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Te Purewa

by Hirini Melbourne

Biography

I whānau a Te Purewa ki Whaitiripapa i roto o te whārua o Rūātoki. Ko te wā i whānau ai kāore i te mōhiotia. Ko tētahi o ōna īngoa i a ia e tamariki ana ko Te Oripa, ēngari he wā ka rongohia. I whai pānga a Te Purewa ki ngā hapū maha o Tūhoe; arā, ki a Ngā Pōtiki, ki a Ngāti Huri (Tamakaimoana), ki a Ngāi Tamatea, ki a Ngāti Rongo me Te Māhurehure. Ki te taha ki tōna whaea, ki a Kōkāmutu, ko ana tātai ki a Ngāti Whakaue o Te Arawa. Ki te taha ki tōna pāpā, ki a Tihi, ka pā ki a Ngāti Kahungunu. Tokorima ngā wāhine a Te Purewa. Ko te wahine matua ko Hinekura o Ngāti Rongo. Ka puta ko Te Āhuru, ko Te Whakatangihau me Horohoro. I te matenga o Te Purewa ka taka ōna mana rangatiratanga ki tana mātāmua ki a Te Āhuru. I mau herehere a Hinekura i a Te Whakatōhea i Ōtairoa, i roto o Rūātoki. Nō muri mai ka tukuna kia ora. Ko te wahine tuarua ko Rangitahu, i tapaina tā rāua tamāhine ki a Hinekura anō. I tua atu i ēnei o ana wāhine, ko Taia, ko Rangitīkawea. I te matenga o te tuakana o Te Purewa, o Tamahore, ka moea e Te Purewa te pouaru, a Hinekiri, hai tuarima mō ana wāhine.

Ko Te Purewa te tuatoru o ngā tamariki e whā a Kōkāmutu rāua ko Tihi. Ko Te Oata te mātāmua; i maumahara ai ki a ia nā tana tuakanatanga. E kōrerohia ai ngā toa, ko te rangatiratanga i a Tamahore, i a Te Purewa, i a Tūmatawhero – Te Tokotoru-ā-Kōkāmutu – kai warewaretia a Tamahore rāua ko Tūmatawhero. I haere tahi tonu rātau i roto i ngā riri. Nō te matenga o Tamahore kātahi anō ka rongohia te toa takitahi o Te Purewa.

Nō roto i te rau tau mai i 1800, ka puta te rongo o Te Tokotoru-ā-Kōkāmutu i te wā i rūpeke ai te ope o Tūhoe ki te āki i te hoariri, ki te āwhina rānei i ngā iwi noho tata ki te whakatau i te āiotanga, ā, i ngā riri a Tūhoe ki Te Whāiti i whati mai ai a Ngāti Whare me Ngāti Manawa. Nō muri mai ka tukuna ngā whenua o Te Whāiti kia nōhia e Ngāti Pūkeko o Whakatāne. Nā Tūhoe rāua ko Ngāti Pūkeko i aukati atu a Ngāti Whare rāua ko Ngāti Manawa i Te Whāiti i te riri ki Okarea i te tau 1818 pea; i tū ai te tama a Te Purewa, a Te Āhuru.

Nā te whakaekenga a Te Kihi o Ngāti Pūkeko i a Ngāti Tāwhaki i Pāpūeru i Ruatāhuna ka whati te maungārongo i waenga i a Tūhoe rāua ko Ngāti Pūkeko. Ka tipu te riri, ka panaia mai a Ngāti Pūkeko i Te Whāiti. Koia rā anō te take o te whiunga a Tūhourangi rāua ko Ngāti Rangitihi o Te Arawa i a Tūhoe. Nō ngā tau mai i 1814 ki 1821 ērā riri. Hau ana ngā rongo o Te Tokotoru-ā-Kōkāmutu.

Tēnā kia mātakihia ake te riri i Pukekaikāhu tata atu ki te roto o Rerewhakaaitu. Nō reira ka tono a Tamahore ki a ia te pakihiwi kaha. Ka whakahokia e Te Purewa: 'Kāo. Ko te rangatiratanga ki a koe, homai ko te pakihiwi kaha ki a au.' Nā te rangatira o Te Arawa nā Tionga i taki mai a Te Purewa. Ka tuku mātātaki rāua – ko ngā rākau, he taiaha – pā ana, pā ana; ka rere te taiaha, te mata tonu ki te ūpoko. Nā te kakama o Te Purewa ko tāna taiaha i kai tuatahi, hemo kau ana a Tionga. Otiia i pā tonu te taiaha a Tionga ki a Te Purewa ā, nā te kaha o tōna pana pōrewarewa ana a Te Purewa, hinga ana ki raro. Ko Tionga i mate tonu atu. Ka matika ko te piki a Tionga, ko Te Wahakaikapua, ki te unu i te tokotoko, maranga tonu atu a Te Purewa ka whiua tana patu. Ū tonu ki te ūpoko mate tonu atu tērā, ka hora te ika huirua. Ina te kupu a Te Purewa: 'Takoto te ika huirua a te huatahi a Kōkāmutu!' E mau tonu nei tērā kōrero te ika huirua mō ngā tūpāpaku e rua ka takoto ki te marae kotahi. I muri mai ka haere a Te Arawa ki Pukekaikāhu ki te tiki i ngā kōiwi o ō rātau mate. Nō reira ka tau te maungārongo ki a Tūhoe rāua ko Te Arawa i a Te Purewa rāua ko Mokonuiārangi.

