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Te Pikinga

by Angela Ballara

Biography

Nō te whānau mātāmua o roto i a Ngāti Apa a Te Pikinga. He tuahine ia nō Te Arapata Hīria. Ko ōna kāinga ko Whangaehu, ko Turakina, kei te taha tonga o Whanganui. Nō te takiwā ki te tau 1800 pea ia i whānau ai nō te mea kua wahine kē ia i te haere whakarungatanga mai o te ope taua o Te Tai Tokerau, i ārahina mai e Ngāpuhi i te tau 1819. Nō te taenga ki Kāwhia ka hono te ope nei ki a Te Rauparaha o Ngāti Toa me ētehi atu kaiārahi i Taranaki. Nō te taenga ki Whanganui, ka ohorere ngā iwi o Te Wainui-a-Rua me Ngāti Apa e ruru ana i Pūrua, i te awa o Whanganui. Nō te pō ka whakawhiti i te awa mā te mōkihi, ka horoa te pā, ēngari e rua ngā kaiārahi o Ngāpuhi i patua e te hunga rere i te pā. Nā tēnei, ka haere a Te Rauparaha ki Turakina ki te whawhai ki a Ngāti Apa. E 200 i matemate. Ko ngā mea i mau hereheretia ko Te Pikinga, ko tōna tungāne ko Te Arapata, me ngā wāhine rangatira tokorua, ko Tāngutu rāua ko Takaoi.

Ka haere tika tonu a Te Rauparaha, a Tūwhare me tā rāua ope taua ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington Harbour), ki Te Wairarapa hoki, ka haria ā rāua herehere. E hia marama i muri iho, ka hoki mai mā te moana, ka ū ki Te Pou-a-Te Rēhunga, kei te taha marangai o te awa o Rangitīkei. Kua kore a Te Rauparaha i tino hiahia ki te whawhai i a rātou e hoki ana ki Whanganui mā uta. Nā te whakaaro o tana irāmutu, o Te Rangihaeata, ka tukuna a Te Arapata rāua ko Te Rātūtonu, te tāne a Rangi Topeora, kia haere ki te pā o Ngāti Apa, ko Te Awamate te īngoa, kei te kōngutu awa o Rangitīkei, hei waha kōrero mō Ngāti Toa. Kua āwangawanga a Ngāti Apa. E kore pea a Te Rauparaha e taea te pupuri e ana hoa kaiārahi. Hei āhua whakamahea i ngā whakaaro o Ngāti Apa, ka kī atu a Te Rangihaeata ka moea e ia a Te Pikinga hei hono i ngā iwi e rua. Nā konei a Te Rangihaeata i piri ai ki a Ngāti Apa, i noho ai hei taura here. Ka waiho tēnei hononga tangata hei kaupapa e nōhia ai ngā whenua o Te Tai Hauāuru o Te Ika-a-Māui. Hei tohu aroha ki a Te Rangihaeata, kātahi ka tae a Te Hanea rāua ko Te Pouhu, ka tukuna he papa pounamu hei koha ki a Te Pikinga. Ko Te Whakahiamoe te īngoa. I hangaia hei toki.

Ka mahue mokemoke iho a Ngāti Apa i te hokinga o Ngāti Toa, ki Kāwhia. Ēngari, kua takoto kē ō rātou whakaaro mō te hoki mai a tōna wā. Nō te tau 1822, ka tae mai te hekenga nui o Ngāti Toa ki Te Tai Hauāuru. Nō tō rātou mōhiotanga atu, ka karangahia e Ngāti Apa he hui nui, he kore nō ētehi o rātou i pai kia takahi mai a Ngāti Toa i tō rātou rohe. He wāhanga noa iho i whakaae kia mau ki te maunga-ā-rongo i hangaia i runga i te hononga o Te Pikinga rāua ko Te Rangihaeata. Ka haere a Te Maraki rāua ko Mokomoko ki Waitōtara ki te whakatau i tō rāua huānga, i a Te Pikinga. I koa katoa ai a Te Rauparaha rāua ko Te Rangihaeata i te kitenga kei te tū tonu te maunga-ā-rongo. E rua marama ngā iwi e rua nei e noho ana i Matahiwi, kotahi marama i Te Awamate. Kātahi ka heke ki tētehi pā anō o Ngāti Apa, ki Tāwhirihoe.

Nō te wehenga, ka whai kupu atu a Ngāti Apa ki a Ngāti Toa, kia kaua e whakapōreareangia a Mua-ūpoko, kei te taha tonga o te awa o Manawatū e noho ana. Whakaae tonu atu a Te Rauparaha rāua ko Te Rangihaeata. Heoi, ka tīkina e ō rāua huānga tokorua, tētehi wahine rangatira nō Mua-ūpoko, ko Waimai te īngoa, ka patua. E ngakia ai te mate, ka pōwhiritia e Mua-ūpoko a Te Rauparaha ki Papaitonga, ki te hākari – he tuna te kai – kātahi ka kōkiringia rātou ko tōna ope rahirahi nei. O ngā mea i mate, ko tana mātāmua tonu, ko Te Rangihoungariri tētehi, ko tāna tamāhine ko Te Uira, e hia anō rānei o ana tamariki i tua atu. Ko ngā rangatira i puta, ko Te Rauparaha anake rāua ko Te Rākaherea.

