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Te Heuheu Tukino III, Iwikau

by Elizabeth Hura

Biography

Ko Iwikau te tama tuarua a Herea, te tuatahi o ngā Te Heuheu i tohungia e Ngāti Tūwharetoa hei ūpoko ariki mō te iwi. Ko Rangiaho o Ngāti Maniapoto tōna whaea. E whakamutumutu ana te rau tau 1700–1799, ka whānau a Iwikau. Tokorua tahi rāua ko tōna tuakana, ko Mananui, he toa ki ngā marae a Tūmatauenga. Ko te rongo o Iwikau, i a ia tonu te mātāika.

I te tau 1840, i te marama o Hānuere, ka haere rāua ko Te Korohiko ki Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands) i te taha o Te Karu Whā (Henry Williams), o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society), ki ngā hui whakawhitiwhiti kōrero mō te Tiriti o Waitangi. Aronui atu rāua ki ngā whakamārama a Te Karu Whā, anā, ahakoa anō kāore rāua i whakamanaia mai e te iwi, haina tonu rāua i te Tiriti. Nō muri rawa mai, nō te kōrerotanga mō te Tiriti i Rotorua, ka whakakāhoretia e Mananui te mahi pokanoa a tōna taina, a Iwikau. Heoi, kāore i ūkuia rawatia tōna tohu.

I tōna hokinga mai i Ngā Puhi, ka whakatūria tōna whare whakairo ki kō tata atu i te wairere i Waihī, i te taha tonga o Taupō moana. He mea pani rawa ki te kōkōwai, ki te kākaramea o ngā waiariki o Te Rapa. Ka tapaina tōna whare ko Tāpeka, mō te kāinga i Kororāreka (Russell) i manaakitia ai, i whakamanuhiritia ai ia.

I te aituātanga o Mananui i te horonga o Maunga Kākaramea i te tau 1846, ka tohungia ko Iwikau hei ariki; nā te taitamariki rawa o Pātatai, tama a Mananui. I muri mai ka utaina te īngoa Horonuku ki a Pātatai. Ka tū ko Iwikau; ka nuku ki Pūkawa noho ai, ki te rohe o Ngāti Manunui, te hapū o tana wahine matua, o Ruingārangi – ko Mōrunga anō tētahi o ōna īngoa. Ko Pūkawa tōna kāinga tūturu. Taupatupatu tonu te noho a Iwikau rāua ko Te Herekiekie o Tokaanu mō te tūranga rangatira mō te iwi. Nā Te Kerēhi (Thomas Grace), te mihinare, rāua i whakararata. E hia kē te roa o Iwikau e tono ana kia tukuna mai he mihinare ki a ia; ā, nō te tekau tau mai i 1850, ka whakaritea e Te Kerēhi he tūnga mō te whare mīhana ki Pūkawa. Nō Āperira o te tau 1855, kātahi anō ka haria mai tana whānau ka tau te noho ki reira, i raro i te maru o Iwikau. Tērā tētahi tohunga kōhatu he Tiamana, ko Ferdinand von Hochstetter, te haere ana i te motu, ki te mātakitaki whenua. Nāna te kōrero mō Iwikau, he tangata i rata ki ngā mahi Karaitiana; ēngari i wehi ki te iriiri, kei ngaro tōna mana. Tētahi, mā te noho pono ki te wahine kotahi anake, kātahi anō ia ka rite mō te iriiri. Ahakoa anō kāore ia i tuku i a ia ki ērā whakahaere, hei te tūnga o ngā karakia a Te Kerēhi, kua tae ia. Manaaki rawa atu a Te Kerēhi i a Iwikau; mōhio tonu hoki ia ko ia rā te tangata hei rauhī i a ia – kāore i tua atu.

Nō ana haerenga ki Ākarana (Auckland), ka tūtakitaki a Iwikau ki a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) i ngā tau o mua tata i 1850. I ngā tau mai i 1850, ka tohe a Iwikau kia whakamutua ngā taupatupatu a te iwi ki ngā Pākehā. I whai kē ia ki te āwhina i te hunga kua riro ō rātau whenua.

