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Takamoana, Karaitiana

by Angela Ballara

Biography

I heke mai a Takamoana i ngā kāwai rangatira o Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti me Ngāti Kahungunu ki Heretaunga, i tana whaea, i a Te Rotohenga, e mōhiotia ana ko Winipere. E rua ngā tāne a te wahine nei. I te taha ki tana matua, ki a Tinikirunga, i heke mai i ngā kāwai o Ngāti Rangiwhakaaewa o Rangitāne me Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti. I te moenga i a Tinikirunga, ka whānau mai ko Takamoana rāua ko Te Meihana Tākihi. I tana moenga i a Hira, ka puta ko Hēnare Tōmoana rāua ko Peni Te Uamairangi. E ai ki te kōrero, i whānau a Takamoana i Te Wairarapa.

E tai tonu ana a Takamoana i te tīmatanga o te tekau tau mai i 1820, ka uru ia ki te pakanga o Te Roto-a-Tara e tata ana ki Te Aute; he riri tēnei ki ngā ope taua o te marangai, e aratakina ana e Mananui Te Heuheu Tūkino II o Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Ko ia tētahi o ngā rangatira o Heretaunga kore rawa i whakaae ki te oma ki Nukutaurua, i Te Māhia, ruru ai. Nā konei ia ka mau hereheretia i Te Pakake, kei Te Whanganui-o-Orotū (Napier Harbour), i te takiwā o te tau 1824, i te takahanga mai o te ope taua o Waikato. Ka haria a Takamoana ki te rohe o Waikato, ēngari nā te rangatira o ngā whakaaro o Te Wherowhero ka tukuna kia hoki. I reira anō a Takamoana i te whakamātautanga a Te Momo-a-Irawaru rātau ko Ngāti Te Koherā, ki te apo i ngā whenua i Te Roto-a-Tara, i te tau 1824, 1825 rānei. Ko ia te ngārahu mō Ngāti Te Manawakawa, he karangatanga hapū nō Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti. Ko ia tētahi o te hunga nā rātau i turaki atu te hoariri. I muri mai i tēnei toanga, i hono atu pea a Takamoana ki a Te Pareihe, te kaihautū o Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti, i Nukutaurua. Ka ngaro ia i roto i ngā tuhituhinga, tae atu ki te wā i tono rawa ai a Te Pareihe i a ia i te takiwā o te tau 1838, ki te hohou i te rongo ki a Ngāi Te Ūpokoiri, ki a Ngāti Raukawa, me ērā o ngā hoariri o Ngāti Te Whatuiāpiti ki Te Manawatū o ngā tau ki muri.

Nō te tekau tau mai i 1840, kua noho kē a Takamoana hei rangatira whai mana o ngā whakatupuranga. He taokete ia ki a Tāreha, tētahi o ngā rangatira rongonui o Ngāti Kahungunu. Ko ia tonu te rangatira o te kāinga i Te Awapuni, i te taenga mai o Te Koreneho (William Colenso) ki Heretaunga i Tīhema 1844. Ko ia anō hoki tētahi o ngā rangatira tokorima, nā rātau te kaupapa tuku whenua i haina, i waihangatia ai he whenua hei tūnga mō te mīhana o Waitangi. Ka noho a Takamoana i te kura a Te Koreneho, ki te ako ki te pānui me te tuhituhi pukapuka. I huri ia ki te kaupapa Karaitiana, i mau ai a Karaitiana hei īngoa mōna. He aha rā, kātahi ka tupu te kino i waenganui i a rāua ko te tangata mārō, whakatapu nei i a ia, i a Te Koreneho; heoi, nō te tautohetanga a Kurupō Te Moananui rāua ko Te Koreneho i Hānuere 1850, i hinga atu a Karaitiana ki a Te Moananui. Nō muri nei, kua aroha atu anō ia ki a Te Koreneho.

I tino koa rawa atu a Karaitiana i te taenga atu o Te Mākarini (Donald McLean) i te marama o Tīhema 1850, ki te tirotiro menā e wātea ana he whenua hei hoko mā te Karauna. Nō te tau 1851, ka riro ko Karaitiana tētahi o te hunga nāna i haina te tukunga o ngā poraka o Waipukurau me Ahuriri, i whiwhi ai te Karauna i te 600,000 eka i Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay). Kua hanga rite ia ki ērā o ngā rangatira Māori, kua titiro whakamua ki te wā e tū ai he tāone, e taea ai te hokohoko taonga.

