Kōrero: Te Tau, Katarina Kuini Whare-rau-aruhe

Whārangi 1: Haurongo

Te Tau, Katarina Kuini Whare-rau-aruhe

1899–1998

Nō Ngāi Tahu; he kaiārahi, he kaimahi toko i te ora, he poutoko iwi

I tuhia tēnei haurongo e Angela Ballara and Katarina Te Tau,, ā, i tāngia tuatahitia ki Ngā Tāngata Taumata Rau Ko te wāhanga , 2000.

I whānau a Katarina Kuini Wharerauaruhe Erihana (Ellison) i Puketeraki i te taha raki o Ōtepoti (Dunedin) i te 29 o Tīhema o te tau 1899. Ko ōna mātua, ko Hoani (John) Matapura Erihana rāua ko tana wahine, ko Hera Parata, he uri ngātahi nō Ngāi Tahu, arā, ko Ngāi Te Ruahikihiki me Ngāti Moki ō rāua tino hapū. He tangata whai raihana kaiwhakamārama reo a Hoani, ā, ahakoa tana ako i te ture, i whai kē ia i te ahu whenua hei oranga mōna. Ko ia tētahi o ngā tamariki tekau mā rua a Rāniera (Daniel) Tāheke Erihana rāua ko tana wahine, ko Hana Wēra (Nani Weller). Ko ngā mātua o Rāniera ko Thomas Ellison – he kaipatu tohorā nō Ingarangi – rāua ko Te Ikairaua, he tamāhine ki a Te Whati, he rangatira nō Te Āti Awa. Hei tamaiti huatahi a Hana Wēra mā Edward Weller, he kaipatu tohorā nō Ōtākou (Otago), rāua ko Nīkuru, te tamāhine a Te Mātenga Taiaroa, arā, ko tōna īngoa e mau mai ana i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Ko te whaea o Kuini ko Hera, hei tamāhine mā Tāme Haereroa Parata, ko ia nei te Mema Pāremata mō Te Tai Tonga atu i te tau 1885 ki te tau 1911. Nō ngā kāwai rangatira o Ngāti Huirapa me ngā tātai anō hoki o Amerika a Tāme. Ko tana hoa wahine he wahine rangatira nō Ngāi Tahu, ko Peti Hurene (Elizabeth Brown) tōna īngoa. He rōia, he tākuta, he minita ngā mātua kēkē o Kuini, nō mai i ngā taha e rua rā o tōna whānau. Nā te mea he whānau waha kawenga, whakatutuki mahi tōna, i tūmanako nuitia a Kuini. I kuraina ia i te kura Māori o Waikouaiti, ā, i riro mai i a ia tana tiwhikete tohu i reira. Heoi anō, he mea kura atu anō hoki ia i te kura tuarua ā-rohe o Kopūtai (Port Chalmers). I te tīmatanga ake o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, kia wātea rā ia ki te āwhina i ngā mahi o te pāmu a tōna whānau i whakamutua e Kuini tana haere ki te kura. Heoi anō i mau tonu tana haere ki ana karaihe puoro i Ōtepoti.

Nō te 22 o Oketopa o te tau 1919 i moea ai e Kuini a Record Te Maari Te Tau, he hōia mōrehu, he tangata mahi pāmu nō Te Wairarapa; ko Reki, inarā, ko Rick, ko Rec kē rānei ōna īngoa kārangaranga. He tama a Reki nā Pūhara Te Tau o Ngāti Hinepare, he hapū nō Ngāti Kahungunu, rāua ko tana wahine, ko Kate Ann Church. Tokorua ngā tama tāne a Kuini rāua ko Reki, ko ō rāua īngoa ko Edward (Ted) Piriniha me Record William Huriwhenua (Huri).

I ngā tau i waenganui i ngā pakanga nui e rua, i mahi ngātahi a Kuini rāua ko Reki i tā rāua pāmu e pātata tonu atu rā ki Whakaoriori (Masterton), ā, i reira i tipu ake ai ā rāua tama. He wahine ngākau nui a Kuini ki ngā mahi tākaro, arā, he wahine purei tēnehi, noho kanohi rawa mai mō tōna rohe o Te Wairarapa mō te tākaro hōkī, ā, nāna anō hoki i tīmata he karapu hōkī mō ngā kōtiro Māori. He pēne kanikani anō tā rātau ko ētahi o tōna whānau – ko Te Tau Melody Makers te īngoa – e waru ngā whakatangitangi. Whakatangitangi ana te pēne nei i ngā mārenatanga, i ngā pō whakangahau me ngā kanikani o te pō o te Hatarei i te hōro o ngā Meihana (Masonic Hall) i Whakaoriori. Otirā, ko ia anō hoki te kaiwhakatangitangi mō te ōkena i te whare karakia o te Hāhi Mihinare mō te wā kāinga. I te paunga i te ahi o te whare nui, o Ngā Tau e Waru i te marae o Te Oreore (Te Ore Ore) i te tau 1939, i āwhina hoki a Kuini i te mahi ki te hanga i tētahi whare nui anō – ko Ngā Tau e Waru Te Tuarua te īngoa – nō te tau 1941 i whakatuwheratia ai.

