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Patuone, Eruera Maihi

by Angela Ballara

Biography

Ko tērā tangata rongonui ko Patuone i heke mai i ngā tātai rangatira o Ngā Puhi. Ko ia te mātāmua a Tapua, te tohunga, te rangatira o Ngāti Hao o Te Hokianga. Ka takina mai a Tapua i a Rāhiri. Ko tana whaea, ko Te Kawehau, i heke mai i a Te Wairua; ka puninga tahi ai a Patuone ki a Rewa, (ko Mānu tētahi o ana īngoa), ki a Hongi Hika, ki a Hōne Heke, ki a Muriwai te rangatira o Te Hokianga. Tirohia ngā kōrero mō Hōne Heke kei reira te whakapapa. E whai pānga ana ia ki ngā hapū o tērā takiwā, arā, a Ngāti Pou o Whangaroa rāua ko Te Roroa o Te Hokianga me Kaipara. Ko te teina ake o Patuone ko Tāmati Wāka Nene. E tamariki ana anō a Patuone, ka tae mai a Kāpene Kuki (James Cook) i te takiwā ki Rākaumangamanga (Cape Brett). I te tukunga o ngā koha a Kāpene Kuki he taha poaka te mea i riro i a Tapua, ā, e ai ki te kōrero i hoatu e ia hei kai mā ana tamariki, mā Patuone rāua ko tana tuahine, ko Tari.

I te wā i a Tapua kua kaha te haere mai o Ngā Puhi, inarā nō Kaikohe mai i te tuatahi, ki roto o Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands). Taka rawa iho ki a Patuone nō ngā pakanga a tōna iwi o Ngā Puhi ki te iwi o Te Roroa ka kitea tōna toa. Hau ana ōna rongo mō te mau toki. Nā tana toki ka hinga a Tatakahuanui i Waituna i te tau 1806 pea, ka waiho tērā riri taumātakitahi hei kōrero mā te tini mā te mano. Āhua noho kino tonu rāua ko Hongi Hika. Tuatahi ko te kōhurutanga o tana whanaunga, o Te Tihi. Whakapae tonu a Hōne Heke koia rā kē te take i whakahē ai a Patuone ki te tohetohe o Hōne Heke ki te tapatapahi i te pou kara i Kororāreka (Russell).

I ngā tau 1819–20 ka rewa te taua a ngā iwi o Te Hokianga me Kaipara, ka takahia te takutai o te hauāuru puta atu ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington Harbour). I Taranaki ka tū te pakanga ka mauhereheretia ētahi tāne, wāhine, tamariki. Ko te ope a Patuone nō Te Hokianga ana haere tahi tonu rāua ko Tūwhare me tana ope o Te Roroa. I te taenga ki Te Ūpoko-o-te-Ika ka mātakitaki atu rātou i ngā kaipuke i Te Moana-a-Raukawa. Te āhua nei he kaipuke nō ngā iwi o Rūhia ki te āta tirotiro i ngā whenua me ngā iwi o ēnei takiwā. Ko Bellinghausen pea te rangatira o aua kaipuke nei. I te hokinga atu o te waitaua mā Te Awakairangi (Hutt Valley) ki te raki, ka pāhorotia ngā pā, ka mauhereheretia te tangata. Ngātahi ko Tūwhare o Te Roroa rāua ko Te Rauparaha o Ngāti Toa ngā kaingārahu taua. I te awa o Whanganui ka mau a Tūwhare ka patua i Te Ana-a-Tāraro. Nō te taenga ki Taranaki ka houhia te rongo e Patuone, ka whakahokia ngā tamariki ka tukuna ngā taonga. He pounamu, he kākahu. Whakamoea ana ngā tāne me ngā wāhine.