He wā poto, pōraruraru katoa te mahi hoko whenua i Te Matau-a-Māui. I whakapiri atu a Karaitiana ki a Kurupō Te Moananui, ki a Tāreha, me Rēnata Kawepō ki te whakahē i a Te Hāpuku, i whakamātau rā, kia noho motuhake ia hei kaihokohoko Māori mā te Karauna, tae atu hoki ki ngā whenua i hokohokona e rātau ko ōna hoa, kāore nei i rahi ō rātau pānga ki aua whenua. Nō te tau 1856, ka tupu te kino mō tētahi whenua i te taha marangai o te awa o Ngaruroro. Kua ū ngā whakaaro o Te Hāpuku kia utua mai te moni mō taua whenua. Ki tā te rōpū o Karaitiana rāua ko Te Moananui, me whakakore atu te hoko; kia totohe tonu ia, ko te pakanga rātau.

I ū rawa atu te whakaaro o Karaitiana ki te whakahē i ngā hoko whenua e āwangawanga ana, nā tana haerenga ki te hui i karangahia e Iwikau Te Heuheu Tūkino III ki Pūkawa, i Noema o 1856. Nō Pēpuere o te tau 1857, ka haere tahi rāua ko G. S. Cooper, te kōmihana ā-rohe, ki te tirotiro i ngā whenua o tana hapū o Ngāti Hāwea, i roto i ngā whenua kua hokona, e hokona ana rānei, e Te Hāpuku. Ko tēnei, he wero tonu nā rāua i a Te Hāpuku. I taua marama anō, ka whakahaungia e Karaitiana a Te Hāpuku kia whakarērea tana pā i Whakatū, te mea kei runga i te whenua e tautohengia ana.

Nō Ākuhata 1857, kātahi rātau ka taki pakanga ki a Te Hāpuku mō ngā rākau e tū ana i Te Pakiaka, e tata ana ki Whakatū, e kī ana a Te Moananui nāna, ēngari he mea raweke e Te Hāpuku mā. Ko Karaitiana te ngārahu o tō rātau ope taua. E toru rawa ngā akiakitanga, e toru ngā takahanga o Te Hāpuku; nō Maehe o 1858, ka unu a Te Hāpuku i a ia, ka nuku whakauta ki Poukawa. Nā konei i piki rawa atu ai te mana o Karaitiana. Ahakoa tōna whakahē i te Kīngitanga kua tirohia atu ia hei kairīwhi mō Te Moananui i te Pāremata. Nō te 1861 hoki a Te Moananui i mate ai. Heoi, i tautokohia e Karaitiana, e Tāreha me Rēnata Kawepō te rūnanga a te Kīngi, kia riro mā te Māori anō ia e whakahaere. I kōkiri a Karaitiana i te kaupapa mō te whakakotahi i ngā iwi e whai pānga ana ki te tupuna kotahi. Nō te tau 1860, i toro ai ia ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa (Poverty Bay) whakahau ai kia whakakotahitia ngā Māori katoa o Te Tai Rāwhiti, o Te Matau-a-Māui me Te Wairarapa i raro i te iwi kotahi, i raro anō hoki i a Kahungunu.

I Noema 1863, i karanga hui a Karaitiana ki Pāwhakairo (e tata ana ki Taradale i ēnei rā), ki te kōrero mō te tuku i te mānia o Heretaunga i runga i te rīhi roa, me pēhea rānei. Ko tōna hiahia, kia tahuri te Karauna ki te rīhi i te whenua mō ngā tau e 21, ki te kore, ko te tukuna e ia ki te Pākehā hei whāngai kararehe mō te wā poto noa iho. I whakaaro anō ia ki te whakanoho i ētahi Māori ki te whāngai hipi, whāngai kau hoki. Nō te roa e haere ana, kua whakamauru kē ngā tāngata a te Karauna ki a Karaitiana, hei kaiwhakahaere mō ngā whenua o Heretaunga. Ka kino a Tāreha mō tēnei āhuatanga, kātahi ka hono atu ki a Te Hāpuku.

