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Poutapu, Wiremu Te Ranga

by Angela Ballara

Biography

I whānau mai a Wiremu Te Ranga Poutapu, ko tōna īngoa kārangaranga ko Piri (Bill), ki Maungatautari i Waikato i te 8 o Hune 1905. He uri ia nō Ngāti Korokī, tētehi o ngā iwi o Tainui. Ko Pouaka Winikerei tōna matua, he kāmura tana mahi, ā, ko Rangitaau Paraki tōna whaea. Nō te tau 1910, i neke atu te whānau ki Raungāwari, e pātata atu rā ki Pukekawa. I a ia e tamariki tonu ana i reira, ka taka a Piri Poutapu ki raro i te maru o Te Puea Hērangi, te rangatira taiohi o te iwi o Mangatāwhiri, he wāhi tata atu rā ki Te Paina (Mercer). Riro ana a ia hei tamaiti whāngai mā Te Puea, whai atu hoki i a ia ki te whakapono Pai Mārire, he mea whakahoki mai nei. I haere tahi hoki a Piri me Te Puea mā ki Ngāruawāhia i te tau 1921, ki reira whakatū ai i tētehi marae matua mō te Kīngitanga. Nā Piri i āwhina te mahi whakawātea i te papanga i te kōti me te parakipere, hei whakatū i ngā whare tuatahi, me tana mahi hoki ki te whakatakoto i te marae o Tūrangawaewae.

He mea pana tonu e Te Puea tōna iwi me āna tamariki ki te whakapakari, whakamahi hoki i ō rātau kaha. Ahakoa a Piri Poutapu i te mahi pāmu, mahi aha noa atu rā i a ia e taiohi ana, ka noho ko te mahi kāmura tana tino mahi, he mea ako tonu i a ia e mahi ana. Te āhua nei, ko tana mahi whakairo tuatahi ko te whare nui nei, ko Pare Waikato, nō Maehe o te tau 1927 i whakatuwheratia. I te tau 1928 atu ki 1929, i mahia e ia ngā whakairo mō te whare noho i Tūākau, tae atu ki te whare nui anō hoki o Māhinārangi i Tūrangawaewae.

Nō te tau 1929, i moe a Piri Poutapu i a Ngāmako Taupiri i Ngāruawāhia. E toru wiki i muri mai, i tonoa ia e Te Puea ki Ōhinemutu, ki te ako ki te whakairo i te Kura Whakairo (School of Māori Arts) i Ōhinemutu. E toru tau a Piri e akona ana e Eramiha Kapua ki ngā tikanga o te hahau i te rākau, o te whakairo, o te karakia me ngā tikanga anō hoki o te tapu e pā kau ana ki te mahi whakairo. Kāhore a Piri i pērā i ērā atu tohunga whakairo o tōna reanga whakataha noa i te tapu, pū mārika kē ana tana pupuri, waiho hei whakaako māna ki āna tauira. I a Piri i te kura i Ōhinemutu, āwhinatia ngātahitia ana e rāua ko te kaiwhakairo nei, ko Waka Kereama o Waikato, a Kapua rātou ko Pine Taiapa me tana teina, me Hōne Taiapa ki te whakairo i te whare nui nei, i a Te Hono ki Rarotonga, i te kokoru o Tokomaru i Te Tai Rāwhiti. Hei tā Hōne Taiapa, ko Poutapu tētehi o ngā kaiwhakairo tohunga rawa atu o te ao hou.