Ahakoa anō he maha ngā pakanga i kōkiritia e Patuone i pau kē ana whakaaro ki te kimi Pākehā. I te tau 1819, ka puta he ope mihinare ka tiakina e ia, ka whakapuaki atu hoki ia i tana hiahia ki te haere ki Poihākena (Port Jackson). Ahakoa anō kua whakamātau kē ia ki te whakatipu wīti ka tono ia ki ngā mihinare kia tohutohungia anō ia. I te mea he tangata atawhai he tangata ngāwari a Patuone, ka rata atu a Te Mātenga (Samuel Marsden), te minita whakahaere o New South Wales, ki a ia. Heoi, kua noho kē anō i te tau 1819 pea te hunga tārai kaipuke a Thomas Raine, a David Ramsay rāua ko Gordon Browne. Te āhua nei e noho ana i raro i te mana o Patuone. Pērā anō ngā kāmura Kōtimana i whakanōhia e ia ki Te Hokianga i raro i tōna maru i te tau 1826. Ko ngā Kōtimana pakari nei ētahi o ngā tāngata whai i tae mā te Rosanna, te kaipuke o te tuatahi o ngā Kamupene o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Company) i aituātia rā. Taka rawa ake ki te tau 1822, ka hokona e Patuone, e Tāmati Wāka Nene, e Muriwai, he whenua ki a Hāre, Parena Te Tiari (Charles de Thierry), e 40,000 eka. He toki Pākehā te utu. E toru tekau mā ono ngā toki. Whakamau rawahia te tohu o Patuone ki te pukapuka hoko. Nō muri mai ka kī te tokotoru nei i mea rātou he koha noa iho ngā toki, he whakatau mō te wā e tino hokona mai ai te whenua e taua Pākehā.

Taumaha atu ngā whakararu ki runga ki a Patuone, nō ngā mahi hokohoko taonga, hokohoko kai ki whenua kē i takiwā kē. Ko te taukumekume hoki o ō rāua whakaaro ko Hongi. Rite tonu tā rāua whai i te tangata Pākehā mō ngā mahi o te wā. I tō rāua haerenga o Kāpene J. R. Kent ki Poihākena i te tau 1826, i mea ia ki te waiho iho i tana tama hei whakamanawa i te whakaaro he wāhi whakaaio tana whanga a Te Hokianga. Tērā anō a Hongi te wawata rā kia riro mai i a ia a Whangaroa hei ūranga mai mō ngā kaipuke. I Whangaroa anō hoki te mīhana Wēteriana ēngari i raro kē i te mana o Te Puhi rāua ko Ngāhuruhuru me tō rāua iwi, me Ngāti Uru. I tono rawa a Hongi Hika ki a Ngāti Uru ki te āwhina i tana riri ki a Ngāti Pou. He kore i arongia atu, ka mea ia ki te pana atu i a rātou i Whangaroa. I te kakaritanga, ka rere a Te Puhi me ētahi o tōna iwi ki a Patuone. Ko ngā mea i mahue ake i tahuri ki te muru i te mīhana, na, ka rere hoki ko ngā Wēteriana. Rokohanga atu a Patuone i te ara ki Kerikeri e whakahoki ana mai i a Te Puhi ki Whangaroa. Ka tiakina anō hoki e ia ngā Wēteriana.

Nā runga i ēnei manaakitanga ka whakaaro ngā Wēteriana he pai tonu te hoki ki Te Hokianga ki raro i te maru o Patuone. Nō te taenga atu ki reira i te tau 1827 ka oho ake anō ngā rīriri i waenga i ngā taniwha o te rohe. I te whai a te tini i a Patuone ka waiho ia hei wenerau mā te mano. Mahi atu ia kia tau te rangimārie. He aha te aha. Āpiti atu hoki ko Muriwai kē rāua ko Te Taonui ngā tuākana. Kei a rāua kē te mana. Nā reira kāore ia i haere ki te tūtaki atu i te kaipuke a ngā Wēteriana i te ūnga mai, ēngari nāna anō i whakatau kia noho tata atu rātou ki a Muriwai. Kīhai i ngata te hiahia o Te Taonui, tōna tūnga ake ka tahuna ngā papa a ngā kāmura Kōtimana.