Nā runga i ngā whakaaro whakamanamana, kua āhua tautoko kē a Te Hāpuku rāua ko Tāreha i ngā mihingare a te Pai Mārire, i taki tae mai ki Heretaunga i te tau 1864. I karangahia e Karaitiana he hui i Āperire 1865, kia mātua kī mai ngā iwi o Heretaunga kei hea rātau e noho ana; kei te taha rānei ki te Hauhau, kei te kāwanatanga rānei. Kāore, kua takoto kē te whakaaro mō te whakaeke i te Hauhau, i kitea ai e te kāwanatanga, he ritenga puku tēnei mō te patu i a Tāreha. Ka whakatūria e te Pai Mārire he pou niu i tō rātau kāinga i te mānia o Ngātarawa, he wāhi tēnei e tautohengia ana e Karaitiana rāua ko Te Hāpuku, ka whakahaungia e Karaitiana kia tapahia. He whakaaro nō ngā āpiha a te kāwanatanga, te mea he whenua kē te take o te riri, ehara kau i te pūmau ki te Kuini, koirā ka puritia a Karaitiana kei haere ko ia tonu ki te tapahi i te niu.

Heoi, ka tahuri a Karaitiana rātau ko ana hoa whawhai, ki te whakatikatika i a rātau mō te riri ki te Hauhau. Nō Hepetema 1866 ka noho te Hauhau ki Ōmarunui, e whitu māero te tawhiti i Ahuriri; ka karangahia e Karaitiana rāua ko Rēnata Kawepō ō rāua iwi, kātahi ka haere ki Ahuriri whākao ai. I Oketopa, ka maranga ngā hōia a te Karauna i raro i a Rūtene Kānara G. S. Whitmore, me te ope taua i raro i a Karaitiana me ētahi atu, kātahi ka panaia te Hauhau. Nā runga i ōna kaha i te riri nei, ka hōmai he hoari hei hōnore (Sword of Honour) mōna.

I roto i ngā tekau tau e rua mai i 1850 ki 1869, ka riro a Karaitiana i te kaupapa mō te hoko whenua. Kua taunga kē ia ki tā te Pākehā me tāna noho, ko ana rawa he mea nama ki te Pākehā hoko taonga. Kua hiahia te hunga rīhi i ngā whenua o Heretaunga, kei raro i te mana o Karaitiana, kia riro mai i a rātau te tohu tuatahi mō te hoko i aua whenua; kātahi ka whakakōrerongia rātau ko ērā o ngā rangatira, kia hokona haere tonu he rawa i runga i te nama. Tae rawa atu ki 1867, kua pūkai ko ngā nama; nō 1869, kua pokea ia e te hāmene, i te mana muru rawa hoki; kātahi ka mauheretia ia.

Ko tētahi wāhi o ana nama ko ngā pū i hokona mō ana rangatahi e 80, me ngā whakatikatika mō rātau hei whawhai atu ki a Te Kooti me te Hauhau; āpiti atu, ko te hoko i te kaipuke hokohoko, i te Henry. I te tau 1869, i tukuna e ia ngā apataki e 200 ki te rohe o Taupō ki te whai i a Te Kooti; kāore i ea ana raruraru i ngā moni i utua mai. Nō taua wā nei, kua akiaki mai ngā iwi e nama ana rā ia, kia hokona te poraka o Heretaunga. I te whakahaeretanga o te poraka nei i te Kōti Whenua Māori i te mutunga o te tau 1866, kua hiahia kē a Karaitiana, kia noho ko rāua anake ko tana taina, ko Hēnare Tōmoana, hei kaitango, i runga i tāna i whakaarohia ai, nōna te whenua. Ēngari, nō te whakamōhiotanga, ahakoa e hē ana, e kore ngā kaitango kē e āhei ki te hoko i te poraka nei, kātahi anō ia ka whakaae me tuku ki raro i ngā tāngata tekau. Ka noho rātau hei reo mō ngā hapū e 16 ki te 18 rānei, e hia nei ngā rau tāngata o aua hapū nei, e whai take katoa ana ki te whenua. Nā te kaha nui o ā rātau nama, ka taki haina katoa te rerenga i te pukapuka whakaritenga mō te hoko; nō te 6 o Tīhema 1869, ka haina hoki a Karaitiana rāua ko Hēnare Tōmoana. He mōhio nō Karaitiana, ko te pau katoa ngā moni i te utu i ngā nama, kātahi ka whakaritea pukutia, kia utua te moni £1,500 mā Hēnare Tōmoana me te £1,000 māna, ēngari me utu harangotengotetia ia tau, mō te tekau tau.

