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Te Matakātea, Wiremu Kīngi Moki

by Ian Church

Biography

He ariki ihorei a Te Matakātea nō Ngāti Haumiti, karangatanga hapū o te iwi Taranaki. Nōna ka whānau, ki Taranaki pea, i ngā tau tīmatanga o te rau tau 1800–1899, ka mōhiotia tōna īngoa ko Moki. Nō ngā tau e rua tekau mai i 1820, i mau ia ki roto i ngā whawhai o tana iwi, e ārai atu ana i ngā takatakahanga a Waikato. Nō muri i te toanga o Waikato i Maru, i te take o Taranaki i te tau 1826, ka riro ko ia hei rangatira mō ngā tāngata 120, me ā rātou whānau. E noho ana rātou i raro i te maru o Te Namu, he wāhi e tata ana ki Ōpunake, i te hekenga o ngā mōrehu o Taranaki ki Kapiti i te tau 1827. I whiwhi pū ai a Moki rātou ko tana iwi, nā ngā Pākehā hoko harakeke kua whakanoho ki Ngāmotu i te tau 1828. He wāhi e tata ana ki Nū Pāremata (New Plymouth) o nāianei. I te karapotitanga a Waikato i a Te Namu i te tau 1833, ka kitea te tau o Moki ki te mau pū, kātahi ka kārangarangatia ia ko Te Matakātea, arā, ko te kanohi torotika. Ka hoki whakamuri a Waikato; kāti kua kite kē a Te Matakātea, he whakatā tēnei mō te wā poto noa iho. Kātahi ka ārahina tana iwi ki ētahi pā e toru, kāore i tino tawhiti atu i te kōngutu awa o Kapuni, i te rohe o ana whanaunga o Ngāti Ruanui.

Kātahi ka uru a Te Matakātea ki ētahi raruraru rerekē noa atu. I te paenga o te kaipuke a te Harriet, i te Ikaroa (Cape Egmont) i Āperire o te tau 1834, ka tautohetohe ngā tāngata o te kaipuke me te tangata whenua. E waru ngā rā i muri o te paenga, ka tae atu a Te Matakātea i te awa o Kapuni, ka manaakitia a Betty Guard rātou ko ana tamariki ririki e rua. Nō te hokinga mai o te Alligator me te Isabella i New South Wales, ki te tiki mai i a rātou, ka tahuna a Te Namu ki te ahi. Hei whakamahea i ngā whakaaro, ka pūhia a Waimate ki te matā; ko tētahi tēnei o ngā pā i te awa o Kapuni.

Nō te hokinga mai o te ope taua o Waikato i te tau 1836, e ārahina ana e Te Wherowhero rāua ko Te Wahanui. Ka whakahuihuitia e Te Matakātea ngā mōrehu o Ngāti Ruanui tae atu ki tana whanaunga tata, ki a Hukunui Manaia ki te pā o Waimate, ka mutu, 350 ngā tāngata o te ope nāna i ārahi. Ka kōkiritia a Waikato kia whakamātauhia tō rātou kaha; ka hinga i a ia he rangatira ko Te Waka te īngoa. He mea titi te māhunga ki te pou o te pā. Nō te whakaekenga o Waikato, ka pūhia e ia tō rātou rangatira a Taipuhi; ko tō rātou hokinga whakamuri tērā. Nā ana puhipuhinga i te aonga ake o te rā, ka hoki whakamuri anō te hoariri, kātahi ka taki whawhai i waho atu o te pā. Kei mau ai a Te Rei Hanataua, te tino rangatira o Ngāti Ruanui. Nō te hemonga rawa kē o ngā toa e 60, tae atu ki ngā rangatira e waru, kātahi anō a Waikato ka hoki. E ai ki tētahi kōrero, nō muri o tēnei pakanga, ka hohouhia te rongo e Te Matakātea rāua ko Te Wherowhero.

Ko Te Matakātea tētahi o ngā rangatira o Taranaki i haere ki te āwhina i Ngā Rauru i te Ākuhata o te tau 1840. Ka werohia ngā iwi o Taranaki e Iwikau Te Heuheu Tūkino III, te rangatira o Ngāti Tūwharetoa. E noho āwhina ana a Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi o Whanganui i a Taranaki me te tohutohu atu o ēnei ki a Ngāti Tūwharetoa kia kaua e whawhai. Kātahi a Iwikau ka whakanoho i te pā mahue o Pātoka e tata ana ki Waitōtara. Nā te mea e werohia ana a Te Matakātea kia pakanga rātou, ka noho ia ki Te Ihupuku. I tāorotia a Ngāti Tūwharetoa; ka mate a Tauteka i a Te Matakātea; he rangatira nui tēnei. Ka kāwhakina e ia ētahi wāhine o Ngāti Tūwharetoa; ā, nō te whakaratanga ka tukuna. Ka patua a Kereopa rāua ko Te Mānihera, he mihingare nō Taranaki, i te tau 1847; ka ea tēnā mate.

