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Taonui, Āperahama

by Judith Binney

Biography

Ko Āperahama Taonui te kaihautū matakite o Te Popoto, he karangatanga hapū nō Ngā Puhi kei Utakura, kei te taha whakarunga o Te Hokianga. Ko ia tētahi o ngā tāngata nā rātou i tīmata te Kotahitanga o ngā iwi Māori o ngā motu e rua i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi. I tipu mai i konei ngā whare pāremata Māori i te tekau tau atu i 1890. Nāna te kōrero i whānau ia i muri mai i te tahunga o te Boyd, i Whangaroa i te tau 1809; ko te whakaaro, 50 tōna pakeke i te tau 1866. Ko tōna pāpā ko Te Taonui, he rangatira whakarae nō roto o Te Popoto, ā, nō te iriiringa, i tapaina a Te Taonui pakeke ki a Makoare, te īngoa o te kāwana i Poihākena (Sydney), arā, a Lachlan Macquarie. I roto i te tekau tau mai i 1820, ko Makoare tētahi nā rātou i tīmata te mahi o te hokohoko rākau i te taha whakarunga o Te Hokianga. Ko te whaea o Āperahama, ko Hinuata nō Ngāti Rēhia o te pokapū o Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands). Ahakoa ko tōna īngoa ake ko Tautoru, nā te mihinare Wēteriana, nā Wiremu Waiti (William White) i iriiri a Taonui paku i te 23 o Tīhema 1833 ki a Āperahama. Ko tōna īngoa kārangaranga ko Āperahama Taonui, ēngari ki te whakaaro nō tōna tohu i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1840, ka tuhia kētia tōna īngoa ko Abaraham Tautoru.

I whakaaro tonu ngā Wēteriana he tino rangatira a ia, he ātaahua hoki ki te tirohanga kanohi, ēngari kāhore i roa kua āwangawanga i a ia. Nō te Hepetema o 1834 ka tupu he riri mō te āhua o te tāpuketanga o Hauhau, he rangatira rongonui, he tohunga hoki, nō Utakura. I roto i ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero e hia nei ngā kauwhautanga a Āperahama Taonui, e poropiti ana kua tata te wā o te taenga mai o te Kaiwhakaora, ā, e ara ake ai te rangatira rā i te mate. Ko ia e kī ana, e tae atu ai ki te aranga ake, ko te whero katoa mai ngā kapua, ko te kitea hoki i ngā rā tekau mā rua e whiti ana i te rangi. Nō te 23 o Hepetema ka puta ake a Āperahama ki mua o te aroaro o ngā mihinare, e mau nā i ētahi kākahu tika o te Pākehā me te ārai mā, roa hoki, e tautau ana i te kanohi; ka waiata ia i ētahi pātere nāna anō i tito. Kotahi, e rua rānei ngā rā i muri mai, ka kī ia ko te Tama ia a te Atua. Ehara, nā runga i ngā tohutohu a Waiti ka unu ia i tana kōrero. Ēngari, i kī ngā mihinare kua kite kē rātou i tōna tino ū ki te whakapono, me tōna kaha ki te takitaki karaipiture, ā, he eke nō ētahi o āna poropititanga, tumeke ana.

