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Te Heuheu Tukino VII, Hepi Hoani

by Alex Frame

Biography

Ko Hepi Hoani Te Heuheu Tūkino te tuawhitu o ngā tino ariki o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, ā, hoki rā anō tōna tātai hono ki te tohunga o te waka o Te Arawa, ki a Ngātoroirangi. I te paunga o te rau tau 1800–1899, i ngana kaha tōna koroua a Tūreiti Te Heuheu Tūkino V kia whakamanahia te Kotahitanga (te Pāremata Māori), ēngari kīhai i tutuki. I tōna matenga i te tau 1921, ka noho ko tana tama, ko Hoani Te Heuheu Tūkino VI hei whakakapi mōna, arā, ko ia te heamana tuatahi o te Poari Kaitiaki o Tūwharetoa (Tūwharetoa Trust Board). Nō te tau 1940 i tohea e ia te whakamana ā-ture mai i te Tiriti o Waitangi, he take i kawea atu e ia ki te aroaro o te Kaunihera Motuhake a te Kuini (Privy Council) i Rānana (London).

I whānau mai a Hepi i te 26 o Hānuere o te tau 1919, ki te Whare Tongariro (Tongariro House) i Maranui (Lyall Bay), ki Pōneke (Wellington). Ko ia te tama a Hoani rāua ko tana wahine, ko Raukawa Tāwhirau Maniapoto, ko ia rā te tamāhine a Te Maniapoto rāua ko Wakahuia o Taupō. Ko tōna hapū tūturu ake, ko Ngāti Tūrumakina. I kuraina a Hepi ki te kawenati o Hato Hōhepa (St Joseph’s Convent) i Waihī, e tata atu rā ki Tokaanu. Kātahi anō ia ka pakeke ka tīmata tana mahi mai i ngā pāmu me ngā ngahere hoki o tōna iwi. I Tokaanu, i te 27 o Hānuere o te tau 1941, i mārenatia e Hepi (he taraiwa taraka tana mahi i taua wā) a Pauline Hinepoto (Tuutu) Te Moanapāpaku, ko ia rā te tamāhine a Rangihīroa rāua ko Hōrina Te Moanapāpaku. Nō ngā iwi o Ngāti Tūwharetoa me Ngāti Maru a Pauline; ā pau noa ōna rā, noho ai ia hei taituarā mō ngā mahi a tana hoa rangatira. Tokoono ā rāua tamariki.

Nō muri i te matenga atu o tōna matua i te 27 o Āperira o te tau 1944, me te tangihanga ki a ia i Waihī i ngā rā tīmata ake o Mei, i āta tohua e Kīngi Korokī a Hepi ki tōna tūranga. Nō te paunga atu o taua tau, i mātua kitea ia e taki hautū ana, i tana kore e whakaae ki te karanga a ngā mema Pāremata Māori kia haere atu ki tā rātau hui i Pōneke, haere kē ana ia ki tētehi hui i Ngāruawāhia, toru mano te nui o ngā rangatira me ngā māngai ā-iwi i taua hui. Pau ana i a ia ōna tau tuatahi e whakatōpū, e whakapakari ana i te whai hua a te iwi, arā, he mahi pāmu, mahi ngahere te mahi. Nō te tau 1956, i whakanōhia a Hepi Te Heuheu hei heamana mō te Poari Kaitiaki o Tūwharetoa; ā mate noa ia e mau tonu ana taua tūranga.

Nā tōna pai ki te ārahi i tōna iwi, i puta ai ko Tūwharetoa tētehi o ngā iwi tino kaha, tino whakarawe puta noa i Aotearoa. Ko te take i pēnei ai, he mea tuku atu e rātau mā ngā kaporeihana papa rākau e whakahaere ngā mahi; nā te mahi pēnei i whiwhi ai ngā kaiwhiwhi Māori i te uara tika mō ngā papa rākau, ā, i tua atu i tēnā he mea whakangao atu hoki ngā hua ki ngā whare, ki ētehi atu tūmomo mahi moni rānei. I kaha tonu a Hepi Te Heuheu ki te karapoti i a ia ki ngā tohunga tohutohu, ko tētehi tonu ko Pei Te Hurinui Jones, he matatau nei ia ki te whakatūtū kaporeihana whai hua kē nei, he mea whakatū rā e ia ki te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui i ngā tau tōmuri atu o te tekau tau atu i 1940. I te tekau tau atu i 1960, i whakawhitiwhiti kōrero a Hepi Te Heuheu me te kāwanatanga mō te tāone o Tūrangi e whakaarotia nei kia whakatūria, ā, pērā anō hoki mō te teihana hiko ā-wai e meinga nei ki Tongariro, me te kōrerorero anō hoki mō te āhua o ngā whenua ngahere me ngā rāhui roto.

