Skip to main content
Logo: Te Ara - The Online Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Print all pages now.

Te Horetā

by Angela Ballara

Biography

Ko tētahi o ngā īngoa o Te Horetā, ko Te Taniwha, he rangatira nō Ngāti Whanaunga nō tētahi o ngā hapū o te huihuinga o te iwi o Marutūāhu o Hauraki me Moehau. Kāore i roto i ngā tuhituhinga ngā īngoa o ōna mātua, ēngari e whakaarotia ana tērā pea i whānau ia i te tau 1757 nō te mea i kōrero ia ki a Kāpene Kuki (James Cook). Tekau mā rua pea ōna tau i tana tūtakitanga ki a Kuki i te ūnga mai o tērā ki Te Whanganui-o-Hei (Mercury Bay) i Noema 1769. I ngā tau i muri mai ka hoki ngā whakaaro o Te Horetā i tana mīharotanga, i tana kitenga i ēnei tāngata hou. I te hokinga oratanga mai o tōna iwi i te Endeavour, ka makere atu te wehi i a ia, ā, ka whakaeke atu rātou ko ngā tamariki, ki runga i taua waka. I maumahara ia ki te pai o Kāpene Kuki ki a ia me ōna hoa. I āhua raruraru ngā whakaaro o Kuki i tana meatanga atu ki ngā tāne kia tuhia ki te raho o tana kaipuke he mapi o te takutai moana. Hei tohu mai taua mapi rā i te huarahi hei whāinga māna, atu i Te Rēinga ā tae noa ki te ao wairua o te Māori i Rarohenga. I hoatu e Kuki e rua kapunga rīwai mā rātou. E ai ki a Te Horetā ko ia nei te tino kōkuhutanga mai o te rīwai ki roto i te rohe o Moehau (Coromandel). I tohua e rātou ngā rīwai hei purapura. E toru tau i muri mai ka tū tā rātou hākari, ā, ko tēnei momo kai hou te kīnaki. Tērā pea i tūtaki anō a Te Horetā ki a Kuki i ngā wiki e rua i te haerenga ake o te Endeavour ki Pārāwai (Thames).

Kāore e kore i roto a Te Horetā i ngā whawhai maha a Ngāti Whanaunga me ngā iwi o Marutūāhu i te wā e whakamutumutu ana te rau tau 1700–1799, tae atu hoki ki te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1800–1899. He tamāhine tā Te Horetā ko Te Tahuri te īngoa. I te tau 1790 kua rite ngā tau o Te Tahuri mō te moe tāne. Kāore i te mōhiotia ko wai te whaea o Te Tahuri, ēngari he hononga ōna ki a Waikato me Ngāti Whātua. Nā ēnei kaireperepe ka uru atu a Te Horetā ki roto i ētahi pakanga i mate ai a Te Tahuri me tana hoa tāne. Tērā pea i roto anō ia i ngā pakanga a Ngāti Pāoa ki a Te Kawerau, he iwi nō te kūititanga i Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland).

I te pokapūtanga o te tekau tau atu i 1790, ka kōhurutia tētahi ngārahu o Ngāti Whanaunga. Nō muri i tēnei ka hiki te waitaua a Ngāti Pāoa, a Ngāti Maru me Ngāti Whanaunga ki te huaki i a Ngāpuhi i Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands). E rua ngā urutomokanga a ngā iwi o Marutūāhu i Pēwhairangi. Ko ngā iwi o Te Rāwhiti, he wāhi tata atu ki Kororāreka (Russell), ērā ka tukia. Ko te tuarua ko Puketona, te pū tonu o Ngāpuhi. I patua kinotia a Ngāpuhi i te pakanga e mōhiotia nei ko Waiwhāriki. He maha ngā tau i muri mai, me kī i te tau 1819, ka ārahina e Korokoro o Te Rāwhiti rāua ko Te Haupā o Ngāti Pāoa, he ope taua hei ngaki i tō rātou matenga i ngā iwi o Moehau. Ka tukia e rātou ētahi o ngā pā o Ngāti Maru tae atu hoki ki ērā o te takiwā ki te tapatapa-aitu o Moehau me ngā iwi hoki o Te Horetā ki te tonga i Waiau. Taka rawa ake ki Hānuere o 1820, kua hoki kē te taua a Korokoro ki Pēwhairangi.