Ka tuku mātātahi anō tā Te Purewa ki a Peehi Tūkorehu, te rangatira toa o Ngāti Maniapoto. E ārahi ana a Tūkorehu i tana taua mā roto i Te Whāiti ka mau atu i te taua a Te Purewa. Ka whakaritea, mehemea ka toa a Tūkorehu, kua wātea te huarahi ki a rātau. Ka matika ngā tokorua rā. Kore rawa tētahi i pā, i tū, i hinga rānei i tētahi. Mutu pai noa iho. Ka kohaina te patu a tētahi ki tētahi, ka hou te rongo mutungakore. E kīia ana koirā tonu tētahi kaupapa i haere ai a Tūhoe ki te āwhina i ngā iwi o Tūkorehu me Rewi Maniapoto i Ōrākau i te tau 1864.

Ka puta anō Te Tokotoru-ā-Kōkāmutu i te riri i waenga i a Tūhoe rāua ko Ngāti Tūwharetoa i Taupō. I tupu ake tērā riri i Te Arikirau i roto o Ruatāhuna. I mate i reira tētahi rangatira o tērā iwi, ko Taihākoa. I whakapaengia e Tūhoe nā Tūwharetoa a Ngāti Whare i āwhina i te whawhai ki Te Arikirau. Nā tērā ka kōkiritia e ngā rangatira o Tūhoe, he taua, hei ngaki i te riri i kīia ai ko 'Te Kanohi kitea o Taihākoa'. Ko Te Umuariki, ko Taiturakina, ko Tūīringa, ko Tamahore me Te Purewa ngā rangatira i haere i raro i te atua kahukahu o Te Rehu-o-Tainui me tōna tohunga, me Te Ūhia. I te whawhai ki a Te Arawa i Pukekaikāhu, koianei anō te atua o Tūhoe. Ko tēnei te pakanga whakamutunga a Tūhoe ki a Tūwharetoa. Nā Herea Te Heuheu Tūkino I rāua ko Te Purewa i hohou te rongo. Koia nei anō hoki, te pakanga whakamutunga a Te Tokotoru-ā-Kōkāmutu.

I muri mai i runga i te tono a Te Kihi o Ngāti Pūkeko, ka whai a Tamahore i tētahi tira haere a Tūhoe ki Whakatāne. I Te Pūaha-ō-Kahu ka moea te pō. I te ohonga ake, e tū ana ngā rākau a Te Whakatōhea. Matemate katoa. Ko Tamahore te rangatira i a ia ngā whakahaerenga o ngā mahi a Tūhoe. Ko ia anō hoki te waha, te hinengaro whakairo kupu kōrero. Ko te kupu i a Tamahore, ko te pakihiwi kaha i a Te Purewa.

I moe a Tamahore i a Hinetemoa, he wahine tito waiata nō Ngāti Rongo. I te wā i te whare pūhinga tonu a Hinetemoa me tā rāua tamaiti, ka tahuri te nanakia nei a Tamahore ki te raweke i a Hinekiri, te taina o Hinetemoa. Ka rongo a Hinetemoa, ka oma me tana tamaiti ngaro tonu atu ki te ngāherehere. Kore rawa i kitea e Tamahore. I tana hangapōuri, ka hoki a Tamahore ki Ōhāua-te-rangi i Ruatāhuna, ko tana whakaititanga i a ia mō ōna hara. Haehae iho i tōna tinana kia rere te toto, ka takaoke ki roto i te pungarehu. He toka whero kei Ōhāua-te-rangi ko 'Ngā Toto o Tamahore' te īngoa. Nō ngā tau i muri iho, ka haere he tira tāhiti kererū, ka rongohia te reo o tētahi wahine e waiata ana. Nā ngā kupu o te waiata, mōhio tonu atu a Tamahore ko Hinetemoa. Rokohanga atu rāua ko tana tama, ko Te Pahī, kua pakeketia. Hai whakanui i tēnei tūtakitanga, ka waiatatia e Tamahore tēnei waiata:

Ka mea Tāwera ē
Me kawe rawa ia ki te wai
Kia wetewetekia tō kiri ē
Ki te wetewete nā Kahukura i te ati ē.