I tua atu i tana tūranga hei tumuaki mō te Poari Kaitiaki o Tūwharetoa, ko ia anō te heamana o ngā kaitiaki ngahere o Te Roto-a-Ira (Lake Rotoaira), o te ngahere o Te Roto-a-Ira (Rotoaira Forest), o Tauranga–Taupō, o te rae o Motutere (Motutere Point), me Taupō Moana; ko ia anō hoki te heamana o te komiti ā-iwi o Tūrumakina (Tūrumakina Tribal Committee) me te komiti tohutohu o te takiwā o Aotea (Aotea District Land Advisory Committee). Ko ana mahi whānui kē atu, ko tana noho hei mema mō te Kāhui o Hoani (St John Ambulance Association), mō te Poari o te Rohe Tāpui ā-Iwi o Tongariro (Tongariro National Park Board), me te Poari Kaitiaki o Waitangi mō te Motu (Waitangi National Trust Board), otirā, i tēnei tūranga ko ia ake te kanohi o te Kuini Māori. Ūhia ana ia ki te tohu KBE i te rārangi pānui hōnore o te tau hou o te tau 1979. Hāunga rā i ngā wā e wātea ana a ia, he pārekareka ki a ia te hī taraute.

Kia tae nei ki ngā take tōrangapū, i whai tonu a Hepi Te Heuheu i te tikanga tuku iho a tōna whānau, arā, kia pūmau tonu te mana motuhake o te Māori, me te tino rangatiratanga anō hoki. I ngā tau 1985 me 1986 nāna ka tū te kotahitanga o ngā mana Māori (Federation of Māori Authorities), ko ia nei te heamana tuatahi; waihoki ko te mahi a te rōpū, he whakapai ake i te momo whakahaere i ngā whenua Māori me ngā hua e tika kē ana te puta ake. Hei tā ētehi, ko te mahi tino nui rawa atu o ngā mahi katoa i tutuki i a ia, ko tana mahi ki te ārahi atu i tētehi rōpū ki te kite i te Pirimia, i a David Lange i te tau 1985, ki te kimi i tētehi huarahi hei tautiaki mai i ngā pānga o te iwi Māori e mau nei i raro i te ture hinonga kāwanatanga. Nā te whakaurunga atu o ngā wāhanga anō ki te ture e tautiaki ana i ngā whanonga pono o te Tiriti o Waitangi, i tareka ai te whakataunga ā-ture whakahirahira e te Kōti Pīra (Court of Appeal) o Aotearoa mō te take nei i te tau 1987.

I te tau 1989, nā runga tonu i te maha o ngā tono mai a ngā iwi kia hangaia tētehi rōpū motuhake Māori hei kawe atu i ngā take Māori a te motu, i karangatia e Hepi Te Heuheu he hui ki Taupō-nui-a-Tia. He mea tono e ia he wāhine tokorua nei hei noho ki tōna taha, arā, ko te Arikinui, ko Te Ātairangikaahu, rāua ko Te Reo Hura, ko ia te Tumuaki o te Hāhi Rātana. Otirā, nā te tokotoru anō nei hoki i karanga te mea tuarua, tuatoru atu o ngā hui, i te mutunga mai ka tū ko te rōpū o te Whakakotahitanga o ngā Iwi o Aotearoa (National Māori Congress). I te tīmatanga, i hono katoa mai ngā iwi nui o Aotearoa ki te rōpū whakakotahitanga nei, me tā rātau tautoko anō i te kaupapa mana motuhake. I raro i te whakahaere a Hepi Te Heuheu, i tutuki ngā kaupapa nei, arā, kia mau tonu ngā tūru Māori i te Whare Pāremata ka tahi, me te whakanui ake i te maha o ngā tūru Māori ka rua. I tua atu i tēnā, i ātetetia e te whakakotahitanga nei te Ture mō ngā Rūnanga Iwi (Rūnanga Iwi Act) o 1990, e mea nei ki te whakature i te tuakiri o ngā iwi. Ki tō rātau whakaaro, he mahi whakakōpekapeka noa tēnei, arā, i te mutunga mai ka noho rangatira kē ko te Karauna.

