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Te Whenuanui

by Pou Temara

Biography

Nō ngā tau tīmatanga o te rau tau mai i 1800 i whānau ai a Te Whenuanui ki Maungapōhatu e pātata atu rā ki Waikaremoana. Ko ia tētahi o ngā tama a Te Umuariki rāua ko Tīkina. Ko ōna karangatanga hapū o roto i a Tūhoe ko Te Urewera rāua ko Ngāti Rongo. Ka moe i a Te Ākiu, he wahine rangatira nō Ngāti Koura, ka puta ā rāua tamariki tokorua, he wāhine, ko Te Mauniko tō mua, ko Hinepau tō muri. Nō te whakapaunga pea o te tekau tau atu i 1820 ka mate a Te Umuariki ki Whāngārā i Te Tai Rāwhiti, ka noho ko tana mātāmua ko Te Aukihingārae hai whakakī i te whāwhārua. I te tau 1836 ka tahuri a Pāora Kīngi, tama a Te Aukihingārae, rāua ko tana pāpara tūranga whānau ko Te Whenuanui ki te ranaki i te mate o Te Umuariki. Ka whakaaraaratia ngā iwi o Mātaatua, a Te Whakatōhea, a Ngāti Awa, a Te Whānau-a-Apanui, ka ara. Kua waiho ake ā rātau rīriri ki tahaki. Ka piki i te awa o Tauranga ka tāraia he waka taua inā anō te nui, hei kawe i a rātau ki Whāngārā. Ka oti, ka huaina tōna īngoa ko Te Tōtara‑o-Huiarau. Nō te rurukutanga o te waka, ka unuhia e Pāora te take ranaki i te mate o Te Umuariki. Ki a ia, kua ea te mate i runga i te kotahi o ngā iwi o Mātaatua, i kitea ai tā rātau whakaae ki te mana rangatira o Te Umuariki. Ko te haerenga o Pāora rāua ko Te Whenuanui ki Whāngārā ki te whakatū i te tatau pounamu ki ngā iwi o reira. Nō te matenga o Pāora noho ana ko Te Whenuanui tētahi o ngā tino rangatira tokorua o Tūhoe.

Nō te whakapaunga o te tekau tau atu i 1830, ka mau te rongo ki waenganui i a Ngāti Awa rāua ko Tūhoe, ka taunahatia anō e Tūhoe ō rātau whenua i Rūātoki me Ōpouriao. Ka waerea te whenua ka rumakina ki te rīwai, ki te kānga, ki te wīti. Nō te takiwā ki te tau 1863, ka whakamātau a Tūhoe ki te whakatū mira mahi puehu parāoa ki Oromairoa i Rūātoki. Nā te kore e pai o tēnei wāhi ki te kāmura Pākehā, ka tipu te kōhetehete i waenganui i ngā rangatira, kore ake i tū te mira. Ka hangaia e Te Whenuanui tōna whare whakairo a Tūhua, hai whakairinga mō ōna pōuritanga. Nō konei tōna putanga hai tohunga mahi whare, hai kaiwhakairo hoki. Nō muri mai ka puta tōna rongo ki te whakairo i te pounamu.

Ka huri ki te tau 1864, tū ana ngā karere a Rewi Maniapoto ki roto o Ruatāhuna ki te heri mai i tana kupu whakaara i a Tūhoe kia haere atu ki roto o Waikato, ki te ārai atu i ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga e tāoro rā i te nuku o te whenua. E ai ki ngā kōrero tūpuna o Tūhoe i hui a Tūhoe ki Ōpūtao ki te whiriwhiri i te tono a Rewi. Kai runga ko Piripi Te Heuheu o Maungapōhatu ki te kōrero i tōna hiahia ki te whakaū i ngā whakataunga o te hui i Pūkawa i te tau 1857, i tautokona ai te Kīngitanga e ngā iwi. He rerekē te kōrero a Te Ahoaho rāua ko Te Whenuanui. Ki a rāua, me tatari kia tae tonu mai te riri ki te pae o Tūhoe kātahi ka pakanga ai. Kāore a Piripi i whakaae ki tēnei; ko te maunutanga atu o tana taua ki Waikato. Nō muri, ka ngākaurua a Te Whenuanui, ka hiki hoki tana taua ka whai i a Piripi. Tokowaru ngā wāhine i roto i te taua a Te Whenuanui.

I te Aratītaha ka mau atu a Piripi mā. Ka whakakīkītia e rātau a Rewi kia pakangatia te kāwanatanga i Ōrākau. E toru rā e ū ana te tū māia a te tokoiti ki te wawao i taua wāhi i ngā tukinga mai a te tokomaha, he tino pai kē atu rā ā rātau rākau whawhai. Ko Te Whenuanui rāua ko tana tamāhine, ko Te Mauniko ētahi o ngā mōrehu i rere i Ōrākau. Ahakoa te tū o tōna pona i te matā, tae pai ana rātau ko tōna tira tokoiti ki Ruatāhuna. I reira ka taunutia a Te Whenuanui e ngā kuia me ngā pouaru ki te manawawera e whai ake nei:

I hoki mai koe e Te Whenuanui ki te aha?
Tē mate atu ai i te unuhanga o te puhi o Mātaatua
Ka mahora ki te riu ki Waikato
Ki te aroaro o Maniapoto.