I te ekenga atu ki te tau 1932, kua hoki kē a Piri Poutapu ki Ngāruawāhia noho ai. Ina koa riro ana ko Piri tētehi o ngā kaitautāwhi pono piritahi a Te Puea. I whakatūria anō hoki e ia tētehi kura whakairo e āhua rite ana ki tō Ōhinemutu. Ko tētehi o ngā mahi tuatahi i oti i te kura nei ko te whakairo i te whare karakia Wēteriana i Kāwhia. Whakaakona ana e Piri te tini o te tangata ki te whakairo; ko tana tauira e tino mōhiotia ana ko Īnia Te Iwiata, i hau nei tōna rongo ki te ao whānui, arā, he kaiwaiata panguru, ā, waiata tonu mai anō hoki ia i raro i te īngoa o Īnia Te Wīata. Mai i te tau 1934, i whakahaerea e Poutapu rāua ko Rāwiri Tūmōkai Kātipa (arā, te tāne a Te Puea) tētehi rōpū hei hanga i te whare nei o Kīngi Korokī, i a Tūrongo. Ā, ko Poutapu rāua anō ko Te Wīata i roto i te rōpū nā rātou i whakarākai te poho o te whare ki te whakairo. He mea whakatuwhera te whare nei, a Tūrongo, i te tau 1938. Haere tonu te whakaaro o Poutapu i ētehi mahi itiiti noa nei, whērā i te ipu me ngā taitapa whakamau pikitia.

Eke ana ki te tau 1936, i pū ai te whakaaro o Te Puea kia whakairotia kia whitu ngā waka taua, nuku atu i te 90 putu te roa. He mea tono e ia kia haria mai i Tūākau te takere o te waka taua tawhito nei, o Te Winika, ki Tūrangawaewae. I raro i ngā tohutohu a tētehi kaumātua o Kāwhia, arā, a Rānui Maupakanga, ka tuaina ētehi tōtara mō te ihu me te kei, hei hanga anō hoki i te waka nei. Riro ana nā Rānui i tohutohu a Piri Poutapu ki ngā āhuatanga o te mahi nei, i a Poutapu e hautū ana i tāna rōpū e tārai ana i ngā wāhanga hou ki te toki, ka whakamau atu hoki ki te takere tawhito. He mea rangahau e Poutapu, e Kereama Waka me Īnia Te Wīata ngā momo tauira whakairo o Waikato, hei whakairo i te haumi, i te pākurukuru, i te taurapa me ngā taha o Te Winika. Oti katoa ana ngā mahi mō te waka nei i te tau 1938, ēngari nā te kore moni e toru noa iho o ngā waka e whitu i oti te mahi. Ko ērā atu o ngā waka i oti te mahi ko Aotea me Tākitimu. Mea rawa ake ki tērā wā, kua pai ake te mōhio o Piri, ka taea noatia e ia te whakaako ngā tikanga hanga waka ki te whakatupuranga hou.

I te tau 1939, ka haere a Poutapu ki Te Tai Tokerau ki te whakahaere i te mahi whakairo i te waka o Ngāpuhi, ko Ngā-toki-mata-whao-rua te īngoa. He mea hanga mai tēnei waka mō te hui whakanui i te hui rau tau i tū nei ki Waitangi i te tau 1940. He mea hari atu anō hoki a Te Winika, a Aotea me Tākitimu ki te hui i Te Tai Tokerau. I tana hokinga atu ki tōna kāinga i muri i ngā whakangahau, ka noho a Poutapu ki te kāinga utu rēti o R. G. H. Manley i Ākarana (Auckland); nō muri iho, i panaia ai a Manley e te wahine nōna ake te whare, he kore nōna i whakaae ki te Māori ki roto i tōna whare.

I te tau 1942, i te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua, ka noho a Poutapu hei paeārahi mō ngā āpiha hōia Marikena e toro mai ana i Tūrangawaewae. He mea tuku atu mō ia āpiha tētehi tokotoko whakairo mai i te Kura Whakairo o Tūrangawaewae. Heoi anō, nō te tau 1943, i tino riri ai rāua ko Te Puea mō te tikanga te take. Ka mahue nei i a ia a Tūrangawaewae i te tau 1944, ā, nō te matenga rānōtanga o Te Puea i te tau 1952 kātahi anō ia ka hoki atu. Ka ngaro nei a Piri, mahue ana te tiaki pai a te hunga kāinga i ngā waka, mutu ana hoki te kitea o ngā waka i ngā hui nui pērā i te tangihanga ki a Te Puea. Ka neke nei a Piri ki Waahi, noho ana ia hei hoa whāwhāki, hēkeretari hoki mā Korokī.