Kia tata rawa te pau o ōna rā, i mārakerake te kitea atu o te aweawenga o Hepi Te Heuheu e te ao tōrangapū. Otirā, nō Tīhema o te tau 1994, i pānuitia e te kāwanatanga te momo whakatau ōna i ngā kerēme tiriti tuku iho, e ai ki tētehi pūtea anā noa iho te rahi ka mutu, inarā, kāore e neke atu i te kotahi piriona tāra te moni hei whakatutuki i ngā kerēme katoa, mō te wā tekau tau noa te roa. Pōwhiritia ake ana e te Pirimia, e Jim Bolger, he rōpū kaiārahi matua Māori kia haere ake ki Pōneke ki te whiriwhiri i te take nei. He mea whakapeka tūmatanui e Te Heuheu te tono mai a te Pirimia i a ia, ā, karanga kētia ana e ia ngā rangatira ā-iwi me nga māngai o ngā rōpū Māori, kia hui tahi mai rātau ki te marae o Hīrangi e tata ana ki Tūrangi, nō te 29 o Hānuere o te tau 1995 i hui ai. Kotahi mano pea te nui o ngā kaiārahi, māngai hoki i tae ake, arā, ki te mea tuatahi o āna hui, me tērā anō o Hepetema o te tau 1995, tae atu ki te mea tuatoru o Āperira o te tau 1996.

I tāna kōrero tuatahi i te hui i Hīrangi, ka mea a Tā Hepi, kua mutu te whakaae noa a te iwi Māori ki ngā kaupapa he mea hanga noa e te kāwanatanga anake, ā, i tua atu i tēnā, tae noa ki te wā e whai kaupapa ture rawa a Aotearoa kia āhei ai te Māori ki te whakatakoto kaupapa mōna ake, ka pupū tonu te āwangawanga, ka pūmau tonu hoki te tūkino. Ahakoa i ātetetia e ētehi tāngata tōna whakaaro mō te āhua o te whakakotahitanga ki tā ngā tikanga tuku iho, ko te mea whakaatu kē mai a te hui i Hīrangi, nā te mana ake o Tā Hēpi Te Heuheu i taea te whakakotahi mai te iwi Māori, me he kaupapa nui te kaupapa rā. Me te mea anō, e kore e tareka e te kāwanatanga te whakatakoto kaupapa taha kotahi, me he take nui ki te iwi Māori. Kāti koa, i kitea anō hoki ko ngā take e pā ana ki te kaupapa ture o Aotearoa te pūtake o te nanu o te iwi Māori.

I ōna tau whakamutunga, ka paheke haere te hauora o Hepi Te Heuheu, ka pāngia nei ia e te matehuka me ōna pōauautanga. Nō te 31 o Hūrae o te tau 1997, i mate ia i te hōhipera o Taupō. Ka mahue mai ko tana pouaru, ko Pauline (nō Ākuhata o te tau 1998 i mate ai) me ā rāua tamariki. Muia ana te marae o Waihī i tōna tangihanga e te nui o te Māori me ko wai atu hoki o te hunga hautū o Aotearoa. I te kōrerotanga a Tā Robert Mahuta – ko te waha kōrero rā ia o te Kuini Māori – ka kī a ia, nā Te Heuheu i whakaata te momo mau ake i te mana Māori tūturu, inarā, ko ia nei te tangata mārie, whakamōwai, hei aha māna te pākiwaha. I muri iho o te nehunga o Hepi Te Heuheu ki Waihī, ka meinga ko tana mātāmua, ko Tumu hei piki tūranga mōna, he mea tohu nei a ia ki tōna tūranga hei ariki e te Arikinui, e Te Ātairangikaahu.

Ko tō Hepi Te Heuheu momo whakahaere i te mahi, he whakahauhau, he whakamana i a wai noa hei whakatau whakaaro, ā, noho ake ana ia hei haumi kē me ka mōrearea, kua kore rānei e haere te mahi. Ki tōna whakaaro, me ngāwari noa ngā mahi, ā, me kaha hoki te tiaki i ngā taonga tuku iho mā ngā reanga e pihi ake nei. Nā tēnei āhua hoki, me te ngāwari o tana haere i waenganui i tōna iwi – hoa mai, rangatira mai – i kaingākaunuitia a ia e te tangata Māori. Kitea ake ana hoki tōna mana e te maha noa o ngā tāngata o Aotearoa, he mea mīharo kē nei ki a rātau tana hanga tū, hanga rangatira.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Durie, M. H. Te mana, te kawanatanga. Wellington, 1998

    Gardiner, W. Return to sender. Auckland, 1996

    Greenfield, J. R. From dust and ashes. Taupo, 1996

    Obit. Evening Post. 7 Aug. 1997: 7

    Obit. Mana No 18 (Oct.–Nov. 1997): 6

    Roberts, J. H. Alternative vision: he moemoea ano. Wellington, 1996


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Alex Frame. 'Te Heuheu Tūkino VII, Hepi Hoani', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 2000. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/5t8/te-heuheu-tukino-vii-hepi-hoani (accessed 22 November 2019)