I mau tonu a Āperahama Taonui ki te whakapono o ngā Wēteriana. Nāna a Te Rōpiha (John Hobbs) i āwhina ki te whakamāori i te pukapuka a Hopa; kātahi ka tāia ki te reo Māori i Ākuhata 1843. I whakakotahi atu rāua ko tana pāpā ki a Tāmati Wāka Nene, (ko ia hoki tētahi i huri ki te Hāhi Wēteriana) ki te whawhai i a Hōne Heke; he mea hōmai ki a ia tētahi penihana nā te kāwanatanga mō tana taotū pākahatanga i te takiwā pea o Āperira 1845, i te tīmatanga o ngā whawhai i Ōkaihau. Nōna ka kawea tūrorotia ki Ākarana (Auckland) kia ora ai ōna mate, ka whakahoahoa ia ki a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey). Nō te kitenga i tōna matatau ki te ārahi tangata, ka tukua ia ki te Rōpū Māori Wēteriana hou i Ākarana (Auckland) i te tau 1846‑-1847; ka whakaakohia rātou ko ōna hoa 13 e te minita rā, e Thomas Buddle, ki te 'whakapono whakamātau'. Nōna pea i reira ka ako ia ki te kōrero, ki te tuhituhi pukapuka i te reo Pākehā; ko te mea e maumaharatia ana ia, ko tōna matatau ki ngā reo. Hoki rawa ia ki Utakura kua noho kē ia hei kaikauwhau; ka tohutohungia tōna iwi ki te hanga whare karakia ki te papa rākau, i runga i te tikanga a te Pākehā i te mutunga o te tau 1847. I roto i ngā tau e rua, ka riro i a ia te mahi kaiako i te kura mīhana i Mangungu; ko tōna utu i te tau £10. Nō te tau 1851, ka hoki ia ki Utakura hei kaiako mō ngā Wēteriana; ka tae ki te tau 1856, ka whakatūria ia hei kura māhita i te kura Wēteriana i Waimā.

Nō te wā i a ia i Mangungu, ka tahuri a Āperahama Taonui ki te whakarāpopoto kōrero, 'He Pukapuka Whakapapa mō ngā Tūpuna Māori', mā Hōne Waiti (John White, hei irāmutu tēnei ki a Wiremu Waiti), e whakamārama ana i ngā kōrero mō ngā tūpuna o Te Hokianga mai i a Kupe rāua ko Nukutawhiti. Ko te kī a Āperahama ki a Waiti, nōna e tamariki tonu ana ka ako ia ki te whakapapa, ā, he mea tohutohu rawa ia kia kaua e tuhia ngā īngoa ki te pukapuka kei kuhua noatia ki roto i te pouaka i te taha o te mea whakahāparu; ko aua tūpuna nei hoki, he atua katoa. Ahakoa anō, i whakaae ia ki te tuku kōrero ā‑tuhituhi i runga i tana whakapono ki te Atua Karaitiana. Nō ngā tau mai i 1850, kua whakarērea kētia e Hōne Waiti i Te Hokianga, ka tuhituhi a Āperahama ki a ia me te kōrero atu i ngā taumahatanga kua tau ki a ia: ko te tuhituhi me te whakamārama i ngā waiata, i ngā whakataukī, me ērā atu mea. I āta karanga atu ia, ko tōna mōhiotanga, he Pākehā anake te hunga hei titiro ki te pukapuka rā; nō te Oketopa o 1856, ka tuhituhi ia mehemea ka kitea e tētahi Māori, he kaikiri me te riri ngā hua. Kore rawa ia i whakaae ki te kohikohi kōrero mā Waiti mō te mākutu; he mea tūtūā ka tahi, ka rua kei kitea tōna kūaretanga. Nō muri rawa nei, ka whakaae a Waiti nā Āperahama ia i āwhina, ko ia hoki tētahi o ngā tohunga mārama ki ngā kōrero o tua whakarere o te waka o Māmari; nāna hoki i āwhina a Waiti ki te whakahiato i tana pukapuka, Ko ngā tātai kōrero whakapapa a te Māori me ngā karakia o nehe ( Ancient history of the Māori 1886–89).

