Government agencies, and professionals like social workers, health workers, teachers and police, play an important role when family networks break down and children are put at risk.
In the 19th century police and courts were reluctant to interfere with the head of the household’s power to discipline children. Physical abuse had to be severe or cruel for court proceedings to occur.
It was more common to remove neglected or abused children from the family than to prosecute parents. From 1867 courts could commit such children to state residential (‘industrial’) schools. The institutions themselves could be abusive places, and various inquiries uncovered excessive punishment and sexual abuse of residents.
Growing awareness of abused children resulted in laws which gave the state new powers to intervene. The Children’s Protection Act 1890 allowed police to intervene when children were at risk. In the 1880s, public alarm grew about ‘baby farms’ – private homes in which very young children were cared for away from their mothers. From the 1890s such homes had to be licensed and inspected by police and later female infant life protection officers.
Working with families
From the 1920s greater attempts were made to keep children in their families. Neglected and abused children could still be removed, but the emphasis was on preventing problems from becoming more serious. Parental education was seen as the way to combat abuse or neglect, but dealing with child abuse was a delicate process. Child welfare officers knew children could suffer further abuse while they tried to improve the situation.
Overseas research into the ‘battered baby syndrome’ helped bring child abuse to the fore from the 1960s. Government welfare researchers began to collect information on reported cases from 1962. They called on the medical profession to be more active in reporting suspicious injuries to welfare agencies or the police. By the late 1960s, the state was considering making it mandatory for medical professionals to report cases of abuse.
From the 1970s multi-disciplinary child protection teams combined the skills of police, lawyers and medical professionals to give advice to social workers. This co-ordinated approach became the dominant method of handling abuse cases from the 1980s, in theory if not always in practice. More specialist teams dealt with very sensitive matters, such as sexual abuse, or working appropriately with Māori and Pacific Island children. Guidelines for handling cases, and training for social workers, also began in the 1980s in an effort to improve responses to abuse, and inter-agency protocols for dealing with abuse came into force from the mid-1990s.
In 2009, police in the Wairarapa discovered a backlog of child abuse cases which had gone uninvestigated. ‘Operation Hope’ was set up to deal with those cases. As a result, police formed a child-abuse unit of detectives and interviewers to work with social workers looking into reports of serious abuse in the wider Wellington region.
Importance of family
In the 1980s the focus remained on keeping children in their families. This approach was enshrined in the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act 1989.
The act asserted the primacy of families and whānau, and introduced family-based decision making (family group conferences) for children in need of care and protection. It required more active community involvement in responding to child abuse, and greater attention to the cultural background of families. Social workers notified of cases had to consult care and protection resource panels before taking action. These comprised members of welfare organisations, and Māori and Pacific Island communities, as well as other welfare professionals.
High caseloads meant that social workers did not always proceed as required. Balancing the needs of children and of families has not been easy. In 2004, the Care of Children Act reinforced the need to ensure the safety of the at-risk child.
Child, Youth and Family to Oranga Tamariki
Child, Youth and Family (CYF) became New Zealand’s statutory child-welfare agency in 1999. CYF was replaced by the Ministry for Vulnerable Children (Oranga Tamariki) in April 2017 after an expert group produced a critical review of CYF services in December 2015. The agency was renamed Oranga Tamariki – Ministry for Children on 31 October 2017. Oranga Tamariki social workers handle notifications about suspected child abuse and neglect. They assist families having difficulties caring for their children and make alternative care arrangements if children are not safe in the home environment.