka whakakorea e ia ngā hokonga whenua katoa, ā, ka whakatūria e ia he kōmihana hei tirotiro. Nō te 14 o Mei o taua tau, ka hainatia e Te Rauparaha tētahi tauira o te Tiriti o Waitangi nā te mihinare a te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society) rā, nā Te Karu Whā (Henry Williams), i whakatakoto ki tōna aroaro. I whakapono a Te Rauparaha mā te Tiriti e whakapūmau te mana ahikāroa o rātou ko ōna uku, ki ngā whenua i raupatutia e rātou i ngā 18 tau o mua atu. He tohenga nā Meiha Thomas Bunbury ki a ia kia haina, i hainatia ai e ia tētahi tauira anō o te Tiriti i te 19 o Hune.

I ātetehia e Te Rauparaha te nohonoho mai a te Pākehā i ngā wāhi e ai ki a ia kāore anō kia hokona. I mautohetia ngā whenua i Pari-ā-rua (Porirua) me Te Awakairangi (Hutt Valley). Heoti, nō te tau 1843 ka puta te mautohe tino nui. Ko te pūtake, he korenga nō Te Rauparaha rāua ko Te Rangihaeata i whakaae kia rūrihia te mānia o Te Wairau. Ka whakatika mai a Arthur Wakefield i Whakatū me tana ope tangata whai mau pū, ki te whakamau i a Te Rauparaha. Nō te tūtakitanga ka mura te ahi, ka hinga ko Te Rongo, te wahine a Te Rangihaeata. Nō muri mai i te whakahaurarotanga o te tangata whai, ka patupatua e Te Rangihaeata hei ngaki i te mate o tana wahine.

He wā pāhekeheke te wā i muri mai i te patunga i Te Wairau, heoi anō ko tā Te Rauparaha he whakahiwa i a ia. Ko rātou o Ōtaki i raro i te awe o te mihinare rā o Te Harawira (Octavius Hadfield), kāore i hiahia ki te whawhai. He maha ngā raruraru ka pā ki a ia mehemea ka huakina e ia ngā wāhi noho o te Pākehā. Ko te whakapae a te tangata whai, e whakakoro ana a Te Rauparaha ki te hiki i te rau o tana patu, ā, nāna i tono ki a Te Āti Awa kia tukia a Pōneke (Wellington), ēngari kāore rātou i whakaae. E ai ki tā rātou, nā reira a ia i tono ai mō tētahi taua o Whanganui kia haere ake ki te tuki i a Pōneke. Nō te 12 o Pēpuere 1844 ka tau te āio i te kītanga a Kāwana Pitiroi (Robert FitzRoy) i Waikanae, nā te tangata whai kē i eneene te riri i Te Wairau. Ā, ahakoa kīhai ia i pai ki te patunga o ngā herehere, ko te mutunga tēnei o taua take. Nā te mea kāore a Te Rauparaha i whawhai ki te tangata whai i tēnei wā pāhekeheke i tere ai te hohounga o te rongo.

Na, i te 16 o Mei 1846 ka puta ake te ope a Te Mamaku o Whanganui ki Te Awakairangi, kātahi ka tukia ngā hōia e noho ana i te pāmu a Almon Boulcott. E tū tahi ana a Te Mamaku rāua ko Te Rangihaeata ki te ātete i te mahi nohonoho mai a te tangata whai. Ka hū anō te rongo e huakina ana a Pōneke. Ka whakatauria e te kāwana hou e Hōri Kerei (George Grey), arā, ehara a Te Rauparaha i te tangata hei whakawhirinakitanga atu māna, nō reira me whakamau. E pātata ana ki Pari-ā-rua ko Taupō, te pā o Te Rauparaha. I mua i te rewatanga atu o Kerei i runga i te manuao rā i te Driver, ka toro atu ia ki Taupō kia kite i a Te Rauparaha. E rua hāora i te ata pō ka hoki mai te manuao. Ka mau hereheretia a Te Rauparaha e ngā hōia o Peretānia, ka whakahokia ki te manuao. I whakawhitia ia ki te manuao te Calliope, ā, 10 marama ia e pupuri pokanoatia ana i taua manuao, kātahi anō ka tukuna ki uta ki Ākarana (Auckland) noho ai. I pitihanatia e ia te kāwana i te tau 1848 kia tukuna ia kia hoki ki tōna iwi i Ōtaki. Ko ōna hoa i hoki tahi atu mā runga kaipuke, ko Hōri rāua ko Raiha Kerei (Eliza Grey), ko Pōtatau Te Wherowhero me te tokomaha noa atu o te iwi Māori.

I te wā poto e toe mai ana ki a ia arā ia i Ōtaki e noho ana, ā, i toro atu anō hoki ki Te Wairau. Tae rawa ake ki te wā i mate ai ia, kua memeha kē te awe o tōna mana. Tērā pea nā te mau hereheretanga i a ia, i noho whakamōraro ai ia i te aroaro o tōna iwi. Ko ana wāhine i ōna tau whakamutunga ko Pipikūtia rātou ko Kahukino me Kahutaiki. Tokowaru katoa ana wāhine. I puta 14 ngā tamariki, ā, e ora tonu ana ētahi i tōna matenga. Ahakoa i haere ki ngā karakia kīhai ia i huri hei Karaitiana. I mate a Te Rauparaha i te 27 o Noema 1849, ā, i nehua ki te taha o te whare karakia o Rangiātea i Ōtaki. E ai ki ngā kōrero i hahua ka kawea ki Kapiti.

He kaingārahu tino whakahirahira a Te Rauparaha nō tōna iwi. Nāna rātou i ārahi mai i te mate i Kāwhia, kia tū rangatira i ngā whenua hou i raupatutia e rātou i te puāwanga o Te Ika-a-Māui, me te nuinga o te pito raki o Te Waipounamu. He kaingārahu ope taua i whiwhi ki te angitu. E ai ki ngā iwi i mate i a ia, ehara nā tana mōhio ki te tātai kaupapa whawhai te take i momoho ai ia, ēngari nā tana whiwhi pū kē. Heoti, mehemea kāore ia i noho hei kaiārahi mō rātou tērā pea kua kore te hekenga nui a Ngāti Toa, ā, kua kore hoki rātou e whiwhi ki ngā painga i reira e tatari mai ana. Heoi, i tino tutuki mārika i a rātou, ā, nā tēnei tutukitanga i whakarerekē ngā rohe ā-iwi i Aotearoa nei mō ake tonu atu.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Burns, P. Te Rauparaha. Wellington, 1980

    Collins, H. Ka mate ka ora! The spirit of Te Rauparaha. Wellington, 2010

    Smith, S. P. History and traditions of the Maoris of the West Coast, North Island of New Zealand prior to 1840. New Plymouth, 1910

    Te Rauparaha, T. 'Life and times of Te Rauparaha by his son'. fMS. WTU


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Steven Oliver. 'Te Rauparaha', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t74/te-rauparaha (accessed 29 May 2020)