He aha rā, kua kore a Karaitiana i pai ki te hoko, kātahi ia ka tono kia wehengia mai ōna pānga i ō tōna iwi, kia kore ō rātau whenua e riro mō ana nama. Kore tonu ia i whakaae ki te haina i te pukapuka e whakawhiti ai te poraka; kātahi ia ka haere ki Ākarana (Auckland), ki te whakamōhio atu ki te kāwanatanga, i ngā tangi a ngā iwi Māori o Heretaunga mō ō rātau whenua, ki te tono hoki ki a Te Mākarini, i tētahi moni hei utu i ana raruraru me ngā raruraru a tana taina, a Hēnare Tōmoana. Nā runga i tana tono rā, kātahi ka whakaritea me haere a Charles Heaphy, te kōmihana mō ngā whenua rāhui Māori, ki Ahuriri, ki te waihanga i ētahi kaitiaki whenua rāhui pūmau. Ka hoki rā a Karaitiana ki Ahuriri, kore nei he hua o tana haere; ka noho ia ki Pākōwhai i roto i te pōuri me te mōteatea. Nā ngā akiakitanga o muri mai, kātahi ka hainangia e Karaitiana te pukapuka e whakawhiti ai a Heretaunga; ko te tikanga, ko te moni ka riro i a Karaitiana me ōna hoa hoko e rima rā, e £754 16s. 9d., ngā toenga o te £7,000; ko te moni toitū tēnei o te whenua i muri mai o te patu haeretanga i ngā nama. Kāore, nā te hē o ngā tatau, ko te moni i riro mai i a rāua £2,387 7s. 3d.

Nā runga i ana hononga ki a Rangitāne, ka uru a Karaitiana ki roto i ngā kōrerorero mō te hoko i ngā whenua e rua, ko te Forty Mile Bush me te Seventy Mile Bush, e tata ana ki ngā pae maunga o Tararua me Ruahine; kei te tonga o Heretaunga me te taha marangai o Te Wairarapa ēnei wāhi. Kua ngana noa atu ngā tāngata a te kāwanatanga ki te hoko i aua whenua nei, i te tekau tau mai i 1860. Kua hiahia hoki a Karaitiana ki te hoko, ēngari, mātua me utua mai te moni tika mō ngā whenua. Kua whakaaro kē te kāwanatanga, ki te utu i te moni iti iho i te hāwhe o te mea i tonohia rā e Karaitiana; ka totohe tonu ia i runga i ngā tohutohu a T. P. Russell, tērā e utua mai e te kāwanatanga te moni ka tonohia, ahakoa te rahi.

Nō te tau 1871, ka riro nāna a Tāreha Te Moananui i taua, hei Mema mō Te Tai Rāwhiti, ki te Whare Pāremata. (I whakataetae hua kore ia ki a Tāreha i te 1868). He iti noa iho ngā kaupapa i taea e ngā mema Māori; i te tau 1871, i whai kupu ai a Karaitiana ki te Whare Pāremata mō ngā nawe ā te ture Pākehā. Ahakoa rā, i whakamāramatia e ia ōna whakaaro, mō te whakatikatika i ngā raruraru mō ngā whenua, mā roto i te Whare Pāremata. Nō ngā tau 1871 me te 1872, ka tīmata te ara ake o te kaupapa i mōhiotia i muri nei, ko te Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua (Repudiation Movement) i Heretaunga, arā, he whakakore i ngā hoko whenua a te Karauna, a te tangata noa iho rānei, i runga i te nanakia. Ko te hunga whakaari i te ritenga nei, ko Hēnare Matua o Pōrangahau, ēngari e āwhinatia ana ia e H. R. Russell rāua ko tana teina ko T. P. Russell. Nō tētahi hui nui i karangahia ki Pakipaki i Hune 1872, i whakahē a Karaitiana rāua ko Hēnare Tōmoana i te kaupapa rā, ā, nō tētahi hui anō i muri mai i Pākōwhai i Hūrae, ka taunutia e Karaitiana a Hēnare Matua. I whakaaro kē ia, me tahuri te kāwanatanga ki te whakatū i tētahi kōmihana, hei uiui i ngā hoko whenua i Heretaunga. Kātahi ka oati ia, ki te kore tōna hiahia e whakaritea, ko te peke atu ia ki te taha o te kaupapa Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua.

