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Pukehika, Hōri

by Ian Church

Biography

He tohunga whakairo rongonui a Hōri Pukehika; ko ia tētahi o ngā tāngata whakamutunga i matatau ki ngā tikanga o te ao tawhito. He rangatira ia nō Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi ki te takiwā whakararo o te awa o Wanganui. Nō roto i ngā tau ki muri nei, ka tino piri ia ki te hapū o Ngāti Tuera, hei whanaunga ki a Ngāti Rangatahi.

Ko te nuinga o ngā kōrero mōna kei te ngaro. Nō te tōmuritanga pea o te tekau tau mai i 1840, nō te tīmatanga rānei o te tekau tau mai i 1850, i whānau ai ia ki Pipiriki, ki Hiruhārama rānei. He īngoa karanga noa iho pea a 'Pukehika'. Nō Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi tōna pāpā a Te Wikirini Te Tua (Wikirini Tetua rānei), arā, ko Wihirini Warihi anō tētahi o ōna īngoa. Ko tōna whaea nō Ngāti Pāmoana; ko ōna īngoa ko Peti Te Oiroa me Peti Tetua. He huānga a Pukehika nō Hōri Kīngi Te Ānaua, he kaihautū nō Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi. E tamariki tonu ana, ka uru a Pukehika ki te pakanga i te motu o Moutoa i te tau 1864. Nō muri mai ka uru ia ki te ope taua a Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui i te whakahau i a Te Kooti i te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui.

Puta kē ana te rongo nui o Pukehika mō te whakairo. I akona a Pukehika ki te whakairo i a ia e āwhina ana i a Kāwana Moraro rāua ko tana tama, ko Utiku Mōhuia e whakairo ana i te whare nui, i Te Paku i Pūtiki i te tekau tau atu i 1870. I taua wā ka āwhina hoki ia i te mahinga i runga i te whare nui, i Poutama, i whakatūria ki Hikurangi e tata ana ki Koriniti i te tau 1888. Oti ana hoki i a ia ētahi poupou te mahi mō te whare i Tawhitinui, kei tāwāhi atu o te motu o Moutoa kei te taha o te awa o Wanganui. Ko ēnei taonga katoa, tae atu ki tētahi matapihi nāna anō i whakairo, kei te Whare Taonga ā-Rohe o Wanganui (Wanganui Regional Museum). Ko rāua ko Te Urumingi ngā tohunga whakahaere i tētahi rōpū whakairo i te hanganga o Maranganui II mō te hapū o Ngāti Tuera i te tau 1905, nō te mea i turakina e te waipuke te whare nui i Pungarehu i te tau o mua atu.

Ko te tino mahi whakahirahira rawa atu i oti i a Pukehika, ko tērā kei te waharoa matua o te pā tauira i whakaarahia mō te Whakakitenga ki te Ao Whānui o Aotearoa (New Zealand International Exhibition) i Ōtautahi (Christchurch) i te tau 1906‑-7. E ai ki te kōrero a Hēmi Kāwana (James Cowan), ka mutu pea te ātaahua o te mahi whakairo me te hanga o te pā, arā, he mea mahi i runga i ngā tauira tawhito o ngā kūwaha o ngā pā tūwatawata o mua. I whakatūria he tekoteko me ētahi poupou whakairo ki ngā kaokao; ka whakaotia ki tētahi piriti whakamārangaranga.

Hia rau te nui o ngā kapa haka o ngā iwi o Wanganui, o Te Wairarapa, o Rotorua me Te Moana-a-Toi (Bay of Plenty) e noho ana i te kāinga Māori i whakatūria ki te Whakakitenga, e toru eka te rahi. Hei whakahoki kōrero mā ngā iwi hokihoki ki ō rātou rohe ā tōna wā, ka whakanōhia ko Hōri Pukehika rāua ko Te Rangi Hīroa (Peter Buck) hei kaitiaki i te taha parukore, whakakaupapa ai hoki i ngā tikanga. Ka riro ko te Whakakitenga hei whakaora i ngā mahi toi a te Māori, kei ngaro. Oti rawa i te rōpū a Pukehika tētahi whare porohita pērā anō i ngā momo whare tawhito o Porinihia. Nā Tīria Hōri, he wahine taitamariki nō Ngāti Tuera, i whakaatu te mahi whatu kākahu huruhuru, kākahu tarapī me te whakatāniko anō hoki; nā Pukehika i whakaatu ki a Te Rangi Hīroa te taha ki ngā tikanga pure, te momo whakaehu me te pēhea hoki o te whatu i te kākahu, i te pākē me te rāpaki hoki. Nō te whakahoutanga i te whare nui, i Te Waiherehere i Koriniti i te tau 1921, i whakamauru atu anō ki a ia mō ōna mōhiotanga.