Nō te tau 1859, ka whakatūria a Āperahama Taonui hei āteha mō Te Hokianga i raro i te Ture Whakawā ki ngā Takiwā Māori (Native Circuit Courts Act) 1858, mō te utu £15 i te tau. Atu i tēnei wā, i kaha rawa atu tana whakauru ki ngā kaupapa tōrangapū Māori ki Te Tai Tokerau. Ko tana tū he hohou i te rongo, ā, nō te tīmatanga, hau ana tōna reo tōrangapū, hau ana hoki te matakite. I Tīhema 1863, ka whakatūpatoria e Āperahama me ētahi atu a Kāwana Kerei mō ōna āwangawanga, ko 'tērā ngā kapua me ngā whetū (ko ngā whakapukuriritanga, whakatakawairoretanga hoki ēnei), e korikori ana i Waikato, i Taranaki, ka pērā anō i Te Tai Tokerau. Ehara kau i te mea e puta ake ana te tohu nei i te reo o te tangata, 'ēngari nā ngā tohu kē o te rangi'. I te tau 1865, ka tuhituhi ia i āna whakahē mō ngā 'Hauhau wairangi rā' i kārangarangatia rā he Pai Mārire; ki tōna whakaaro, i pōhēhētia nā te īngoa rā, ka whakaarohia he iwi aro ki te pai, he iwi rangimārie. I te tau 1867, ka tū ia hei taka i waenga i a Ngāti Hauata rāua ko Ngāti Kawa i tētahi taha me Te Uri Taniwha i tētahi taha; e taki riri ana mō te pā o Te Ahuahu i te takiwā ki Ōkaihau; ka riro nāna ngā kaiwawao i ārahi mai i te pā e mau haere mai ana i te haki mā me te Paipera. I tutuki pai i a ia te whakaratarata i ngā iwi nei, i runga i tōna kaha ki te karakia me te kauwhau i te karaipiture. Nō te tau 1869, i whakapā atu ki a ia a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), te minita mō ngā take Māori me te ārai hoariri, mō te hohou i te rongo ki Waikato; ka tohe a Taonui kua tukua noatia atu i te tau 1840 te rangatiratanga o Aotearoa. 'Koinei tā mātou o Te Tai Tokerau i whakatau ai.' Ki ōna whakaaro, nā te mea ko te Kīngitanga me ngā iwi o Waikato i tohe te kōrero rā, e tika ana mā rātou e hohou te rongo.

Heoti i rarua ngā whakaaro o Āperahama, he kore nō te kāwanatanga i whakaae kia hōmai tētahi wāhi whakataunga kōrero whai niho ki te iwi Māori. Nō te tau 1862, ko ia tētahi o ngā tāngata i whakaīngoatia tuatahitia e te kāwanatanga hei mema mō te rūnanga Māori mō Te Tai Tokerau. Ehara, kāore kau noa iho he take; kāore he mana i whakamakeretia iho ki a rātou; tētahi, e whā noa iho ngā huihuinga mai i te tau 1862 ki te tau 1865. I te whakatūranga o ngā tūru e whā mō ngā mema Māori i 1867, kua tautohetia e Āperahama: 'e kore e taea te iwi Pākehā e ngā tokowhā nei; me pēhea e rangona ai rātou i te nui o te Pākehā?…Kāhore he take.' Kua puta kē te hiahia o ngā rangatira, māna tonu e tango te tūranga o te mema tuatahi mō Te Tai Tokerau; kotahi tonu tō rātou whakaaro me ētahi o ngā rangatira o Ngā Puhi, kia riro mā ngā iwi tonu e whiriwhiri ngā tāngata hei whakataetae mō te tūranga mema rā. Kāore, kua whakaīngoa kētia a Frederick Nene Russell hei mema; uru tonu atu ia i te 1868, kāore ia i whakataetaetia. Kāre ngā rangatira rā i whakaae ki te uru atu ki ngā mahi pōti.

Tae rawa ake ki te pokapūtanga o te tekau tau atu i te 1860 kua hau haere tōna rongo hei matakite mātārae ki roto i ngā iwi o Te Tai Tokerau. I ngā tau pātata ki te 1850, ka pā ia ki a Papahurihia, te kaihanga o te whakapono rā, o te Nākahi; e ai ki ngā kōrero, i tū rawa ia hei kaiwhakaako i te whare wānanga i whakatūria rā e Papahurihia i Te Raupō, i Rāwene. Ko te kaupapa o ā rātou whakaakoranga he hohou i te rongo, he whakakotahi i te iwi. I ahu ake pea i taua wā rā ngā pukapuka tekau mā rua a Āperahama e whakamārama ana i te karaipiture; kei Ōmanaia e puritia ana e te hunga nōna. Nō te tau 1869, ka mahue i a Āperahama a Te Hokianga e kai ngotohia ana e te rīriri. Kua whakaaro kē ētahi he hōhonu rawa tana hari i te kaupapa Karaitiana, ā, he pukuaroha rawa ia ki te kāwanatanga. Ka haere ia ki te noho i te awa o Wairoa i Kaipara ki te raki. Nā ngā manaakitanga a tōna whanaunga, a Muriwai, i ōna ngare o Ngāti Whātua i a rātou i Utakura, ka aroha hoki rātou ki a ia. Nō muri mai nei, nō te Pēpuere o 1873, i runga i āna mahi poropiti, whakaora tūroro hoki, ka tukua ki a ia 100 eka i Ōkapakapa, me ētahi 2,061 eka i Ōtūrei, i Tākiwira (Dargaville) ki te tonga. Ka heke a Āperahama i Aoroa ki Ōtūrei. Nō te tau 1873 ka whakatūria ia hei āteha mō Kaipara, ēngari ko tōna oranga he kari kāpia.