Ko te Tāwera nei, ko Tamahore tonu. Ka whakahokia mai, ka haria a Te Pahī ki te wai kia whakawāteatia, ka tohia ki a Kahukura. Ki tēnei rā e waiata whānuitia ana e Tūhoe, te waiata a Tamahore.

Ko te mate o Tamahore nā Te Purewa kē i ngaki. I te whakatūtū tonu te taua toto a Tūhoe, ka wehe a Te Purewa me tōna kotahi. Ahu tonu atu ia ki Te Pūaha-ō-Kahu, ko tōna niwha e kawe ana i a ia. Ka rokohanga atu a Ngāti Pūkeko i Te Hūrepo i Tāneatua, ka patua ētahi. I mate hoki a Tamahore ki reira. Heoi nā te karangatanga ake nā Te Whakatōhea kē i patu a Tamahore i ora ai te nuinga. Ka takahia atu te whenua ka mau a Te Whakatōhea ki Whitiwhiti i roto o Ōhiwa. Tekau mā rima rawa i hinga i a Te Purewa, ka mau mai ia i tōna nui o Tūhoe. Ka raunga itihia a Te Whakatōhea ki Te Papa i roto o te awa o Waiōeka. I te hokinga mai o te taua a Te Purewa, ka whakaekea a Ūpokorehe me Te Whakatōhea i Te Kahikatea, i riro ai ngā whenua o reira me ō te awaawa o Waiōtahe ki raro i te mana o Te Purewa. Mai i reira, anō te wā ka haere a Te Purewa me tana kotahi, ahakoa te pukahu o te hoariri.

I roto i ngā tau 1823 atu ki 1827 ka puta te rongo o Te Purewa ki Waikaremoana i ngā whawhai ki a Ngāti Ruapani me Ngāti Kahungunu. Ēngari, ko te rongo i puta i konei mō tana whakamoe patu ki a Hīpara o Ngāti Kahungunu. I whakamoea ai ngā maunga – a Kahutārewa o Kahungunu me Te Turi-ō-Kahu o Tūhoe. I reira anō hoki tana tama a Te Āhuru.

Mai i Waikaremoana, ka tahuri a Te Purewa ki te hohou i te rongo ki a Ngāti Awa me Ngāti Pūkeko, i te tau 1832. I rere atu hoki i ngā pakanga ki a Ngā Puhi i raro i te awe o Pōmare I, ka noho ki Ōpouriao ki Rūātoki. He maha ngā tau i kakari ai a Tūhoe ki a Ngāti Awa me Ngāti Pūkeko. Ko ngā hui whakaaio, i Te Kupenga, i Te Teko. Ko te kōrero, nā tana kaumātuatanga, i tukuna atu ai e Te Purewa ko tana tama ko Te Āhuru, ki reira. Ka tonoa ko Parāone rāua ko Pētera Koikoi ki Pūpūāruhe i Whakatāne i tau ai te rangimārie. Nā Te Purewa tonu i hohou te rongo ki a Taupiri rāua ko Tamaiārohi o Ngāti Pūkeko, i Te Awahou i Tāneatua. Ka whakaaengia e ia mā rātau e mahi ngā whenua i Te Hūrepo me Te Awahou.

I a Te Purewa te mana o Tūhoe ki ngā whenua ki Waimana ki Pukekoko ki Waiotahe, ki Rūātoki, ki Ōpouriao ki Ōwhakatoro me Waiōhau. I riro ai a Waiōhau nā te mahinga a Te Purewa. Ko tana taina ko Tūmatawhero i noho mai i Maungataniwha, i Ruatāhuna, hei tautiaki mai i tērā taha. I Te Karangi ka wetekina te mana o Te Rangitūkehu (he rangatira nō Ngāti Awa ā, nā Te Purewa tonu i tahi te tahua i waenga i a rāua, arā i Te Kupenga). I patua iho ana poaka ka nōhia te whenua, ka tatari kia puta atu a Te Rangitūkehu. Auare ake. Ka whakatipua iho ngā tohu ki te whenua, ka waihotia ko ana irāmutu ko Taurua rāua ko Roihi.