Tae rawa ki te tau 1841, kua hoki kē a Te Matakātea ki Te Namu ki te kāinga i iriiria ia, e te minita, e John Mason i te 24 o Oketopa; tango tonu ia hei īngoa mōna ko Wiremu Kīngi. Nō te tau o muri mai, nō te 25 o Ākuhata, i iriiria e Mason tētahi Wiremu T. Matakātea anō; ko te whakaaro he tama tēnei nā tērā. Nō te hokinga mai o te āiotanga, ka hoki a Te Matakātea ki uta ki te kāinga o Umuroa; e whakatupu witi ana tana iwi i reira, ka mutu, ka whakangakungakutia hei parāoa i roto i ngā mira pīkau haere. I tīmata a Te Matakātea ki te whakawhitiwhiti kōrero mō te hanga mira mahi parāoa i Ākuhata o 1852. Hou rawa ake ki te tau 1855, kua tū tana toa i Umuroa. Nō te tīmatanga o te tau 1857 e hanga huarahi ana ia mā waenganui o tana rohe. Ka puta ngā hua o ana witi me ana rīwai, ka whakatūria e ia he kāreti ki Umuroa mō ngā tamariki e 400.

I mau atu a Te Matakātea ki roto i ngā riri i tīmata i Taranaki i te tau 1860. He whanaunga nōna a Te Waitere Kātātore, tētahi o te hunga tautohe i te riri o Puketapu i ara ake i runga i te hoko whenua i te tau 1854. Nā runga i te kōhurutanga o Kātātore i Hānuere o 1858, ka piri atu a Te Matakātea ki a Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke i te karapotitanga o te pā o Te Karaka i te awa o Waitara; nō Hūrae, nō te tukunga o Īhāia Te Kirikūmara kia rere ana, ka tahuna te pā. Ka pakaru te riri i Waitara, ka ārahina e Te Matakātea tana ope taua ki te pā o Kaipopo, i Waireka, i raru ai rātou i te pakanga i reira i te 28 o Maehe 1860.

Nō waenganui o te tau 1862, kua whakahē a Te Matakātea i te Kīngi Māori, kua kore hoki ia i tino paingia e ētahi o ngā iwi o Taranaki. Nō taua tau anō, ka pae te Lord Worsley i Te Namu i te 1 o Hepetema, ka ārahina e ia ngā pāhihi me ngā tāngata whakahaere i te waka ki Nū Pāremata. Ka tukuna, hei koha ki a ia, ngā toenga o te waka me ngā taonga o runga; nō muri nei, ka tukuna mai he poti karekare mōna i Poihākena (Sydney). Kua oati mai a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey), e kore ōna whenua e murua nā tana noho tahanga mai i te pakanga tuarua o Taranaki. Heoi, nō te pakanga a Meiha Tianara Trevor Chute i te tau 1866, ka tahuna e ngā hōia te kāinga o Te Matakātea i Nuku-te-apiapi; nō muri, ka utua ia mō taua tahunga. Ka tae ki te Hepetema o 1866, ka takoto te kōrero a J. C. Richmond, te minita mō ngā take Māori, tērā e whakahokia te whenua 44,000 eka te rahi, mai i Moutoti ki Taungātara ki a Ngāti Haumiti; kāti, kāore tonu te mana o aua whenua i āta whakawhitihia, nō te tekau tau atu i 1880 rā anō.

Ka hui a Te Matakātea rāua ko te tangata a te kāwanatanga, a Te Pāriha (Robert Parris), ki Umuroa i te tau 1867; ka oti te kōrero kia tukuna te 2,000 eka hei tūnga mō te tāone o Ōpunake. Nō te 1865 rawa i noho ai ngā hōia Pākehā ki reira, kua hoatu hoki e Te Matakātea tana poti karekare hei hīnga ika mā rātou. Nō muri, ka apohia noatia iho e te kāwanatanga. I āwhina ia i a Te Pāriha i te tau 1869, ki te hanga i te huarahi rere ai i te takutai moana. Heoi, nō te tekau tau atu i 1870, i tautoko ia i a Te Whiti-o-Rongomai III, ā, nō te tau 1879, ka uru ia ki roto i ngā mahi totohe ki te parau i te whenua i te takiwā ki Manaia. Ka mau hereheretia ia; he kore nōna i whakaae ki tā te minita mō ngā take Māori, a William Rolleston, kia tukuna ia, ka noho ia ki te whare herehere tae noa ki Oketopa o 1880. Ahakoa rā, kāore tēnei raruraru i waiho hei whakapōrearea i te tuaritanga o ngā whakaaetanga ā-pukapuka a te Karauna, ki ngā whenua o tōna iwi. Nō Mei o 1883, ka riro i a Te Matakātea rātou ko ētahi 20 tāngata te whakaaetanga ā-pukapuka ki te whenua, 7,223 eka te nui, mō te hapū o Ngāti Kahumate; ka riro anō i a rātou me te 30 tāngata anō te whakaaetanga ā-pukapuka ki te whenua 6,186 eka te nui mō Ngāti Tamarongo. E rua ēnei poraka i te rohe o Ōpunake.

Ka mate a Wiremu Kīngi Te Matakātea i te 14 o Pēpuere 1893; he toa ki ngā whawhai, kātahi ka uru pū ki te āiotanga.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Houston, J. Maori life in old Taranaki. Wellington, 1965

    Scott, D. Ask that mountain. Auckland, 1975

    Smith, S. P. History and traditions of the Maoris of the West Coast, North Island of New Zealand prior to 1840. New Plymouth, 1910


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ian Church. 'Te Matakātea, Wiremu Kīngi Moki', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t50/te-matakatea-wiremu-kingi-moki (accessed 20 September 2021)