Nō te tau 1865 ka tae te rongo Pai Mārire ki te rohe o Tūhoe, ko Pātara Raukatauri o Taranaki te kaikauhau. Taka katoa a Tūhoe, tae atu hoki ki a Te Whenuanui, ki raro i tēnei whakapono. Nō te hokinga o Pātara mā ki Taranaki ka haere hoki ētahi o Tūhoe. I Te Tāpiri ka haukotia e ngā haumi a te kāwanatanga, e Ngāti Manawa rāua ko Te Arawa. Ko tō rātau hiahia kia tukuna mai a Kereopa Te Rau kia tarea te whakawā mō tana patunga i a Te Wākana (C. S. Völkner) i Ōpōtiki. Kāore a Tūhoe i whakaae ki tēnei tono, ā, ka tīmata te pakanga. Ko Te Whenuanui tētahi o ngā rangatira o Tūhoe i taua whawhai. Ka rere ngā haumi a te kāwanatanga i te māra o te pakanga.

I te tau 1866 ka uru atu a Te Whenuanui ki te pakanga i Te Kōpane i te rohe o Te Wairoa. I muri mai i tēnei whawhai, ka tau tana noho ki Ruatāhuna. Nō te whakakāhoretanga i ngā tono mō te kāpeneheihana mō ngā whenua o Ōpouriao me Te Waimana i murua rā i te tau 1866, ka hui anō a Tūhoe ki Ruatāhuna i te tau 1867 ki te kōrero i ngā whakanekeneke mō ngā rā kai mua. I reira anō hoki ngā karere a te Kīngi Māori, a Tāwhiao. Ka whakatakotoria e rātau tana kupu whakaari: kia manawanui, ka puta te ora i Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ko tā Te Whenuanui kōrero kia mau te rongo; ko āna haumi ko ngā hapū o Ruatāhuna, o Maungapōhatu me Waikaremoana. Ēngari anō a Ngāi Tama o Te Waimana me ngā hapū o Rūātoki, i te hīkaka katoa ki te hiki i te ara o riri whakauaua. I Hānuere o te tau 1868, ka kōkiritia a Ōhiwa me Waiōtahe.

Nō te taenga mai o Te Kooti ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa i te tau 1868, ka mau pū anō a Te Whenuanui; ko Te Kooti hoki te whakaekenga o te kupu whakaari a Kīngi Tāwhiao. Mau tonu a Te Whenuanui ki a Te Kooti mai i 1869 ki 1870. Nō te urutomotanga o ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga me ngā kūpapa i te rohe o Te Urewera, tau ana ngā tūpuhitanga o te pakanga ki runga ki a Tūhoe. Kua tāorotia ngā māra me ngā rua kai, kua hemo te tangata i te kore kai, ā, nā te kore whare ka mate i te mātao. Heke ana te maha o te iwi, ā, ko te pō kau anake.

Ka kite a Te Whenuanui i te mate o tōna iwi, ka whakarērea a Te Kooti ka ngana ki te whakatū tatau pounamu me te kāwanatanga. Ka tūtaki rāua ko Kāpene Tawa (Gilbert Mair) i Rūātoki i Hepetema o te tau 1870. Hai here i te rongomau, ka whakawhiwhia a Tawa ki ngā kākahu e toru me ngā meremere pounamu e rua. Ko ā Tawa koha ki a Te Whenuanui mā, he wati, he rīngi, he pine kōura me te paraikete. I Tīhema o taua tau, ka haere a Te Whenuanui me tana ope rangatira, a Paerau, a Tūtakangāhau, a Tamarau Waiari ki Ahuriri (Napier) ki te whakatakoto i ngā rākau a Tū ki ngā waewae o Ōmana (J. D. Ormond), kaiwhakahaere mō Te Matau-a-Māui; ko ia hoki te āpiha a te kāwanatanga mō te pakanga i Te Tai Rāwhiti. Mau tonu te kāwanatanga ki tōna hiahia ki a Kereopa e whakapupuni mai rā i roto o Te Urewera. Ka whakaae a Kereopa kia riro ko ia hai whakahere mō te rongomau, ēngari nō tōna rerenga ka whāia e Te Whiu Maraki, ka mau, kātahi ka tukuna atu ki te kāwanatanga.

Ko Kereopa tērā kua mau, ko Te Kooti kai te rere tonu. Ka noho a Te Whenuanui hai matataua mā te Kāwanatanga ēngari ko te kōrero he wāhi kē a Te Kooti, he wāhi kē te kāwanatanga e kimi ana i a ia i te mahi a Te Whenuanui, kore ake a Te Kooti i mau. Nō te rerenga o Te Kooti i te tau 1872 ki raro i te maru o te Kīngitanga i te Rohe Pōtae, ka mutu te pakanga a Tūhoe.