Mau tonu te pūhaehae o Hongi ki a Patuone mō ngā mahi hokohoko me te tiaki tonu a Patuone i a Te Puhi me tana iwi. Nō te matenga mai o Hongi i te marama o Maehe 1828 ka pā anō he raruraru nui. I runga i te māharahara o tana iwi tērā rātou e tauahia ka hunaia te tanumanga o Hongi. Ehara ka puta atu a Patuone me tana ope nui tonu. Ka whakahēngia e ia ērā whakaaro pōhēhē o te pae mate ka noho iho ia ki te tangihanga mō ngā rā e toru. E tangi ana rātou katoa, ka tae mai te rongo kino. Tuatahi, ko te tama a Pōmare I, ko Tiki, i hinga mai i Waimā. Tuarua, nō te haerenga atu o Te Whareumu o Kororāreka ki te whakahoki mai i tana tūpāpaku ka hinga mai hoki ko ia me ētahi o tana ope. Ā, rongo rawahia atu ko Muriwai kua hinga mai i Te Hokianga. Kātahi rawa te parekura nui whakaharahara. Me i kore ake a Patuone te whakaaio whenua tērā e tū anō he pakanga ki Te Hokianga ki Pēwhairangi. Nō te whakapiringa mai o ngā mihinare ki te āwhina i a Patuone ka rata tērā o ngā rangatira o Pēwhairangi, a Rewa.

Kāore i roa i muri mai ka ūhia ko Patuone e te kapua pōuri. Ka whakaheke ko tana whānau ki te mate. Tuatahi tonu ko tana wahine matua ko Te Wheke i te marama o Mei. Nō te marama o Ākuhata ka whai atu ko te tama, ko Toa, me tētahi o ngā tamāhine. Te taenga ki Oketopa ka mate he tama anō, ko Mata. Ka noho a Patuone i te taha o tana tama uhunga ai ao noa te pō. Mei kīia nā te mate kohi i patu tēnei whānau.

I te kaha o tana pōuri ka noho ānau te rangatira nei. I te tau 1830, 1832 rānei, ka haere anō ia ki Poihākena. I tana hokinga mai i ngā tau tīmatanga o te 1830 ka huri atu ia ki te āwhina i a Ngāti Pāoa i ngā pakanga ki a Te Waharoa. Whāia ka moe i te wahine o Ngāti Pāoa, i a Takarangi, tuahine o Te Kupenga te rangatira o Whakatīwai, he pā kaitā nei, e pātata atu ki Maraetai i te koko o Hauraki. Nohonoho haere ai rāua i Hauraki ki te mahi harakeke, ki te mahi muka, ki te tapahi rākau hei hoko ki ngā hunga o runga i ngā kaipuke. Ā, he wā anō ka hokihoki ki Te Hokianga. I mua anō o tana wehenga mai i Te Hokianga i te tau 1831 i huihui tahi ngā rangatira e 13 te waihanga ki te haina pitihana ki a Kīngi Wiremu (William) IV o Ingarangi. He inoi kia rauhītia te iwi Māori i te mea kua ū mai ngā Wīwī ki tērā takiwā. I pūoho ngā mihinare i te toronga atu o te manuao Wīwī, La Favorite ki reira. He wā anō ka haere atu ia ki te āwhina i a Moetara ki te tiaki i ngā Pākehā kua noho tūturu ki Koutu. He wāhi tūtata atu ki Opononi. I takakinohia hoki ngā Pākehā e ngā iwi o Te Rarawa. Ko te tau 1833 tēnei.