Ko te āhua nei i hono atu a Te Horetā ki te waitaua a Te Morenga i Maehe o 1820 i te hokinga mai o tērā i Tauranga. I heke ake te waitaua a Te Morenga i Taiāmai wāhi o Pēwhairangi ki Tauranga. I te 25 o Mei 1820, ka haere a Te Horetā rāua ko Te Morenga ki te manuao, ko te Dromedary te īngoa, arā, he waka putunga rawa a te taua moana o Peretānia (Great Britain). E tau tata ana ki Waikare, i Pēwhairangi. Tērā pea i whai wāhi a Te Horetā ki te whakamōhio tūturu i a Kāpene Thomas Downie o te Coromandel ki te kimi i ngā rākau kauri e hiahiatia ana hei utanga, i tōna rohe. I reira anō te kaipuke hoa haere o te Dromedary a te Coromandel. Nō te 7 o Hune 1820, ka hoki tahi mai a Te Horetā rātou ko Te Morenga me te mihinare rā a Te Mātenga (Samuel Marsden) mā te Coromandel ki Moehau. I tōna taenga atu ki te kāinga ka kite ia kua whakaekea kētia e Te Haupā a Tāruru, te pā o Te Puhi o Ngāti Maru, e tū tata ana ki te kāinga o Te Horetā. I tae anō a Te Mātenga ki ngā pā e rua nei, ā, ko tana kōrero, he roa, he ātaahua te tokorua nei a Te Puhi me Te Horetā.

Nā Te Horetā i āwhina a Downie ki te whakakao i tana utanga. Nāna i whakaatu te wāhi kei reira ngā tino kauri me ngā urunga ngāwari ki te tiki atu. Ka oti, ka rewa atu a te Coromandel ki Waiau, te kāinga matua o Te Horetā. Nō muri mai ka kīia te wāhi nei ko te whanga o Coromandel. I te whakaputanga a Te Mātenga i tana hiahia ki te haere ki Waikato, ka tonoa e Te Horetā he karere ki te whakamōhio atu i ngā rangatira o Waikato. Heoti, kāore a Te Mātenga i haere nō te mea he kino rawa ngā rangi me te huarahi. I te hokinga mai o Te Mātenga rāua ko Te Morenga i Tauranga, ka whakatutukitia e Te Mātenga tana kī taurangi ki te hohou i te rongo i waenga i a Te Puhi me Te Hīnaki o Ngāti Pāoa. Ahakoa nā Te Mātenga i whakatūtataki ngā tokorua nei, ko Te Horetā rāua ko Te Morenga kē ngā takawaenga. Ko Te Horetā anō te takawaenga hohou i te rongo i waenga i tētahi ariki me tētahi rangatira i whakapaetia he tāhae. Nō Ngāti Pāoa te tokorua nei.

I te ūnga mai o te Dromedary ki te whanga o Waiau i te 23 o Ākuhata, ka eke atu a Te Horetā me tōna iwi ki te raho o te kaipuke. I reira ka puta tā rātou waiata pōwhiri ki te manuhiri. Na, i ngā tukinga mai a Ngāpuhi ka rere ētahi o Ngāti Whanaunga ki uta ki ngā whāruarua huna ai. Nō te putanga mai o te Dromedary ka māia rātou ki te putaputa mai i ō rātou punanga, ā, ka tino manaakitia hoki e rātou tā rātou manuhiri. I te wehenga atu o te Coromandel i Tīhema, ka haere a Te Horetā rātou ko Te Hīnaki me ētahi atu rangatira tokorua ki Poihākena (Sydney), i New South Wales. I reira tonu a Te Horetā ka tae ake a Hongi Hika rāua ko Waikato i Mei o 1821. Arā te tokorua nei i te tāone o Rānana (London) i Ingarangi, ka peka mai nei i mua i te hokinga ki te kāinga. I mea a Te Horetā ki te haere ki Ōropi ēngari nā Hongi rāua ko Waikato i mea kia kaua e haere nā te mea he tawhiti rawa, ā, he tino kino ngā rangi. Ka haukotia e Te Mātenga ngā whakariterite, ka tangohia e ia he tīkiti hei whakahoki i a Te Horetā mā ki Aotearoa mā runga i te kaipuke Westmoreland. Kāore a Te Horetā i pai ki tēnei. Ko tana hiahia kē me tuku ia ki Pārāwai, he wehi nōna kei patua ia e Ngāpuhi i Pēwhairangi nō te mea kāore anō i tau te rongo i waenga i a Ngāti Whanaunga me Ngāpuhi. Kātahi ka whakaritea e Te Mātenga he wāhi mōna i runga i te kaipuke Active, ēngari, kei te ngaro te wā i hoki ake ai a Te Horetā rāua ko Te Hīnaki ki Aotearoa. I Poihākena tonu rāua i te taenga ake o Hongi rāua ko Waikato mā runga i te Westmoreland ki Pēwhairangi i te 11 o Hūrae 1821.

