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Te Anaua, Hori Kingi

by Steven Oliver

Biography

Mai i ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1800–1899, ā tae noa ki waenga o aua tau, ko Te Ānaua te rangatira o Ngāti Ruakā hapū o Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi. Ko Pūtiki-wharanui, e tū tata atu rā ki te wahapū o Whanganui, tōna pā. Nō Hinengākau mai a ia. Ko Te Aewa tōna matua, ā, ko tōna whaea ko Titia. I te iriiringa a te mihinare rā a John Mason i a ia i Pūtiki i te 25 o Tīhema 1842, ka tangohia e ia a Hōri Kīngi hei īngoa mōna. Ko Tū anō tētahi o ōna īngoa e mōhiotia ana. Tokorua āna wāhine. Ko Te Hukinga o Ngāti Ruru te tuatahi. Ko Wikitōria anō tētahi o ōna īngoa. Nō te 29 o Mei 1843, ka moe rāua i Pūtiki. I mate a Te Hukinga i te marama o Tīhema 1860. Nō muri mai, arā, nō te 21 o Oketopa 1861, ka moe a Te Ānaua i a Ramarihi Taukari o Ngāti Ruakā, i Pūtiki anō. Ko tētehi o ngā īngoa o Ramarihi e mōhiotia ana, ko Te Aotārewa. Kāore i te mōhiotia mehemea he tamariki i puta i ēnei moenga ōna.

I ngā whawhai o ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau atu i 1800, ko Te Ānaua rāua ko tōna taina, ko Te Māwae, ētehi o ngā rangatira kaiārahi o ngā iwi o Whanganui. I 1819, ko 1820 kē rānei, ka whawhai a ia ki ngā waitaua mau pū a Tūwhare, a Patuone, a Nene o Te Tai Tokerau. Ko Pūrua, he wāhi e tata atu ana ki te wahapū o Whanganui, te parekura. I whakaekea a Whanganui e te waitaua Amiowhenua o te raki o 1821–22. Ko Mangawere te puta. I whawhai a Te Ānaua mā ki a rātou i reira, ka hinga ōna tēina tokorua. Nā tāna kauaeroa i tuki he ngohi o te Amiowhenua, ka whāia ā mutu rawa atu ki Taupō.

I te tekau tau atu i 1820, i a Ngāti Raukawa e heke mai ana i Maungatautari, ka urutomokia e rātou te taiwhakaroto o Whanganui. Ka pakipakia rātou e Te Peehi Tūroa o Ngāti Patutokotoko i te pā o Makakote. Ko Te Ruamaioro o Ngāti Raukawa te rangatira i hinga. E kīia ana, i te haurarotanga o te pā ka tangohia e Te Ānaua ki a ia ngā mau herehere. I te hohounga o te rongo ka tukuna e ia ngā mau herehere ki a Te Whatanui i Rānana. Ko tōna hua, ko te tukunga kia puta a Te Ānaua rāua ko Te Peehi Tūroa, i te pāhorotanga o Pūtiki i a Ngāti Raukawa me ōna uku i 1829. I roto a Te Ānaua i te tukinga o Ngāti Toa i Kapiti e te waitaua a Whanganui me ngā iwi ki te tonga. Ko 1824 te tau e whakaarohia ana o tēnei waitaua. I te matenga o taua pahī ka horo mai a Te Ānaua. I te tīmatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1830, i whawhai a ia ki te heke a Te Āti Awa, e kīia nei ko Tama-te-uaua.

I waenganui o te tekau tau mai i 1840, i parea e Te Ānaua ngā taua a Mananui Te Heuheu Tūkino II, e haere ake ana i Taupō ki Waitōtara. He whai nā tōna teina nā Te Māwae i te whakahau a te Kawenata Hou, me whāngai ōna hoariri. Ka hoatu e Te Māwae he mahinga rīwai mā ngā toa a Mananui. Nā te kaha o te awe o ngā mihinare o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare (Church Missionary Society), ka riro i a rātou ngā iwi o te tai whakararo o Whanganui. Nō te tau 1840, ka whakatūria tō rātou mīhana ki Pūtiki. I tino taupiri a Te Ānaua ki a Te Teira (Richard Taylor), ā, i noho a ia hei uku mō te kāwanatanga. I 1846–47, i te whakawehitanga a Te Mamaku o Ngāti Hāua-te-rangi i ngā Pākehā o Whanganui, ka tukuna e Te Ānaua he tāngata hei āwhina ki te wawao i te tāone. I runga i te tono a Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) i Pēpuere o 1848, ka haere a Te Ānaua ki Tuhua ki te whakaratarata i a Te Mamaku. Nō ngā wiki i muri mai, arā a Te Ānaua i te hui i kī taurangi ai a Te Mamaku ka pūmau te rongo i a ia.