I mau tonu te mahi hautū a Piri Poutapu i Ngāruawāhia i te wā i a Te Ātairangikaahu e kuini ana. He mema hoki ia nō te rōpū o te Tekau-mā-rua, te kaunihera nui o te Kīngitanga. I te tau 1971, hei whakanui i te rā rēhi pere rua, rēhi waka rānei mō te huri tau o Ākarana (Auckland Anniversary Regatta), he mea whakatika ake e ia a Te Winika, whakaako hoki i tētehi tira hoe, ka haria atu nei e ia ki Ākarana. I te tau o muri mai, ka tīmata te hanga o te waka rā, o Tāheretikitiki II ki Ngāruawāhia. Ka noho nei a Poutapu hei kaiwhakahaere mō te rōpū ki te whakahou i te waengarahi o te takere tawhito o te waka nei me tana whakahaere anō hoki i ngā tikanga pure mō tēnei mahi. Kua tino taikoroua kē nei ia mō te haere ki te ngahere, tonoa kētia ana e ia ko ana tino kaiwhakairo hei kōwhiri rākau hou mai. Ahakoa tana mau tonu ki ngā tikanga tuku iho, e kore e whakaaetia te kai, whakaaetia rānei te wahine ki te wāhi mahi, kāore i mahue i a ia te whakamahi i ngā hangarau hou: i whakaahuatia anō hoki ngā tauira whakairo mō ngā taha o te waka ka whakamau atu ai ki runga papa rākau. I hopukina katoatia ngā mahi nei e Te Tari o ngā Taonga Whitiāhua (New Zealand National Film Unit); he tangata whakamōwai a Piri Poutapu, he momo anō, ā, koirā hoki te take i kore ai ia i kitea i roto i te pikitia nei. Nō te tau 1973 a Tāheretikitiki II i whakaterehia ai. I taua wā, nā Te Ātairangikaahu i pānui te whakakohatanga atu o Te Winika ki te Whare Taonga o Waikato. Ko Piri anō hoki te kaihautū o te rōpū nā rātou i whakahou te waka i mua i te tukunga atu.

Arā ētehi atu mahi i oti i a Poutapu; ko te whakaotinga tēnā o te poupou rahi nei, he mea whakarite mō te tari kāwanatanga o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand House) i Rānana (London) nō muri mai i te matenga o Īnia Te Wīata. Ko te mahi whakairo anō hoki tēnā āna o te whare nei, o Tūwaerea, ki Hui Te Rangiora marae i Kirikiriroa (Hamilton). He mea hoatu ētehi o āna whakairo ki te pokapū tikanga ā-iwi Poronihiana o te Hāhi Mōmona (Morman Polynesian Cultural Centre) i Laie, i Hawaii. I te tau 1974, ka whakawhiwhia ia ki te tohu whakahōnore nei, ki te MBE. I te mahi anō hoki ia i ngā whakairo mō te whare o Kimiora i Tūrangawaewae, ā, i a ia e whakaoti ana i ngā māherehere whakamutunga mō ētehi atu waka, ka mate nei ia i te marae o Tūrangawaewae i te 20 o Ākuhata i te tau 1975. I mate kē tana wahine, a Ngāmako, i te tau 1969. Heoi anō, mahue mai ana āna tama tokotoru me tana tamāhine kotahi. He mea whakatakoto tana tūpāpaku i te whare nui, i a Pare Waikato i te marae o Tūrangawaewae. E whā rā ki muri, ka tanumia ia ki Taupiri Maunga.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Cresswell, J. C. M. Maori meeting houses of the North Island. Auckland, 1977

    King, M. Te Puea. Auckland, 1977

    Nelson, A. Nga waka Maori. Auckland, 1991

    Obit. New Zealand Herald. 21 Aug. 1975: 3


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Poutapu, Wiremu Te Ranga', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4p19/poutapu-wiremu-te-ranga (accessed 19 January 2021)