I te pōwhiritanga o te Kāwana Tianara, o Rōre Plunket rāua ko tana wahine i te whakatuwheratanga o te Whakakitenga, nā Pukehika i whakatau; he pūkōrero hoki ia. Puta rawa āna kōrero mō ngā mahi a ō rātou tūpuna kua roa kē e ngaro ana, ā, ki a ia anō, nō te rā nei, kua tūtū anō rātou. Nō te tau 1930, i whiriwhiria a Pukehika hei kaiporoporoaki i ngā kairīwhi a te Kīngi, i a Tā Taare Whēkihana (Charles Fergusson) rāua ko tōna hoa wahine.

Ko Hōri Pukehika tonu te tino kaiārahi i ngā mahi a ngā hapū i te tai whakararo o te awa o Wanganui. Nō te marama o Pēpuere 1886, nāna i hautū te tima awa, tuatahi hoki a Tūhua ki Rānana, ā, nāna ngā kaiwhiwhi o te waka i āwhina ki te whakahaere i tētahi mahi rere auau. Ko ia tonu tētahi o ngā mema o te komiti nā rātou i waihanga te nūpepa reorua a Te Tiupiri. The Jubilee i te tau 1898. I whakanōhia ia hei kaitirotiro hauora i raro i te Ture Kaunihera Māori (Māori Councils Act) 1900; ko tana tino mahi he whakawhere i tōna iwi ki te whakatū kāinga hou me te wharepaku anō hoki kia noho hauora ai. Nā āna mahi āwhina, i whakaīngoatia ai ia hei mema mō te poari kaitiaki o te Whare Taonga mō te Katoa o Wanganui (Wanganui Public Museum) ā hemo noa.

Nōnahea rā te rironga mai, ēngari he wā tōna ko Hōri Pukehika hei kaitautīaki i tētahi hūtu rino nā Kīngi Wiremu IV i hoatu ki a Tītore o Ngāpuhi i te tau 1835. He mea tuku iho ki a Te Ānaua, ā, ko te pā tonu i runga i te toropuke i Pukehika kei tāwāhi atu o Hiruhārama te kāinga o te taonga nei. He mea tanu e Pukehika te hūtu nei ki te wāhi pātata tonu i te tekau tau atu i 1870, kei tangohia e te Pākehā. Nā te tono a Wiremu Hīpango 20 tau i muri mai, ka tīkina atu; nō te tau 1908 ka haria e rāua ko Māui Pōmare ki te Whare Taonga o Aotearoa (Dominion Museum), takoto ai.

I moe a Hōri Pukehika i a Pango Ngākaari (ko Pongo te pūngakupu tika pea) i Rānana i te 1 o Maehe 1868. Nā te minita, nā Basil Taylor rāua i mārena. Kotahi tō rāua uri, he mea tāne; e tamariki tonu ana ka mate. Nō tana moenga i a Tira Rātana (ko Erita anō tētahi o ōna īngoa) i muri mai, ka puta tokowhitu rawa ā rāua tamariki. I whānau tā rāua tamāhine a Rāwinia Hīpango i te 17 o Maehe 1902. Nō te Whakakitenga 1906-‑7, ka toa tētahi anō o ā rāua tamāhine, a Ngā Kuari Tukia, i te whakataetae pēpi i Ōtautahi. E waru tekau mā rima tau pea te pakeke o Hōri Pukehika i tōna matenga i Pungarehu i te 30 o Mei 1932. Ka whakarērea e ia ko tana wahine tuarua, me ā rāua tamariki, tokotoru ngā mea wāhine, tokorua ngā mea tāne. Ko tana pānuitanga mate e kī ana, he whakamutunga ia nō te kura whakairo i hau ai ōna rongo ki te motu i ōna rā.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Barns, E. S. Little journeys into the lives of notable Maori chiefs and chieftainesses of the Whanganui district, whose portraits hang in the Museum building. Wanganui, 1937

    Cowan, J. 'The Maori pa: scenes of ancient Maoridom'. Dominion Museum Bulletin No 3 (1911): 15--68

    Hamilton, A. 'The Maori pa at the New Zealand Exhibition'. Dominion Museum Bulletin No 3 (1911): 5--14

    Obit. Wanganui Chronicle. 31 May 1932


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Ian Church. 'Pukehika, Hōri', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3p35/pukehika-hori (accessed 24 July 2021)