Kōrero: Te Pikinga

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Pikinga

fl. 1819–1834

Nō Ngāti Apa; he wahine whai mana

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 1990.

Nō te whānau mātāmua o roto i a Ngāti Apa a Te Pikinga. He tuahine ia nō Te Arapata Hīria. Ko ōna kāinga ko Whangaehu, ko Turakina, kei te taha tonga o Whanganui. Nō te takiwā ki te tau 1800 pea ia i whānau ai nō te mea kua wahine kē ia i te haere whakarungatanga mai o te ope taua o Te Tai Tokerau, i ārahina mai e Ngā Puhi i te tau 1819. Nō te taenga ki Kāwhia ka hono te ope nei ki a Te Rauparaha o Ngāti Toa me ētehi atu kaiārahi i Taranaki. Nō te taenga ki Whanganui, ka ohorere ngā iwi o Te Wainui-a-Rua me Ngāti Apa e ruru ana i Pūrua, i te awa o Whanganui. Nō te pō ka whakawhiti i te awa mā te mōkihi, ka horoa te pā, ēngari e rua ngā kaiārahi o Ngā Puhi i patua e te hunga rere i te pā. Nā tēnei, ka haere a Te Rauparaha ki Turakina ki te whawhai ki a Ngāti Apa. E 200 i matemate. Ko ngā mea i mau hereheretia ko Te Pikinga, ko tōna tungāne ko Te Arapata, me ngā wāhine rangatira tokorua, ko Tāngutu rāua ko Takaoi.

Ka haere tika tonu a Te Rauparaha, a Tūwhare me tā rāua ope taua ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington Harbour), ki Te Wairarapa hoki, ka haria ā rāua herehere. E hia marama i muri iho, ka hoki mai mā te moana, ka ū ki Te Pou-a-Te Rēhunga, kei te taha marangai o te awa o Rangitīkei. Kua kore a Te Rauparaha i tino hiahia ki te whawhai i a rātou e hoki ana ki Whanganui mā uta. Nā te whakaaro o tana irāmutu, o Te Rangihaeata, ka tukuna a Te Arapata rāua ko Te Rātūtonu, te tāne a Rangi Topeora, kia haere ki te pā o Ngāti Apa, ko Te Awamate te īngoa, kei te kōngutu awa o Rangitīkei, hei waha kōrero mō Ngāti Toa. Kua āwangawanga a Ngāti Apa. E kore pea a Te Rauparaha e taea te pupuri e ana hoa kaiārahi. Hei āhua whakamahea i ngā whakaaro o Ngāti Apa, ka kī atu a Te Rangihaeata ka moea e ia a Te Pikinga hei hono i ngā iwi e rua. Nā konei a Te Rangihaeata i piri ai ki a Ngāti Apa, i noho ai hei taura here. Ka waiho tēnei hononga tangata hei kaupapa e nōhia ai ngā whenua o Te Tai Hauāuru o Te Ika-a-Māui. Hei tohu aroha ki a Te Rangihaeata, kātahi ka tae a Te Hanea rāua ko Te Pouhu, ka tukuna he papa pounamu hei koha ki a Te Pikinga. Ko Te Whakahiamoe te īngoa. I hangaia hei toki.

Ka mahue mokemoke iho a Ngāti Apa i te hokinga o Ngāti Toa, ki Kāwhia. Ēngari, kua takoto kē ō rātou whakaaro mō te hoki mai a tōna wā. Nō te tau 1822, ka tae mai te hekenga nui o Ngāti Toa ki Te Tai Hauāuru. Nō tō rātou mōhiotanga atu, ka karangahia e Ngāti Apa he hui nui, he kore nō ētehi o rātou i pai kia takahi mai a Ngāti Toa i tō rātou rohe. He wāhanga noa iho i whakaae kia mau ki te maunga-ā-rongo i hangaia i runga i te hononga o Te Pikinga rāua ko Te Rangihaeata. Ka haere a Te Maraki rāua ko Mokomoko ki Waitōtara ki te whakatau i tō rāua huānga, i a Te Pikinga. I koa katoa ai a Te Rauparaha rāua ko Te Rangihaeata i te kitenga kei te tū tonu te maunga-ā-rongo. E rua marama ngā iwi e rua nei e noho ana i Matahiwi, kotahi marama i Te Awamate. Kātahi ka heke ki tētehi pā anō o Ngāti Apa, ki Tāwhirihoe.

Nō te wehenga, ka whai kupu atu a Ngāti Apa ki a Ngāti Toa, kia kaua e whakapōreareangia a Mua-ūpoko, kei te taha tonga o te awa o Manawatū e noho ana. Whakaae tonu atu a Te Rauparaha rāua ko Te Rangihaeata. Heoi, ka tīkina e ō rāua huānga tokorua, tētehi wahine rangatira nō Mua-ūpoko, ko Waimai te īngoa, ka patua. E ngakia ai te mate, ka pōwhiritia e Mua-ūpoko a Te Rauparaha ki Papaitonga, ki te hākari – he tuna te kai – kātahi ka kōkiringia rātou ko tōna ope rahirahi nei. O ngā mea i mate, ko tana mātāmua tonu, ko Te Rangihoungariri tētehi, ko tāna tamāhine ko Te Uira, e hia anō rānei o ana tamariki i tua atu. Ko ngā rangatira i puta, ko Te Rauparaha anake rāua ko Te Rākaherea.