Nō konei te putanga o Āperahama Taonui hei hoa mō rātou nāna i hanga te Kotahitanga. Ko tana poropiti i mōhio whānuitia e kōrero ana mō te Tiriti o Waitangi me te hē i kitea e ia i te 1840 (e ai ki ngā kōrero o Te Tai Tokerau), i te wā i whakatakotoria ai te Tiriti ki runga i te tiaki o Ingarangi, kāore i runga i te kākahu Māori. Ka hua i roto i te ngākau o Āperahama te tohu aituā; kātahi ia ka poropiti i te tau 1863: ' "E ngā rangatira o Ngāpuhi whakarongo mai, kaua e ūhia te Tiriti o Waitangi ki te Kara o Ingarangi, ēngari me uhi anō ki tōu kahu Māori, ki te kahu o tēnei motu ake." Kāhore a Ngāpuhi i whakarongo, nō reira ka puta anō te kupu a taua kaumātua: "I a koe e Ngāpuhi ka kore nei e whakarongo, kaati ko te tangata hei noho i roto i tēnei whare me ōna tikanga katoa he pūngāwerewere. He rā tōna kei te haere mai e kite ai koutou i tētahi tangata e mau mai ana e rua āna pukapuka, ko Te Paipera, me Te Tiriti o Waitangi, whakarongo ki a ia." '

Ka tae ki te 1880, ka poropiti a Āperahama i tētahi tikanga nui ka whakaritea i te 1890, e rima tekau tau i muri mai i te Tiriti; i whakawhirinakitia e ia ōna tūmanako ki taua poropiti. Mā reira mai e kitea ai he rongoā mō ngā whenua e murua noatia ana, me tā rātou noho kore mana hoki i ngā mahi tōrangapū. I tuhituhi ia ki a Maihi Parāone Kawiti, tētahi o ngā kaihautū o te Kotahitanga i Pēwhairangi i 1863 ki 1882, ki te hoatu i ētahi kōrero poropiti hei ārahi i te kaupapa. I tāia ēnei pukapuka i te tau 1885 i raro i te panepane He whakaaro nā Āperahama Taonui me Maihi Parāone Kawiti.

Te mea ko ia tētahi o ngā mōrehu o te hunga nā rātou te Tiriti i haina, ka haere a Āperahama ki Te Tii, i Waitangi, i te Maehe o 1881 ki te whakatuwheratanga o te whare rūnanga i tapaina ko Te Tiriti o Waitangi. I hangaia e ia te hui hei tohu mō te whakakotahitanga o te Pākehā rāua ko te Māori. Ko te tikanga ko tētahi tohu whakamaharatanga e mau rā i ngā kupu Māori o te Tiriti e hūhia ana ki te kākahu Māori, kātahi ki te tiaki o Ingarangi, ā, ko te katoa ka riro mā te kāwana, mā Arthur Gordon e hura. Nāna hoki ngā whakaaro o Te Tai Tokerau i whakarāpopoto mō te hanga i tētahi pāremata Māori motuhake, hei kōkiri ki te hui. Kāore te kāwana i tae ki te whakatuwheratanga. Kore rawa atu te kaupapa mō tētahi pāremata Māori i tautokona e te Pākehā. Ko Āperahama tonu tētahi o ngā pou manaaki i te tono a Hirini Taiwhanga mō tētahi pāremata Māori; heoi, nō te kawenga ki a Kuini Wikitōria i 1882, ka hinga anō. I tino mōhio rawa a F. E. Maning ki a ia me tana kī, ahakoa he nui te awe o Āperahama, tērā e nui kē atu mehemea kāore ia i wairangi rawa.