I taua wā nei anō, e ngana ana a Karaitiana ki te whakarite moni hei hanga kura mō tana iwi i Ōmāhu me Pākōwhai. Nō te paunga haere o te tau 1872, ka pānuitia te kōrero, mō te hanga i tētahi kōmihana hei uiui i ngā whenua i hokona. Ka hui te kōmihana uiui mai i Pēpuere ki Āperire 1873, ēngari kua kitea noatia, he iti rawa tōna mana ki te whakawāwā i ngā take i whakaritea hei whakarongotanga mā rātau, ā, e kore ngā whenua e hoki mai. Nō te hui nui ki Pakipaki, i tae katoa a Karaitiana me ērā o ngā rangatira o Heretaunga, ēngari kāore kau a Tāreha. Ka tū te whakaaro kia tonohia atu he kōmihana hou, ēngari kia nui noa atu ōna mana, ā, kia panaia hoki te kāwanatanga.

Kua ū kē a Karaitiana ki te Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua i tēnei wā, ā, nō Mei i whakatakoto whakaaro ai ia i tētahi £100 mō te kaupapa nei, kua hēmanawa hoki i te kore moni. Mai i te 1873 ki te 1876, i mahi haere tonu ia mō tēnei kaupapa ki te whakatikatika i ngā take whenua hei tirotiro mā te Kōti Matua (Supreme Court). Ka mahi tonu, ahakoa ngā tikanga nanakia a H. R. Russell, me tana haumi ki a Hēnare Matua, kāore rā i uru pū; he nui ngā take i tautohetohetia e rāua, he kōrero tā tētahi, he kōrero tā tētahi. Nō te 1876, ka mōketengia e Karaitiana rāua ko tana taina, a Te Meihana Tākihi, ō rāua pānga i te poraka o Te Awa-o-te-Atua ki a H. R. Russell, mō te £4,000, kia ora haere tonu ai te Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua.

Nō te 1876, ka hoki anō a Karaitiana hei mema Pāremata mō Te Tai Rāwhiti, ahakoa te whakaaro o Ōmana (J. D. Ormond), te kaiwhakahaere o Te Matau-a-Māui, ki te whakaari i a Hēnare Matua, hei mea whakatū anō, i runga i tōna wawata kia wāhia ngā pōti a te hunga o te Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua. Ka noho a Karaitiana hei mema Pāremata, ā mate noa.

E kōrerotia ana, e toru rawa ngā wāhine a Karaitiana i ngā tekau tau mai i 1870. Ka uru mai ai te whakaaro ākuanei pea i whakarērea e ia te kaupapa Karaitiana. Kei te ngaro ngā īngoa o ana wāhine; o ana tamariki katoa, ko Arapeta Te Piriniha anake te īngoa e maharatia ana. E kīia ana, i te matenga o Karaitiana Takamoana ki Ahuriri i te 24 o Pēpuere 1879, kua eke kē ia ki waenganui i te 60 me te 70 tōna pakeke. He nui ngā tāngata, Māori, Pākehā atu, i tae ki tana uhunga; nā te minita rā, nā Samuel Williams i tuku i te 1 o Maehe. I nehua ki Pākōwhai ki roto i te urupā pereki i tāwāhi atu o tōna kāinga.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives (New Zealand). 1873, G--7

    Boyd, M. B. City of the plains. Wellington, 1984

    McLean, D. Papers, 1832--1927. MS Papers 32. WTU

    Obit. Daily Telegraph. 24 Feb. 1879


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Takamoana, Karaitiana', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t5/takamoana-karaitiana (accessed 22 November 2019)