I te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, he āpiha a Reki mō te ope tautiaki i te haukāinga (Home Guard), ā, i muri i tō rāua ako ngātahi i te arikē a Mōhe (Morse), i uru atu a Kuini hei kaitaraiwa mō te rōpū wāhine tautoko i te ope taua o Aotearoa (Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps). I te tau 1942, kua eke kē ia ki te karangatanga kāpara e whai ana i ngā mahi e piki atu ai te tūranga, tonoa kētia atu ana a ia e Eruera Tirikātene – ko ia nei te Mema Pāremata mō Te Tai Tonga – ki te haere ki te mahi mā te rōpū tautoko i Ngā Mahi Māori mō te Whawhai (Māori War Effort Organisation). Noho mai ana ia hei āpiha takawaenga mō te Tari Māori (Native Department), tiaki ai i te maha o ngā wāhine, kōtiro Māori atu hoki, he mea tono ki Pōneke (Wellington) e te tari o te motu mō ngā whakaritenga ratonga (National Service Department), ka tahuri a ia ki te āwhina ki te whakanohonoho i a rātou ki ngā wheketere mahi ai, me te whakatau anō hoki i te wāhi noho mō rātau ki ngā whare noho. Mahi ngātahi ana rātou ko ngā pirihimana ki te tirotiro haere i ngā wāpu me ngā whare kairau, he tiki atu tā rātou i ngā taitama wāhine kua mau kē nei i te mahi kairautanga, ka whakanoho i a rātou ki ngā wāhi e taea ai rātou te āta tiaki me te kite mahi tōtika mai.

Ko Kuini Te Tau tētahi o ngā āpiha toko i te ora wāhine tuatahi, he mea whakatū i raro i te Ture Toko i te Ora me te Pai mō te Iwi Māori (Māori Social and Economic Advancement Act) o 1945; ko ngā rohe i taka mai ki a ia te whakahaere ko Pōneke me Te Wairarapa. Ko tētahi wāhanga o āna mahi he whakahauhau i ngā wāhine Māori ki te whakatū peka mai mō te Rōpū o te Ora (Women’s Health League). I ngā tau 1950 me 1951, i mahi mai ia i raro i te whakahaere o te tumuaki mō te toko i te ora Māori, i a Rangi Roera (Royal), ā, riro ana nāna i whakatū ngā peka tekau mō te rōpū nei i Te Wairarapa. Nō te tau 1951, i akiākina e ia ngā rōpū nei kia huri kē mai hei peka mō te Rōpū Wāhine Toko i te Ora (Māori Women’s Welfare League), kātahi anō ka whakatūria atu. Otirā, he mema tūāpapa, kaitiaki moni hoki a Kuini mō te rōpū nei. Nā taua rōpū nei i āwhina ai a Kuini i te mahi whakaako i ngā whāea Māori ki te tiaki whare, ki te whakatipu tamariki, ki te whakatipu kai me ērā atu tū mahi hei taupua i a rātou tonu.

I Hune o te tau 1951, arā, i te tononga atu a Rangi Roera i te komiti toko i te ora Māori (Māori Welfare Committee) o Ngāti Pōneke kia noho hei manawapou mō te peka o Pōneke o te Rōpū Wāhine Toko i te Ora, i tohua e ia ko Kuini hei āwhina i a rātou. I taua wā, e mahi ana a Reki i Pōneke, arā, he hanga whare nei tana mahi mō te Tari Māori (Department of Māori Affairs); heoi anō, i mau tonu ngā here o te whānau ki Whakaoriori, arā, ia pō Paraire hoki atu ai mā runga i te tereina ki te kāinga. Ko tētahi wāhanga o tana kaupapa mahi mō te Rōpū Wāhine Toko i te Ora, he whakahaere i te mahi tukutuku mō te Whare Karakia o Matiu (St Mathew’s Church) i Whakaoriori. Otirā, he mea āwhina ia e Wiremu Paaka (Bill Parker), i haere ake rā ia i Pōneke ki te ako i a rātou kia tohunga ki tēnei tū mahi. I ēnei tau anō, i whakatipua ake e ia te mea wahine mātāmua o āna mokopuna.