Nō te tau 1850, ka peka a Kerei ki Pūkawa, ka tukuna he haki hei koha, hei whakanui i te piri pono o Iwikau ki a Kuini Wikitōria (Victoria). Rite tonu taua haki ki ngā mea i tukuna mai e te matua o Kuini Wikitōria, e Kīngi Wiremu (William) IV, hei koha ki ngā iwi o Ngā Puhi i te tau 1834. Mīharo atu a Kerei ki te pātaka a Iwikau, he whakairo katoa hoki. Ka mea ake ia kātahi rawa te tino tohu o te rangatira me ōna mana. I te weranga o taua pātaka, ka mahara ake a Iwikau ki te kōrero a Kerei. Whakatika tonu ake ki te mahi i tētahi anō – he mea rahi ake, whakapaipai katoa, kanapa ana. E whā ngā tau e tāraia ana, ka oti i te tau 1855, ka tapaina ko Hīnana. I te huakanga o Hīnana i a Noema o te tau 1856, i tukuna ngā pōwhiri ki ngā iwi katoa, hei tohu i tōna mana. Kua uiuia hoki e te hunga o Ngāti Te Aho. Ka mate atu a Iwikau, ka nukuhia a Hīnana ki Waihī tū ai. Taka rawa iho ki tēnei rā, kua tū kē mai i te whare pupuri taonga i Ōtautahi (Canterbury Museum). Ko te Hīnana kei Waihī i nāianei, ko te whare kai o te Tāpeka hou.

I taua hui i Pūkawa tonu, ka whakawhitiwhiti whakaaro te iwi ki te hanga tikanga kia mau ai ngā whenua te pupuri; kia kauaka e tukuna mō te hoko. Whakaaronui atu ia kia whakakotahi ngā iwi o te motu, kia mau tonu ō rātau mana. Ka whakaarahia te take whakatū Kīngi, ka whiua ki ngā rangatira o te motu: ki a Tōpia Tūroa, nāna ki a Te Heuheu; nāna ki a Te Amohau o Te Arawa. Ka whiua haeretia, ehara, ka hoki mai anō ki a Iwikau. Ko tōna haerenga ki te kawe i te kupu ki a Pōtatau. Nō te tau 1858, i te hui i Ngāruawāhia, ka whakawāhia a Pōtatau hei Kīngi. E rua ngā tau i muri mai, ka huaki anō te pakanga i Taranaki, ka puritia e Iwikau a Ngāti Tūwharetoa kia kauaka e haere, kei riro ō rātau whenua.

Nā Hochstetter anō te kōrero mō Iwikau i a ia ka kaumātuatia: 'He tangata āhua tūpuhipuhi noa nei, kāore i tino roa; he roroa ana makawe, kāore anō kia hina; he pangare te mata, ko tōna moko i te pāpāringa katau anake. Pīataata ana ōna whatu.'

Nō te tau 1862, ka mate a Iwikau, ka tanumia ki te taha tonu o tana whare, o Tāpeka, i Waihī. Ka mahue mai tana pouaru, a Ruingārangi me ā rāua tamariki – ko Whenerata, te tamāhine, ko te tama, ko Iwikau anō. Kei te waiatatia tonuhia ana waiata tangi. E kīia ana ko tana tino waiata, he tangi mō tana tuakana, mō Mananui, i riro rā i te horo o Maunga Kākaramea. Nā Tāwhiao te kōrero mō Iwikau: 'Ko Tongariro te maunga. Ko Taupō te moana. Ko Ngāti Tūwharetoa te iwi. Ko Te Heuheu te tangata.'


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Grace, J. Te H. Tuwharetoa. Wellington, 1959

    Hochstetter, F. von. New Zealand. Stuttgart, 1867


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Elizabeth Hura. 'Te Heuheu Tūkino III, Iwikau', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t32/te-heuheu-tukino-iii-iwikau (accessed 17 November 2019)