Ki ngā kōrero tipuna a Ngāti Maru, he manuhiri a Te Horetā rāua ko Te Hīnaki nā Hongi i Pēwhairangi i tō rāua hokinga mai ki Aotearoa. E kīia ana i whakatūria e Hongi he pākete miraka ki mua i a rāua hei whakamātau i a rāua. Nō te korenga o rāua i whakamātau i tēnei kai rerekē ka whakatauria e Hongi he tohu tēnei mahi whakaparahako ā rāua mō ana tātai ki te āpiti i te iwi o Marutūāhu. Ka whakarārangitia e ia āna pū kātahi ka īngoa haeretia e ia ki ia pakanga i hinga ai a Ngāpuhi i a Ngāti Pāoa, i a Ngāti Maru me Ngāti Whanaunga. Mōhio tonu atu a Te Horetā rāua ko Te Hīnaki he kupu whakaohiti tēnei nā Hongi he hikutoto tāna hei ngaki i tana mate i te riri o Waiwhāriki.

Nō te rewanga mai o te waitaua a Hongi o ngā iwi o Pēwhairangi whānui tonu, ka huakina a Mauinaina pā o Ngāti Pāoa i Mokoia ki Tāmaki (Panmure) me Te Tōtara pā o Ngāti Maru i Pārāwai. Ko te rere patikotanga atu tēnā ki Waikato o ngā iwi o aua takiwā tae atu hoki ki a Ngāti Whanaunga. Kāore he kōrero i mahue mai mō te wāhi a Te Horetā i ēnei parekura nui e rua. Ēngari e mōhiotia ana i Waikato ia i te wā i moea ai e Te Wherowhero a Ngāwaero i ngā marama whakamutunga pea o te tau 1821. Nā roto pea i ēnei pakanga ka hoatu a Te Taniwha hei īngoa kārangaranga mōna. E kīia ana i tētahi wā, ka tūpou iho ia i te tahataha ikeike ki te wai kātahi ka karo haere i ngā huata a te hoariri. I tōna eatanga ake piki tonu atu mā te tauihu o te waka kātahi ka panaia e ia te hoariri. Ko tana iwi kei tō rātou pā e titiro iho ana ki tana mahi. Anō ki ā rātou he taniwha te ritenga o Te Horetā.

Kāore he tuhituhinga mō ngā mahi a Te Horetā i ngā tau tōmuri o te tekau tau mai i 1820. Tērā anō ētahi kōrero i noho punanga a Te Horetā me tana iwi i taua wā ki Haowhenua i Hauturu (Little Barrier Island) i ngā whakaeke a ngā ope whakaara. Mai i te tau 1830, ko te āhua nei ko Kauaeranga i Pārāwai tana kāinga matua. Ko ngā mihinare e toro ake ana, peka atu ai ki a ia i Kauaeranga. I Hānuere o 1834 ka puta ake ko Ieti (William Yate). I tana whaikōrero whakatau i a Ieti ka puta tēnei pātai whakakīkī a Te Horetā ki tana iwi, arā, he aha rā te take i haere mai ai ngā mihinare. Ko tana whakautu e ai ki ngā tuhituhinga a Ieti, ko tēnei, arā, i haere mai ngā mihinare ki te wāwāhi i ā rātou patu, ā, ki te hohou i te rongomau.