I te tau 1840, ka hainatia e Te Ānaua te Tiriti o Waitangi i Whanganui. Nō mua tata atu ka hainatia e ia te whakaaetangaā-pukapuka mō te hokonga o Whanganui ki a Edward Jerningham Wakefield. Nō muri ka kī a ia, kāore he kiko o tā rāua i whakarite ai. I momoho rātou ko ētehi o ngā rangatira o Whanganui ki te whakanui ake i ngā whenua tāpui mō ngā Māori. I te tatūtanga o te hokonga o Whanganui i te Mei o 1848, ka tohaina e ia ki ngā hapū ngā utu i puta mai mō ngā 80,000 eka. I te whakapaunga o taua tau ka herea e ia ngā raruraru i waenga i a Ngāti Raukawa me Ngāti Apa e pā ana ki te whenua i Rangitīkei.

Nō te marama o Tīhema 1848 a ia i whakatūria ai e Te Teira hei kaiwhakawā mō ngā Māori, ā, i te tekau tau mai i 1860, ka whakaātehatia a ia e te kāwanatanga. I te tau 1859, e £20 te penihana kāwanatanga i whakawhiwhia ki a ia; taro ake, ka whakarahia ake ki te £50. Nā tōna noho pirihongo ki te kāwanatanga, ka whakanuia a ia i 1860 e Kāwana Thomas Gore Browne i te hui a ngā rangatira i Kohimaramara (Kohimarama). I reira, ka tukua e te kāwana ki a ia te tokotoko whakahōnore a Kuini Wikitōria (Victoria).

I te tekau tau atu i 1850, i whakahuahuatia a Te Ānaua hei māngai mō te Kīngitanga, ēngari kāore a ia i whakaae. I te tekau tau mai i 1860, nāna a Whanganui i wehe ki waho i te awe o te Pai Mārire me te Kīngitanga. I te Mei o 1864, ka mate ngā Hauhau o te taiwhakaroto o Whanganui ki Moutoa i te taua nāna i taki. Ko Moutoa, he moutere kei te awa o Whanganui.

I Hūrae o 1865, i te taha a ia o Kāwana Kerei i te pā o ngā Pai Mārire i Weraroa. I reira, ka tono a ia ki ngā Hauhau me hauraro rātou. I muri i te taieritanga o ngā Hauhau i Pipiriki i Ākuhata o 1865, ka āwhinatia e ia ngā whakaritenga mō te whakamutu i ngā riri i te awa o Whanganui.

I ngā marama o Hānuere–Pēpuere 1866, i roto a Te Ānaua i te pahī a Meiha Tianara Trevor Chute ki te tonga o Taranaki. E ai ki te kōrero, nāna i whakakīkī ngā hōia Māori o Whanganui kia whakaae ki te hīkoi ngātahi me Chute, mā uta o te maunga o Taranaki. Taro ake i taua tau anō, i te taha a ia o Kāwana Kerei e tawhio ana i Te Ika-a-Māui me Te Waipounamu.

Nō te 18 o Hepetema 1868, ka mate a Te Ānaua ki Pūtiki. Nō te 23 o Hepetema, ka tanumia ia ki te puke o Korowhata, e whakatāiri ake rā i Pūtiki. Ko te whakaaro e 75 ōna tau i tōna matenga.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Chapple, L. J. B. & H. C. Veitch. Wanganui. Hawera, 1939

    Downes, T. W. Old Whanganui. Hawera, 1915

    Wards, I. The shadow of the land. Wellington, 1968


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Steven Oliver. 'Te Ānaua, Hōri Kīngi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t24/te-anaua-hori-kingi (accessed 17 November 2019)