Kāore i roa i muri mai ka hoki anō rāua ko Takarangi ki Whakatīwai. Kua tau mai te āwangawanga ki a Patuone nō te mea kāore anō kia puta he uri mō rāua. Āpiti atu hoki kua taupatupatu ngā whakaaro o ngā Wēteriana ki a ia. Nō reira ka roa rawa atu tā rāua noho i Hauraki. E rua tau ka pahemo ka hoki anō ia ki Te Hokianga ki te ngaki i te mate o Matiu rāua ko Rihimona, ngā kaikauwhau i te Rongopai. He mea pupuhi e Kaitoke nō Te Hikutū, i Mangamuka. He tangata tērā i whai i ngā mahi a Te Atua Wera, i te whakapono Nākahi. I te whakaekenga a Patuone i te pā o Kaitoke ka mate 11, ka taotū a Kaitoke. Heoi i poko tonu iho ia tērā raruraru ki reira. I tana hokinga atu ki Maraetai i te tau 1837 ka tukuna ngā takoha a te Karauna ki a ia hei whakatau atu i ana mahi āwhina whakarite i ngā hiahia o te hunga o runga o ngā kaipuke. Ko ngā kākahu maitai mō te tangata whawhai, he hūtu kākāriki, ngā taonga i tukuna ki a Patuone.

I te wā i tukuna ai te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Niu Tīreni i te tau 1835 kāore a Patuone i reira i te hainatanga. Heoi, i hainatia e ia i te tau 1836. Nō te huihuinga ki te haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1840, ka tae ia anō. Nō te 26 o Hānuere i te whare karakia i Paihia ka iriirihia rāua ko tana wahine e Te Karu Whā (Henry Williams) ki ngā īngoa o ana whanaunga, ko Eruera Maihi (Edward Marsh) ki a Patuone, ko Rīria (Lydia) ki a Takarangi.

I te 5 o Pēpuere ka wānangahia te Tiriti e te iwi. Kua kaumātua kētia a Patuone i tērā wā ēngari tū tonu ia ki te tautoko i tana taina, i a Tāmati Wāka Nene. Nā te kupu hoki a Nene i tahuri atu ai te iwi ki te Tiriti. I muri mai i te hainatanga o te Tiriti ka tukuna e Patuone he mere hei koha ki te Kuini. Kua tūtaki kē noa atu a Patuone rāua ko Kāwana Hopihona (William Hobson). I te rā nei ka pōwhiritia mai ia hei manuhiri mā te kāwana ki runga ki tōna kaipuke, te Herald, ki te kai.

He maha ana kāinga noho i Hauraki, i Mātiatia kei te motu o Waiheke, i Takapuna. Ahakoa i hokona e tana wahine ana whenua 9,500 eka ki te Karauna, i te tau 1841, noho tonu rāua ki Te Kātū (Lagoon Bay) i Takapuna.

I te mea kua koroua rawa ia ka mutu tana haere ki ngā pakanga a tana iwi i ngā tau pokapū o te 1840. Ēngari, i te marama o Mei 1845, nō te mauhereheretanga o Pōmare II ka whai atu ia i te rōpū tono inoi atu ki a Kāwana Pitiroi (Robert FitzRoy) kia tukuna a Pōmare II. Nā te mahi pokanoa hoki a Kānara Hulme i mau ture kore noa ai a Pōmare i Pēwhairangi. Ka whakaaengia tā rātou tono. Nō te tau i muri mai ka hopukina ko Patuone e te kaiwhakawā pirihimana i Ākarana (Auckland), e Thomas Beckham, kia uiuia ngā nekeneke a Hōne Heke; kua rangona atu hoki tērā e whakaeke ia i te tāone o Ākarana. I te whakatakariri o Kāwana Hōri Kerei (George Grey) ki tērā mahi taurekareka a Beckham, ka tangohia tana tūranga whakawā, ka waiho ia kia noho mana kore noa iho.