I ngā tau whakamutunga o te tekau tau atu i 1830, ka noho tētahi kaihokohoko Marikena, a Wēpiha (William Webster), hei ahuahunga mā Te Horetā. I poua e tēnei tangata he teihana hokohoko ki te koko o Herekino, ki Waiau, ki Waiōmio, ki Kauaeranga hoki. I moea e Wēpiha tētahi wahine o Ngāti Whanaunga. He īngoa anō tā te nuinga o ngā Pākehā e mahi papa rākau ana, e mahi hokohoko ana rānei i taua rohe, mō te rangatira o Ngāti Whanaunga nei mō Te Horetā. Ko 'old Hooknose' tā rātou īngoa mōna. Nāna i manaaki a Meiha Thomas Bunbury i te toronga mai o tērā i Āperira me Mei o 1840, ā, i te 4 o Mei 1840, ka hainatia e ia te tauira o te Tiriti o Waitangi, i haria ake e Bunbury ki Waiau.

Tērā pea ko ngā tau pokapū o te tekau tau mai i 1840 ka tīmata a Ngāti Whanaunga ki te kari kāpia i te rohe o Moehau-o-Tama (Colville). He huarahi anō tēnei mahi e whiwhi oranga ai a Te Horetā me tōna iwi. Ēngari he take whakatutū puehu nō te mea ka ara ake anō ngā tautohetohe whenua i waenga i a Ngāti Whanaunga me Ngāti Māhanga mō ngā whenua o Ahirau me Ōtautū. He take tawhito. I te whakatūtū wharetanga a ngā kaikari kāpia o Ngāti Whanaunga i Ōtautū, ka haere ake te ope a Te Waka o Te Uringahu me te ope a Ngāti Māhanga ka tahutahuna ngā whare. Ka whakatika mai a Ngāti Whanaunga ka turakina te pou tohu paenga a Te Waka i te tuauru o te pae maunga o Tauwhare. Kotahi atu a Te Waka ki Mekemeke, ā, hei whakatau noa ake i te kawa o te pakanga ka keua āna pū ki te oneone whakapahū ai. He maha tonu ngā mahi whakatumatuma a tētahi taha i tētahi, kātahi ka whakamātauria kia hohoungia te rongo. Taro ake ka whakaae a Te Horetā ko Ahirau ki a ia, ā, ko Ōtautū me Tauwhara ki a Te Waka.

I kitea tuatahitia te kōura i Aotearoa i te rohe o Te Horetā i te tau 1852, i te awa o Te Kapanga, e tata ana ki Waiau. I puta te rongo o te kitenga. Ka karangatia e te kāwanatanga he hui i Noema o 1852 ki te whakariterite tahi me ngā Māori he tikanga e āheitia ai ō rātou whenua. I hui tahi a Te Horetā me ērā atu o ngā rangatira whai mana ki te rūtene kāwana o New Ulster, ki a Kānara R. H. Wynyard, ki a te pīhopa, a Te Herewini (G. A. Selwyn) me te kaiwhakawā matua, a Wiremu Mātene (William Martin). I tēnei wā, kua koroheke rawa atu a Te Horetā, e 90 pea tōna pakeke. He ngāwari noa iho tana tuku i ana whenua ki ngā Pākehā e peka noa mai ana ki te kari kōura. I whakaritea e ia aua Pākehā nei ki te toroa e rere haere noa ana ki te rapa kai.

I mate a Te Horetā Te Taniwha i Waiau i te 21 o Noema 1853. Nā Thomas Lanfear o te Hāhi Mihinare ia i iriiri i ngā wiki e whā, e ono rānei i mua tata atu i tōna matenga. He punarua tā Te Horetā, ko Tuhi o Ngāti Naunau. Ko Kītahi Te Taniwha tā rāua tama. Ko ia te whakakapi o Te Horetā. I a Te Horetā e whakamatemate ana ka whakahaua e ia kia tuhia ana kōrero ki tōna hoa Pākehā i Ākarana. He inoi nāna kia tiakina ngātahitia ngā tikanga a te Māori me te Pākehā, kia noho tahi ai rāua i runga i te rangimārie.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    [Campbell, J. L.] Poenamo. London, 1881

    Cruise, R. A. Journal of a ten months' residence in New Zealand. London, 1823

    Marsden, S. Letters and journals. Ed. J. R. Elder. Dunedin, 1932

    Swainson, W. Auckland, the capital of New Zealand. London, 1853

    Thomson, A. S. The story of New Zealand. 2 vols. London, 1859


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Te Horetā', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t34/te-horeta (accessed 18 June 2024)