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Te Kahui Kararehe, Wiremu

by Ailsa Smith

Biography

E ora ana a Te Kāhui Kararehe i te wā e tino pāhekeheke rawa atu ana te noho tahi a te Pākehā rāua ko te Māori. Ko Te Ahoroa pā i Pungaereere te wāhi i whānau mai ai a ia i te 14 o Hānuere 1846. Ko Te Kāhui te mātāmua o ngā tama a Minarapa Rangihatuake i ora. Ko Taapu Minarapa tētehi o ngā īngoa o Minarapa. I heke mai a ia i ngā kāwai hapū o Taranaki, i a Puketoretore me Ngāti Haupoto. He uri te ūkaipō o Te Kāhui, a Rīpeka Marereawheturi, nō Ngāti Ruanui me Taranaki. Nā tana matua i hoatu a Wiremu hei īngoa iriiri mōna. Arā tana matua i te pā o Te Aro i Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington) e mahi ana hei kaikauwhau Māori mō te Hāhi Wēteriana, tae noa ki te tau 1842. Ka mutu i reira, kātahi ka hoki ki Te Ahoroa ki te kauwhau i te Rongopai ki tōna iwi.

I mōhio hoki a Te Kāhui ki ngā mamaetanga i pā ki te tini o ngā Māori o Taranaki i mua i te paunga o te rau tau 1800–1899. O ngā tamariki tokowaru o tōna whānau, ko rātou anake ko tana tuahine, ko Rongotuhiata, me ōna tēina tokotoru (me Mane Tūkōkiri, me Karira Te Kawau Urupā, ā, me Taurua Pororaite Minarapa) i ora ā pakeke noa. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1870 ka tangohia a Reremoana, te īngoa o tētehi o ōna tuākana i mate, hei īngoa mōna, ā, nō muri mai ka tukua atu e ia taua īngoa ki runga i te mea pakeke o ana tama i ora.

Nā ngā tauheke o tōna iwi a Te Kāhui i tohutohu ki ngā toi tuku iho o Taranaki i te wā o tōna whanaketanga. Ko ētehi o aua tauheke nei ko Arama Karaka Te Raeuaua, ko Waitere Kōngutuawa me Minarapa Rangihatuake. Ko rātou ko ōna whanaunga o Taranaki i haere tahi me Te Whiti-o-Rongomai rāua ko Tohu Kākahi hei apataki mā Te Ua Haumēne i ngā pakanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860. He taiohi, 18 noa iho ngā tau, ka noho a Te Kāhui hei kaihāpai i te haki a Te Ua i te riri o Kaitake. Nō te marama o muri mai ko ia tētehi i reira i te āpititanga a te Hauhau i Te Mōrere (Sentry Hill).

I te mutunga o ngā riri i Taranaki, arā a Te Kāhui i Te Namu pā e noho ana mō tētehi wā, ā, e akona ana e Arama Karaka Te Raeuaua rāua ko Wiremu Kīngi Te Matakātea. I whiwhi mahi rātou ko ētehi o tōna hapū i te mira harakeke o Ōpunake, i runga hoki i ngā mahi tūmatanui a te kāwanatanga, ā, i mōhio ki a Te Pāriha (Robert Parris) rāua ko Te Mete (Percy Smith) i te wā e hangaia atu ana te huarahi i Umuroa ki Waingongoro. Ko ngā hua pai i puta ake i ngā pūmanawa i mau i a ia i taua wā nei, i whakamahia e Te Kāhui i te tau 1885, i tā rātou hanganga ko tana hapū i tētehi huarahi i runga i te whenua nā te Karauna i tuku mō rātou i Rāhotu kāinga, e pātata ana ki Parihaka.

He pēnei nā ngā kōrero mō Te Kāhui: arā, he tangata purotu, he hinengaro kakama, he hihiri, he ngāwari me te pātari o te tangi o te reo, ā, he arero reka ki te whakawhere. I ana torotoronga atu ki Parihaka, ka tūtaki ia ki a Rīria (Lydia) Tinirongoā Holder (i ngā tau o muri mai ka karangatia ko Te Aomaangi). Nō te tau 1873, ahakoa kua oti kē rāua te taumau ki ētehi atu, ka whakarērea e rāua taua tikanga, kātahi ka oma. Mō tēnei mahi a rāua ki te tinihanga i ngā hiahia o ngā tauheke o te iwi, ā, i runga anō i ngā tikanga tuku iho, ka maranga mai ngā taua muru o ngā pā e karapoti ana i Te Namu, kātahi ka pāhuatia te katoa o ngā taonga a Te Kāhui me tōna hapū. Nō muri tata tonu iho, ka neke rātou ko tōna whānau me tana apataki ki Rāhotu.

I te tekau tau atu i 1870 ko Te Kāhui te kaituhi mō ngā hui i tū ki Parihaka. Ko tāna tino mahi he tiritiri haere i ngā whaikōrero a ngā kaiārahi tokorua nei, a Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti. Nā te mea i roto ia i te mātotorutanga o ngā mahi tōrangapū, koia tērā te take i tae atu ai rātou ko ētehi o ngā rangatira o Parihaka ki te hui a Tā Hōri Kerei (George Grey), i tū ki Waitara i te Hune o 1878. I te 4 o Hepetema o te tau 1880 ko ia tētehi o te rōpū nui o te apataki a Tohu i mau hereheretia i raro i te Ture Whakatau mō te Tai Hauāuru (Aotearoa) (West Coast Settlement (North Island) Act) o 1880, mō te whakatū taiepa e whakawhiti ana i te ara i waho o Parihaka. Ka whiua e te ture kia whakapaua e ia ōna werawera ki te mahi mō ngā tau e rua i roto i tētehi whare herehere i Te Waipounamu. E whā marama noa iho i reira ka whakahokia ki te kāinga i te Hānuere o 1881 nā runga i tōna pānga e te māuiui.