Ka whakanoho a Te Rauparaha rātou ko tana iwi, ko Ngāti Toa, ki Kapiti. Ko te take tēnei i kino ai ngā taketake o te kāinga nei ki a rātou; ko tā rātou kī, kāore a Kapiti e riro mō te kore noa iho. Nō te haerenga mai o Te Maraki o Ngāti Apa, ki te whakataki i ōna whanaunga o Rangitāne, ka tonoa kia hoki. Kua mōhiotia kei te rapu utu a Te Rauparaha mō te matenga o ana tamariki i Papaitonga. Ahakoa e huānga ana a Te Maraki ki a Te Pikinga, ki a Ngāti Toa, he mea patu rāua ko Tokipoto, he rangatira nō Rangitāne, e Te Rauparaha i Waikanae. Ko 1824 pea te tau.

Ahakoa ēnei aituā, me te tohe tonu o Ngāti Toa ki te takahi i a Mua-ūpoko e whanaunga rā ki a Ngāti Apa, ka riro nā te moenga o Te Pikinga i a Te Rangihaeata i kore ai tōna iwi i mau hereheretia. He titiro nō Ngāti Toa ki ngā wāhine tokotoru rā, ki a Te Pikinga, ki a Takaoi, ki a Tāngutu hei whakaū i tā rātou noho i runga i te whenua. Ko ō rātou mana ake i ahu mai i te rau o te patu. I a Te Rangihaeata e noho ana i Ōtaki, ka tae a Ngāti Apa ki reira ki te whakataki i a Te Pikinga, ka whakamanuhiritia. He wā kua takoto ā rātou koha kai. Ka tohungia e Te Rangihaeata a Te Pikinga, ko 'te pou rohe', i te mea he taura here i ō rāua iwi.

I waihotia noatia a Ngāti Apa kia āta noho ana i runga i ō rātou whenua i te takiwā ki te awa o Rangitīkei, ahakoa kāore rawa te katoa o rātou i te rata ki te rironga o Kapiti me tētehi wāhi anō o Te Manawatū. Ka hono atu ētehi ki a Rangitāne e hanga pā ana i Hotuiti, i te taha marangai o Te Manawatū. Ka tukuna a Te Pikinga ki roto i te pā, ki te whakakōrero i a Ngāti Apa kia whakawehe mai. Kāore tonu i puta ake. Nō te whakaeketanga, ko te tokomaha tonu i mate.

Ko 1824 pea te tau i hono ai a Ngāti Apa, a Mua-ūpoko, a Rangitāne me ētehi iwi o te taha tonga o Te Ika-a-Māui, puta atu ki ngā whanaunga o Te Waipounamu, ki te huaki whakatoke i a Ngāti Toa i Kapiti. Ahakoa te tini o ngā iwi i whakaeke, ka pākia atu e Ngāti Toa i te pakanga e mōhiotia nei ko Waiorua. Ko tētehi o te hunga o Ngāti Apa i mau hereheretia ko Te Rangimairehau; ka tangihia e ia i runga i tōna whanaungatanga ki a Te Rangihaeata nā Te Pikinga rā hoki. Kāore, kua hē kē tō rātou haumitanga, ka patua. Nō muri i a Waiorua, ka patua e Te Rauparaha rāua ko Te Rangihaeata ngā kaiārahi o Ngāti Apa, a Te Rangihaukū rāua ko Koupeka i Te Awamate. E ono marama i muri mai, ka huakina anō e Ngāti Toa te pā o Te Poutū; ka toa ko Ngāti Apa. Whai i muri rawa o tēnei aituā, ka tonoa a Te Pikinga ki tōna iwi ki te hohou i te rongo. Tae rawa ki te mutunga o ngā tau o te tekau tau mai i 1820, kua tau te rangimārie i waenganui i a Ngāti Apa rāua ko Ngāti Toa.

Nō te tau 1834, ka pakanga nui a Ngāti Raukawa rāua ko Te Āti Awa i Haowhenua, he pā tēnei kei Ōtaki. Kore i kitea ko tēhea iwi i toa, ēngari ko Ngāti Raukawa te iwi i parekura. He mea āwhina rātou e Ngāti Apa; kātahi ka mahuetia a Ōtaki mō tētehi wā poto, ka noho ki runga i ngā whenua o Ngāti Apa i waenganui i ngā awa o Manawatū me Rangitīkei. Nā te moenga o Te Pikinga ki a Te Rangihaeata i whakaaro ai a Ngāti Raukawa ki te manaaki i te iwi kāinga. I riri motumotu anō, ēngari te mutunga iho he rangimārie te noho. Nō te tau 1868, ahakoa kua mate tahi a Te Rangihaeata rāua ko Te Pikinga, kua rite tahi te whai mana o Ngāti Apa me Ngāti Raukawa ki ngā whenua i noho tahi ai rātou. Nā te tūranga rangatira o Te Pikinga i te moenga i a Te Rangihaeata, i ora ai ngā whenua o Ngāti Apa.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Te Pikinga', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t56/te-pikinga (accessed 17 October 2019)