Nō te tau 1959 i tukua e Kuini tana tūranga mahi mō te Tari Māori, pai ake i te whakaneke atu i a ia ki Te Papa-i-ōia (Palmerston North). Noho mahi kē mai ana ia hei tumuaki mō te Whare o Fareham i Kaiwaewae (Featherston), arā, he kāinga noho tēnei mō ngā taitama wāhine tauhara, he mea tono atu ki reira e te Tari Tiaki Tamariki (Child Welfare Division). I te takiwā o ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1960, i tana whakatānga mai i tana mahi, whakatipua ake ana e ia tana mokopuna tāne, ā, nō muri mai i whāngaia e ia te tamāhine a taua mokopuna rā. He mea hanga anō hoki e rāua ko Reki tētahi kōpuha mō rāua ki Motuwaireka (Riversdale Beach), ā, kāre he mutunga mai o te pārekareka ki a ia o tēnei mahi āna o te ruku kōura, ruku mātaitai hoki. Nāna anō hoki i āwhina te mahi whakahou ake i te whare nui nei, i a Nukutaimemeha, me te haringa atu o taua whare i Katatāone (Carterton) ki Whakaoriori. Nō te tau 1975 i whakawhiwhia a ia ki te mētara hiranga o te Emepaea o Peretānia (BEM), he tohu nei mō āna mahi mō te hapori. Nō te 17 o Tīhema o taua tau anō i mate ai a Reki.

Nō taua takiwā anō, i tīmata ake te whakahaere a Kuini i ngā mahi hapori a te hunga kōtiro i Whakaoreore, he hara iti nō rātou i whiua ai e te ture. Nā Kuini rātou i ako ki te mahi taka kai, ki te tuitui kaka ā-mīhini me te mahi kāri ā-whare. Nā te mea he wahine ngahau, wahine pārekareka tōna ngākau, i tino tōtika āna mahi mā ngā tamariki. Kīhai ia i whakaparahako i te hunga hara, ēngari whai kē ana ia ki te whakakaha i a rātou ki te tiaki tonu i a rātou. I te tekau tau atu i 1980 i takia ake anō e ia te mahi kawe kai atu mā runga wīra (Meals on Wheels), ā, he nui ngā tāngata e hari kai atu ana ia he tamariki kē atu i a ia. I noho tonu ia i taua mahi tae noa ki tana taikuiatanga, arā, ka kore ia e kaha ki te taraiwa, ka mutu mai tana mahi.

I ana tau o muri mai, ahakoa i hea a ia, ko tana mokopuna tuatoru ko Katarina tonu i tana taha. He mea āwhina a ia e tana mokopuna ki te kato i ana hua rākau, tiaki mai hoki i tana uru huarākau me ana kāri whakatipu otaota, whakatipu putiputi. He maha ngā pounamu tiamu, pounamu huarākau i mahia e Kuini, inarā, hei hoatu māna ki tōna whānau me ana manuhiri. Ora roa ake ana ia i te maha noa o ōna uri, otirā, i te matenga atu he mea whakatipu rawa e ia tētahi tipu rōhi mā tēnā, mā tēna, ā, i tōna wehenga atu, taiāwhio katoatia ana tana papa karaihe e te rōhi.

Nō te tau 1992 i whakawhiwhia a Kuini Te Tau ki te tohu mō te ratonga pai (Order of Meritorious Service) o te Hāhi Mihinare, ā, nō te tau 1993 i ūhia ia ki te mētara mō te rau tau o te take pōti wāhine o Aotearoa (New Zealand Suffrage Centennial Medal). Nō taua wā anō i whai wāhi atu ia ki tētahi pakipūmeka, ko The nineties te īngoa, he whakaatu nei i te āhua o Aotearoa, i puta ake rā i ngā pūmaharatanga o ētahi wāhine tokowhitu nei. Whakarare ai i a ia te āhua o tōna rangatiratanga tuku iho me te āhua anō o tōna tūranga: inarā, tumeke ana ia i tana taikuiatanga kua wahine hiranga kē nei ia mō Ngāi Tahu, i te karangatanga i a ia hei kaiwhakaatu mō tā rātou kerēme ki mua i te aroaro o te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi (Waitangi Tribunal). Iwa tekau mā waru tōna pakeke ka mate mai a Kuini Te Tau i tana kāinga i Whakaoreore i te 8 o Maehe o te tau 1998, ka whai atu nei ia i ana tama tokorua nō mua atu i mate ai. Mō te pō kotahi i takoto a ia i Nukutaimemeha, kātahi ka haria atu ki te marae o Te Oreore. He mea whakahaere te karakia nehu i a Kuini i te Whare Karakia o Matiu, ka mutu, ka tanumia ōna pungarehu i te taha o Reki i te wāhanga hōia o te urupā o Whakaoriori. I Oketopa o taua tau i tangihia anō ia i Ōtepoti.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara and Katarina Te Tau. 'Te Tau, Katarina Kuini Whare-rau-aruhe', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 2000. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/5t10/te-tau-katarina-kuini-whare-rau-aruhe (accessed 21 October 2019)