Nō muri i te huakitanga o Parihaka e Te Paraihe (John Bryce) i te Noema o 1881, ka mahi a Te Kāhui i roto i te anga o te ture Pākehā ki te āwhina i ngā Māori o te takiwā whenua muru o Taranaki. Nāna i tuku tētehi whenua i Rāhotu hei tūnga kura i te tau 1884. Nō Hune o te tau 1885, ka whakatūria a ia hei āteha mō te Kōti Whenua Māori, ā, ko taua kōti nei te wāhi i kaha ai tana mahi kia whakahokia atu ngā whenua i Waitōtara ki Mōkau, nō ngā hapū maha o te takiwā e taka ana ki raro i tōna awe. Ko te Āperira o 1891 te wā i tū ai ia ki te aroaro o te Kōmihana mō ngā Ture Whenua Māori (Native Land Laws Commission), ki te totohe i te mana o ngā Māori kaipupuri whenua ki te rīhi hāngai atu ki te Pākehā, tēnā i te rīhi mā roto mai i te kaitiaki ā-iwi, ēngari kīhai i tutuki. I te Hepetema o 1896, ka tukua atu e ia he reta ki a Hōne Heke Ngāpua, te mema Pāremata mō te rohe Māori o Te Tai Tokerau. E pā ana taua reta ki te petihana a J. J. Elwin me ōna hoa kaihaina e 272 te tokomaha e kī ana, arā, me tuku kē mā te Poari Whenua o te rohe e whakahaere ngā whenua kua oti i te kaitiaki ā-iwi te tango rīhi. Nō te tau 1890, ka tū ia hei kaiwhakauru mō te tūru Māori o Te Tai Hauāuru, ēngari kīhai i momoho. Nō te pōti nui o Tīhema 1896, ka whakamātau anō ia ki te whakataetae ki a Hēnare Kaihau mō taua tūru.

He nui tonu te wā nā Te Kāhui i whakapau ki te tuhi i ōna toi tino whānui tonu e pā ana ki ngā take o Taranaki iwi, i te tekau tau atu i 1890. Inā kē te rahi o te whakapipinga reta nāna i tuhi ki a Te Mete, ā, nā tērā i tuhi ētehi o aua tuhinga ki te Journal of the Polynesian Society. Ko ētehi o aua whakamōhiotanga atu a Te Kāhui he mea tā nā Te Mete ki tana pukapuka e pā ana ki ngā tāhuhu kōrero mō ngā Māori o Taranaki. He tino whānui rawa atu te mōhio o Te Kāhui ki ngā tikanga ā-iwi o Taranaki me te rerenga kētanga o te whakahua o te reo o tētehi iwi i tō tētehi atu. He mahara nōna i ngā wā katoa ki ngā rerenga kētanga e pā ana ki ngā kōrero a tēnā, a tēnā mō ngā tikanga ā-iwi, koirā te take i akiaki ai ia kia whakariteritea e Te Mete aua whakamōhiotanga āna ki ā ētehi atu. He mea ātete nāna te tono a Te Mete kia uru atu ia hei mema mō te Rōpū Porinihiana (Polynesian Society), otirā, i whakaae ki te noho hei kaitakawaenga mō Te Mete ki a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu.

Nā te mahara tonu ōna ki te oranga o te iwi kāinga, i hangaia ai e ia ētehi wāhi kaukau waiariki i Rāhotu i te hōtoke o 1902, nāna tonu i whakahaere. Ka tau ki te tau 1904, ka tono reta atu a Te Kāhui ki a Te Rangi Hīroa (Peter Buck), e inoi ana ki tērā kia haere atu hei tākuta mō rātou, me tētehi tāpaetanga ki te whakatū i ētehi whare hauora mōna i Rāhotu me Ōkato. He tino hira rawa atu ngā take hauora ki a rāua tahi ko Rīria, nā te mea, o ngā tamariki tokoiwa i puta ki a rāua, tokotoru noa iho ngā tama i ora ā pakeke noa (ko Reremoana, ko Riki me Tuiau). Tokowhā ngā tama me te tamāhine kotahi i katohia e te mate urutā, koia tērā te take i tangohia ai e Te Kāhui a Poukōhatu (he kōhatu whakamaumaharatanga) hei īngoa mōna. Ko tētehi o ana tamariki, ko Te Kaea, he wahine, i hinga i te tau o muri mai i te matenga o Te Kāhui i te 7 o Hepetema 1904. Nō te Hānuere o 1931 rā anō a Rīria ka mate, ā, i nehua ki te taha o tana tāne i Rāhotu.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Broughton, R. Ko ngaa tuhituhi a Te Kaahui Kararehe o Taranaki ki a Te Mete, 1893--1906. Wellington, 1984

    'The great muru'. Journal of the Polynesian Society 28, No 2 (June 1919): 97--102

    Obit. Te Pipiwharauroa No 80 (Oct. 1904): 7

    Polynesian Society. Papers. MS Papers 1187. WTU


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ailsa Smith. 'Te Kāhui Kararehe, Wiremu', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3t14/te-kahui-kararehe-wiremu (accessed 20 November 2019)