Kōrero: Ngā tamariki

Whārangi 3. Nga whakawhiu o te ao Pākehā

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

Nga kura mihana

Ko ngā kura mihana o ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1800 te take nui i panoni ai te āhua o ngā tamariki Māori. I roto i ngā mahi ki te whakapai i te noho a te Māori, ka āta titiro ngā mihinare ki te whakarerekē i ngā whanonga o ngā tamariki me ngā mātua Māori. Nā ngā mihinare ngā kura tuatahi mō te Māori i waihanga, ā, atu i te ako ki te pānui me te tuhituhi, ka ako hoki rātou ki te patu tamariki hei whakatika i a rātou. Ko te reo Māori te reo o ēnei kura, ā, ka tino matatau ngā tauira o ēnei kura ki tō rātou reo. Nō ngā pakanga whenua o te tekau tau 1860, ka whakarērea ēnei kura.

Rikarika ki te pānui

He tauira a Merimeri Penfold o Ngāti Kurī ki te Kura Māori o Te Hāpua ki te Tai Tokerau i te tekau tau 1920. E maumahara ana ia, ‘We did not have homework. Reading, however, was very much an attraction. It was common practice to stuff books and journals in our clothes and trouser pants to read at home … I often resorted to reading secretly in the maize crop, in bed, by moonlight at night hanging out the window, or under the beds' (Kāre he mahi kāinga. Heoi he tino mahi ki a mātou te pānui. Ko tā mātou he puru i ō matou tarau ki ngā puka me ngā hautaka kia panui ki te kāinga ... ko tāku he pānui huna i roto i ngā kānga, i taku moenga, ki raro i te aho o te marama, ki raro rānei i ngā moenga). 1

Ngā kura Māori

I te tau 1867 ka whakatū te kāwanatanga i tētahi pūnaha kura tuatahi hōu mō ngā Māori ki ngā taiwhenua. Ka whakahaere ngātahi ēnei kura i te taha o ngā kura Pākehā mō te kotahi rautau te roa. Ko te reo Pākehā anake te reo o ēnei kura (i te tau 1947 ka whakaingoa hōutia ko ngā kura Māori), hāunga te whakamahia o te reo Māori hei ētahi wā. Ka akiaki ngā mātua Māori i ēnei kura, ā, ka whai wāhi hoki rātou ki ngā whenua me ngā utu whare, kaiako hoki ki ngā kura hōu.

Ka whai wāhi hoki te Māori ki ngā tikanga ako, ngā mahi whakatika me te ako i ngā kaiako. Hei tauira, ko Mary Tautari te tumuaki Māori tuatahi, i tōna tū hei tumuaki ki te Kura Māori o Taumārere ki Pēwhairangi i te tau 1875. E ai ki tētahi manuhiri rā i te akohia ngā kōtiro ki ngā pūoro whakatangitangi me ngā mahi whakapai whare, ‘in order that they may be Europeanised as much as possible, and in all respects rendered fit to become the wives of settlers' (kia Pākehā ake ai te āhua, kia tau hoki ai hei wāhine mā ngā tangata whai). 2

Te ako ki te ao hōu

He whānui ake te kaupapa o ngā kura tūmatanui me ngā kura Māori i te ako mātauranga, pūkenga mahi rānei. Mā ēnei kura ka tūwhera ngā tamariki Māori ki te ao hōu. I te tau 1897, ka kī a Hamiora Hei, mema o te Rōpū Tauira o Te Aute, ‘In order that Maori girls may become good, useful wives and mothers, it is essential that a knowledge of the most simple rules of health and medicine should be imparted to them. They require it to break down traditional superstition and the power of the tohungas' (E pai ai ngā kōtiro Māori hei hoa wahine, whaea pai hoki, me tuku ngā ture māmā o te hauora me te rongoā ki a rātou. Mā konei ka āhei rātou ki te wetewete i te mana e puritia ana e ngā tohunga). 3 Heoi arā anō ngā tikanga Māori i whakaurua ki te pūnaha mātauranga hou, pērā i te tikanga ‘tuakana-teina’. He āria tēnei i rongonui ai a Sylvia Henderson (ko Sylvia Ashton-Warner tōna ingoa tuhi) i roto i tana pukapuka Teacher, i whakaputahia i te tau 1963.

Te oranga ake o te whakatipu tamariki

Ka ora tonu ētahi tikanga i te kāinga me te kura. Hāunga tonu te whakakorenga e te Ture Whenua Māori o te tau 1909 i te tikanga whāngai, ka haere tonu tēnei tikanga i waenganui i te iwi Māori.

Ka hao te rangatahi

Ko tētahi whakataukī rongonui mō te hunga rangatahi ko tēnei, ‘Ka pū te rūhā, ka hao te rangatahi’.

I te pokapū o te rautau 1900 ka kitea tonu ētahi tikanga whakatipu tamariki ki ngā hapori Māori. Ka mutu he nui te aroha, te manaaki, te whāngai me te poipoi o te hunga pakeke mai, tungāne mai.

He nui ake ngā whānau Māori i ngā whānau manene, ā, mā ngā tuākana e manaaki ngā teina. Ka tautokohia anō ngā mātua Māori e ētahi atu whanaunga. ‘For the Maori child, there is always someone to turn to. He is rarely alone, and other children become an extension of the family. Sometimes the home of an uncle or grandparents becomes like a second home' (He nui ngā tāngata hei tahuritanga atu mā te tamaiti Māori. Kore rawa ia e tū mokemoke. He wā kua noho kāinga rua te kāinga o tana kuia, koroua hoki). 4

Kupu tāpiri
  1. I takoto ki J. Simon rāua ko L. Tuhiwai Smith, ētita, A civilising mission?: perceptions and representations of the New Zealand native schools system. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Auckland University Press, 2001, wh. 92. Back
  2. I takoto ki A civilising mission?, wh. 72. Back
  3. I takoto ki A civilising mission?, wh. 229. Back
  4. I takoto ki Jane rāua ko James Ritchie, Child rearing patterns in New Zealand. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: A. H. me A. W. Reed, 1970, wh. 130. Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rawinia Higgins me Paul Meredith, 'Ngā tamariki - Nga whakawhiu o te ao Pākehā', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-tamariki/page-3 (accessed 30 November 2021)

He kōrero nā Rawinia Higgins me Paul Meredith, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011