Clay particles are about 1,000 times smaller than sand particles (A). Clays have many forms. For example, kaolinite has book-like leaves (B), halloysite is made of balls (C), and (D) shows grains of quartz bound by lattices of iron oxide in the iron pan of a podzol. The shape of clay particles can only be seen by using a powerful scanning electron microscope.
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Reference: Les Molloy, Soils in the New Zealand landscape: the living mantle. Lincoln: New Zealand Society of Soil Science, 1988, plates 1.3, 1.4
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