Ka whakanoho a Te Rauparaha rātou ko tana iwi, ko Ngāti Toa, ki Kapiti. Ko te take tēnei i kino ai ngā taketake o te kāinga nei ki a rātou; ko tā rātou kī, kāore a Kapiti e riro mō te kore noa iho. Nō te haerenga mai o Te Maraki o Ngāti Apa, ki te whakataki i ōna whanaunga o Rangitāne, ka tonoa kia hoki. Kua mōhiotia kei te rapu utu a Te Rauparaha mō te matenga o ana tamariki i Papaitonga. Ahakoa e huānga ana a Te Maraki ki a Te Pikinga, ki a Ngāti Toa, he mea patu rāua ko Tokipoto, he rangatira nō Rangitāne, e Te Rauparaha i Waikanae. Ko 1824 pea te tau.

Ahakoa ēnei aituā, me te tohe tonu o Ngāti Toa ki te takahi i a Mua-ūpoko e whanaunga rā ki a Ngāti Apa, ka riro nā te moenga o Te Pikinga i a Te Rangihaeata i kore ai tōna iwi i mau hereheretia. He titiro nō Ngāti Toa ki ngā wāhine tokotoru rā, ki a Te Pikinga, ki a Takaoi, ki a Tāngutu hei whakaū i tā rātou noho i runga i te whenua. Ko ō rātou mana ake i ahu mai i te rau o te patu. I a Te Rangihaeata e noho ana i Ōtaki, ka tae a Ngāti Apa ki reira ki te whakataki i a Te Pikinga, ka whakamanuhiritia. He wā kua takoto ā rātou koha kai. Ka tohungia e Te Rangihaeata a Te Pikinga, ko 'te pou rohe', i te mea he taura here i ō rāua iwi.

I waihotia noatia a Ngāti Apa kia āta noho ana i runga i ō rātou whenua i te takiwā ki te awa o Rangitīkei, ahakoa kāore rawa te katoa o rātou i te rata ki te rironga o Kapiti me tētehi wāhi anō o Te Manawatū. Ka hono atu ētehi ki a Rangitāne e hanga pā ana i Hotuiti, i te taha marangai o Te Manawatū. Ka tukuna a Te Pikinga ki roto i te pā, ki te whakakōrero i a Ngāti Apa kia whakawehe mai. Kāore tonu i puta ake. Nō te whakaeketanga, ko te tokomaha tonu i mate.

Ko 1824 pea te tau i hono ai a Ngāti Apa, a Mua-ūpoko, a Rangitāne me ētehi iwi o te taha tonga o Te Ika-a-Māui, puta atu ki ngā whanaunga o Te Waipounamu, ki te huaki whakatoke i a Ngāti Toa i Kapiti. Ahakoa te tini o ngā iwi i whakaeke, ka pākia atu e Ngāti Toa i te pakanga e mōhiotia nei ko Waiorua. Ko tētehi o te hunga o Ngāti Apa i mau hereheretia ko Te Rangimairehau; ka tangihia e ia i runga i tōna whanaungatanga ki a Te Rangihaeata nā Te Pikinga rā hoki. Kāore, kua hē kē tō rātou haumitanga, ka patua. Nō muri i a Waiorua, ka patua e Te Rauparaha rāua ko Te Rangihaeata ngā kaiārahi o Ngāti Apa, a Te Rangihaukū rāua ko Koupeka i Te Awamate. E ono marama i muri mai, ka huakina anō e Ngāti Toa te pā o Te Poutū; ka toa ko Ngāti Apa. Whai i muri rawa o tēnei aituā, ka tonoa a Te Pikinga ki tōna iwi ki te hohou i te rongo. Tae rawa ki te mutunga o ngā tau o te tekau tau mai i 1820, kua tau te rangimārie i waenganui i a Ngāti Apa rāua ko Ngāti Toa.

Nō te tau 1834, ka pakanga nui a Ngāti Raukawa rāua ko Te Āti Awa i Haowhenua, he pā tēnei kei Ōtaki. Kore i kitea ko tēhea iwi i toa, ēngari ko Ngāti Raukawa te iwi i parekura. He mea āwhina rātou e Ngāti Apa; kātahi ka mahuetia a Ōtaki mō tētehi wā poto, ka noho ki runga i ngā whenua o Ngāti Apa i waenganui i ngā awa o Manawatū me Rangitīkei. Nā te moenga o Te Pikinga ki a Te Rangihaeata i whakaaro ai a Ngāti Raukawa ki te manaaki i te iwi kāinga. I riri motumotu anō, ēngari te mutunga iho he rangimārie te noho. Nō te tau 1868, ahakoa kua mate tahi a Te Rangihaeata rāua ko Te Pikinga, kua rite tahi te whai mana o Ngāti Apa me Ngāti Raukawa ki ngā whenua i noho tahi ai rātou. Nā te tūranga rangatira o Te Pikinga i te moenga i a Te Rangihaeata, i ora ai ngā whenua o Ngāti Apa.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Burns, P. Te Rauparaha. Wellington, 1980

    Smith, S. P. History and traditions of the Maoris of the West Coast, North Island of New Zealand prior to 1840. New Plymouth, 1910

    Taylor, R. Te ika a Maui. London, 1855

    Travers, W. T. L. The stirring times of Te Rauparaha. Christchurch, 1906


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Te Pikinga', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t56/te-pikinga (accessed 8 August 2022)