Ngākaunui atu hoki te kāwana ki te noho mai o Patuone i Ākarana hei toka tū moana, hei aki i ngā tai, hei aki i ngā ngaru. I te matenga o Rīria Takarangi i te tau 1849, ka tohe ana whanaunga kia hoki a Patuone ki Te Hokianga. Heoi ka puritia e Kerei kia noho tonu i Takapuna. Ka tukuna te whenua i Waiwharariki e 110 eka, hei kāinga noho mōna i a ia e ora ana. Ka tau te noho i ana kāinga e rua i Waiwharariki ka tahi, i te pā i karangatia ai e ia ko Rīria ka rua. Ko te tūnga o Rīria i runga anō i te whenua o Ngāti Pāoa i Takapuna. Ka pā te raruraru ki a Ngāti Pāoa i te hopunga pōhēhē noa iho o tētahi o ō rātou rangatira; ka takatū te iwi ki te whakaeke i te tāone o Ākarana. Ka riro nā Patuone i whakatau te rangimārie. E kitekitea ana ia i ngā tiriti o Ākarana e mau ana i ōna kākahu hōia. Ēngari nā tana koroheketanga kua piko te tū a te tangata tāroaroa nei. He aha rā, ka rarua anō rātou i te takaroa o te whakawānga o te tangata Pākehā nāna i kōhuru tētahi Māori. Ehara, i te taenga mai o te rongo kua hārau kua whiwhi a 'New Zealander', te hōiho rēhi a Patuone, ka waiho ake te take o te riri. E ai ki te kōrero nā Kāwana Kerei i hoatu taua hōiho mā Patuone. Heoi, tukuna ana te ture kia mahi ana i tana mahi. Nō te whiunga i te Pākehā, kia mau tonu ki te whare herehere ā mate noa, kātahi ka uru mai te pāwera ki ō rātou ngākau. Kia riro nā te Māori i kōhuru te Pākehā ka tārona rawahia.

Pā kau he raruraru ki ngā kaiwhakahaere o Ākarana kua tae te karere ki a Patuone ki te pātai me pēhea. I te pakanga ki a Waikato ka inoi ia ki a Kāwana Kerei kaua e riro ko ia hei whakawhiti tuatahi i te awa o Mangatāwhiri nā te mea ka noho nōna, nō Kerei te hē. Na, nō te nekenga o te tino tāone ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara haere katoa hoki ana hoa, ngā kaiwhakahaere i te kāwanatanga. Heoi, ka hokihoki tonu mai ki a ia ki te whakarite ki te waihanga tikanga mō te kāwanatanga ā-porowini.

I te 17 o Hepetema 1872 ka mate a Patuone. Ki ētahi o ngā whakarite kei tērā takiwā atu i te 96 ki te 112 ōna tau. Otirā, ko 108 tau pea ōna tau tika. Hui katoa āna wāhine tokowhā me ana tamariki tokoiwa. Ko te tama kotahi anō ko Hōhaia e ora tonu ana i tērā wā. I tangihia a Patuone ki te whare nui Pākehā i Takapuna. Ka whakaeke te tini o te tangata Māori, Pākehā. I tanumia ia ki te urupā o Takarunga (Mt Victoria) i Takapuna (Devonport). Nā te kāwanatanga i taiepa te rua, i whakatū te kōwhatu whakamaharatanga me ēnei kōrero mōna: Ko te tohu tapu o Ēru Patuone te tuakana o Tāmati Wāka Nene tamariki a Tapua, he rangatira nui nō Ngā Puhi. He hoa aroha nō te Pākehā. He kai hāpai i te Ture Kuini, ā, he kaihohou i te rongo ki tōna iwi.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Davis, C. O. The life and times of Patuone. Auckland, 1876

    Owens, J. M. R. 'The Wesleyan mission to New Zealand, 1819--1840'. PhD thesis, Victoria, 1969

    Sissons, J. et al. The puriri trees are laughing. Auckland, 1987

    Titchener, P. Beginnings. Vol. 2. Auckland, 1978

    Wesleyan Missionary Society. Miscellaneous correspondence. MS. ASJ

    Williams, H. The early journals of Henry Williams, 1826--40. Ed. L. M. Rogers. Christchurch, 1961


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Patuone, Eruera Maihi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990, updated November, 2010. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1p12/patuone-eruera-maihi (accessed 24 August 2019)