I amio haere tonu a Te Purewa i te whenua ki te whakatūtū, ki te whakahou i ōna tohu. Nāna i tae ai te taewa ki roto o Rūātoki. Nā tana tama nā Te Āhuru ko te rākau pītiti ki Waikirikiri i riro mai i a ia mai i a S. M. Spencer, te mihingare o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihingare (Church Missionary Society). I tū te pā o Te Tawhero hai pari taua mō Te Waimana me Ōpouriao. Ko ngā whare i reira ko Pūkahu me Tahitikahu. I te matenga o Te Āhuru, ka tanumia ki Te Tawhero. Ko tōna rua tāpuke i karia e te kurī. Ka whāia te kurī rā, ka kitea e whakawhiti ana i te awa o Hinemataroa (Whakatāne), ka pūhia kia mate. Noho tapu tonu atu te awa, ā, kia wetekina rā anō e te mokopuna a Tamahore, e Kererū Te Pukenui.

Nō te tau 1836, ka rere a Te Purewa ki te āwhina i te iwi o tōna whaea, i a Ngāti Whakaue i tā rātau riri ki a Ngāti Raukawa. Nō te taenga atu ka pātaihia: 'Ā, kai whea te nui o Tūhoe?' Ko te whakahoki a Te Purewa: 'Ira!' Ka tohu ki tōna kotahi. Ka whakahokia e Ngāti Whakaue: 'Me kōpere noa atu, ka mate.' Ahakoa rā, nā Te Purewa i whakahau me haere ka whakataratara i te hoariri. Ka haere ngā kaipātaritari ki te putawiniwini o te pā. I te putanga mai o Ngāti Raukawa ka taki rere kia whāia ai. Ko Te Purewa i tū tonu ki muri, hai tākiri mai i ngā tōmuri. Motumotu ana te whiore o te taua whai a Ngāti Raukawa. Nō te kitenga o Ngāti Whakaue i a Te Purewa huri tonu ake, ka karawhiua a Ngāti Raukawa. Ko tēnei riri i kīia ko Te Matai Puku – koirā te riri whakamutunga a Te Purewa. Nō te tau 1842 pea, ka mate a Te Purewa ki Tauanui, tata atu i Ngāmāhanga, i te taha tonga o Rūātoki.

Kua poua te mana o Te Purewa. Kai ngā whenua o Tūhoe ōna tohu. He poupou kai te whare o Te Rangimoaho i te marae o Te Rewarewa. Kai a Te Māhurehure ōna pepeha. Kai Taiarahia i muri o Te Rewarewa, ko ngā pā o Te Purewa, ko Te Tawhero, ko Taumata-o-Te Puia. Kai Tāneatua, ko Te Awahou i tau ai te maungārongo ki a Ngāti Pūkeko. Ko Te Taumata-o-Te Purewa kai te whārua o Ōwhakatoro. He uru rākau kei raro iho, i tapaina ki tana wahine, ki a Hinekura. Kai tua atu ko te pūkaki o Ruangārara, te rākau tūtū manu a Te Purewa. Kai te take o taua rākau te rua o tētahi ngārara. Ko 'Te pūtaewa a Te Purewa', kei Waiōhau. He tohu tērā, i raro ērā iwi i te mana o Te Purewa, ā, kia kaua e whakaekehia e tētahi iwi atu. Mai i Waiōhau ki Maungataniwha ki te kāinga o Aropaki, i Ōhāua-te-rangi ki Waikaremoana, ngā tapuwae o Te Purewa. I Waikaremoana ko te pā o Whakaari i tū ai i a Te Purewa, i roto i ngā pakanga ki a Ngāti Kahungunu. Kai reira anō hoki te toka te tohu whakamutunga ki te kaumātuatanga o Te Purewa, ko 'Ngā hina o Te Purewa'.

I hua ake ngā rongo mō Te Purewa nā tōna toa i ngā pakanga. Nāna i mutu atu ai te kaitangata. Nāna, ka mau te rongo ki a Ngāti Tūwharetoa i Taupō, ki a Te Arawa i Ruatāhuna, ki a Ngāti Kahungunu i Waikaremoana, ki a Ngāti Awa i Te Teko; i Te Awahou ki a Ngāti Pūkeko. He toa, he atua whakahaehae tonu atu! Koirā, ka mau te karanga ko te 'Pakihiwi kaha o te huatahi a Kōkāmutu'.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Best, E. Tuhoe. Wellington, 1925

    Black, T., ed. He koha kii nga [uri o] o tatau tipuna. Palmerston North, 1982

    N.Z. Native Land Court. Minute books: Whakatane, 1881--1903. Micro MS Coll. 6. WTU

    Tuhoe--Waikaremoana Trust Board. Manuscripts and interviews. Private ownership


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Hirini Melbourne. 'Te Purewa', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t60/te-purewa (accessed 15 November 2019)