I mate a Āperahama Taonui ki Ōtūrei. Ko tana kōhatu whakamaharatanga e whakaatu mai ana i mate ia i te 23 o Hepetema 1883, ēngari kei ngā kōrero poroporoaki mōna me ngā reta e rua i tuhituhia, kotahi nā tana wahine, nā Kereihi ki a Hōri Kerei, e whakaatu atu ana i te matenga o Āperahama, arā, nō te 23 o Hepetema 1882 kē. E kōrerotia ana ko ngā tohutohu i whakarērea e ia kia karia tōna rua kia hōhonu tonu, ka whakakīia ki te pātara pākarukaru kia kore ai tōna tinana e whakahokia ki Te Hokianga. Ahakoa rā, kei te mau tonu ana tohutohu i taua rohe; kei runga i te tohu whakamaharatanga kei Ōmanaia i hangaia i te tau 1975, e mau ana te whakaahua o tana tapuae he mea whakairo ki runga i te Paipera me ngā kupu e kī ana i te reo Pākehā, 'Ko te tūāpapa tēnei o Ihu Karaiti', hei whakamahara ake ki te wā i tū ai ia ki runga i te Paipera kauwhau ai.

Ko te kōrero tokorua, tokotoru rānei ngā wāhine a Āperahama: i moe ia a Ngā Hui i te 19 Āperira 1840; i muri iho i moe i a Kereihi (i te tamāhine a Muriwai), kei tōna taha e takoto ana i Ōtūrei. Tērā pea i te tekau tau mai i 1830 i whai wahine anō ia, ko Harriet te īngoa. Te āhua nei, kāore ōna uri. Ko ngā hunga e hari ana i tōna īngoa, ko ngā whānau i piri atu ki a ia i Ōtūrei. Kua kōrerotia ake nei, i tae mai ki te kimi iwi mōna i Ōtūrei, ka kitea. Ko ngā kupu poroporoaki mōna, e whakahua ana i te tōkeke o tōna ngākau tapatahi me tōna whakaaro pai ki te Pākehā: 'Kāore he tangata kotahi i hari amuamu atu ki a ia, i whakaaro i te hokinga atu, kāore te tika i mahia ki a ia.'

Katoa ngā kitenga poropititanga a Āperahama Taonui kua mahue hei taonga kōrero i Te Tai Tokerau; kitea rawatia ake, kua naomia atu hoki e te takatūnga Hāhi Rātana. I whakamāramatia e te Hāhi Rātana ko tana kitenga o 1863 ko te haerenga mai o Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana. Ko te nuinga o ngā whānau i whai i a Āperahama i Ōtūrei, i taki huri atu ki te whakapono o te Hāhi Rātana i muri mai o te Pakanga Tuatahi. Ko ana kōrero poropiti katoa i tāia hei pukapuka i Tākiwira i raro i te īngoa Ngā kupu o Āperahama. Ēngari kei Ōmanaia ko ana whakaakoranga e hāngai kē ana ki te momo whakapono, ki te Nākahi; ko te take, e kitea atu ana ko ia rā tonu te whakakapi o Papahurihia. Ko tōna tohu nui ka maharatia ia, he poropiti. Kei roto i ngā kōrero Māori tawhito e tū rārangi katoa ana rātou ko Te Kooti me Te Whiti‑o‑Rongomai.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Elsmore, B. Mana from heaven. Tauranga, 1989

    Ross, R. M. 'Taonui, Aperahama'. In An encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Ed. A. H. McLintock. Wellington, 1966

    Simmons, D. R. 'The Taonui manuscript'. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 12 (1975): 57–82


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Judith Binney. 'Taonui, Āperahama', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2t7/taonui-aperahama (accessed 12 April 2021)