Ahakoa te tau o te rangimārie, i te tū tonu mai ngā whenua raupatu. I te tau 1872, ko Te Whenuanui tētahi o ngā rangatira nā rātau i hanga te kaunihera o Te Whitu Tekau. Ko te mahi a tēnei kaunihera he aukati i ngā tono ki te Kōti Whenua Māori kia rūritia ngā whenua o Tūhoe, he aukati hoki i ngā taitara ki te whenua. Kāore e āhei te hanga huarahi, te rīhi rānei i te whenua. He kaiwawao hoki i ngā raruraru i waenganui i a Tūhoe, ā, he aukati atu i ngā māngai whakatakoto ture Pākehā.

I taua tau anō, ka whakahaua e Te Whenuanui kia hangaia he whare nui tonu, hai whakamaumaharatanga mō ngā tūpuhi i pā ki a Tūhoe i te wā o te pakanga. I te mea kātahi anō ka weto te ahi, ā, tērā pea ka mura anō, ka hangaia tēnei whare ki te tihi o Manawarū, he maunga whakataukī, he tūranga ka taea te wawao, he pā hoki nō Tūhoe i Ruatāhuna. Ēngari nō te pūmautanga o te rongomau kua hekeheke iho a Tūhoe ki te noho i ngā raorao. Ka mahue atu te whare rā ki Manawarū, ā, nā te mea kāore anō kia oti, ka kīia taua whare ko 'te whare tīhokahoka'. Ka rongo a Te Kooti mō te whare nei, ka tukuna mai tana kōrero kia whakaotia; he utu tō te whare kāore i oti tika. Ka tukuna e Te Whenuanui tana pōhiri ki a Ngāti Kōtore, he hapū nō Ngāti Kahungunu, he hapū tohunga hoki ki te hanga whare. Nā ōna whakapapa tuitui i a ia ki a Ngāti Kōtore, nā runga hoki i te kuia tohunga nei ki te tito waiata, i a Mihi-ki-te-kapua i moe tāne atu rā ki roto o Ngāti Kōtore, i wātea ai a Te Whenuanui ki te pōhiri i tēnei hapū. Ko te wawata o Te Whenuanui kia riro mā tēnei whare hai whakaara ake anō i ngā kauwae o Tūhoe. Nō te tau 1888 ka tāia te kawa o tēnei whare, ka huaina tōna īngoa ko Te Whai-a-te-motu, hai whakamaharatanga i te whāinga a te kāwanatanga i a Te Kooti i ngā wā o te pakanga.

I te tekau tau atu i 1870 he hui tonu te mahi a Te Whenuanui ki ngā māngai a te kāwanatanga mō ngā pānga whenua o Tūhoe. Ahakoa tōna haere ki ēnei hui kāore ia e kōrero ana. Ko āna māngai ngā kaikōrero i ōna whakaaro mō ēnei take, tae noa ki ngā mea e pā ana ki tōna hapū ake, ki a Te Urewera. I te rā i whakatuwheratia ai a Mātaatua whare i Whakatāne i te tau 1875, ka whakatakotoria anō e ngā rangatira o Tūhoe ngā take whenua ki te aroaro o Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), te minita mō ngā take Māori kia whakatikatikaia e ia. Hāngai tonu ngā whakautu a te minita ki a Te Whenuanui i a ia i kī ai nā te totohe o Tūhoe ki te whawhai ki te kāwanatanga i murua ai ngā whenua. Kore rawa a Te Whenuanui i tāhurihuri, i tumeke rānei i ngā hangahanga a te minita. Nō te rā o muri iho, kua ngākau reka mai te minita. Ka takoto tana kōrero inā nui te riro o ngā whenua o Tūhoe ki te hoko, ka hangaia he ture i te pāremata, hai kati i tēnei mahi.

Ahakoa ngā kōrero a te minita, ka katia ngā pae o te rohe o Tūhoe ki te rāwaho. Nō te tau 1894 ka tae te pirimia a Te Hētana (Richard Seddon) rāua ko Timi Kara (James Carroll), mema mō te Kaunihera Whiriwhiri (Executive Council) ki Ruatāhuna ki te tono kia huakina ngā whenua o Tūhoe kia wātea ai te hanga huarahi. Ka tau te whakaae a Tūhoe ki te tono a te pirimia, ka tīmataria te hanganga o ngā huarahi; ko Te Whenuanui tonu tētahi o ngā kaimahi. Ēngari kāore tōna iwi i whakaae kia mahia e te rangatira ngā mahi a te tūtūā, ka tonoa kia mutu. I te tau 1895, ka mau pū anō a Tūhoe i te taenga mai o ngā kairūri whenua. Te āhua nei ko Te Whenuanui anō te kaiwhakahau. Otirā kāore i pakū he pū.

Nō taua wā hoki, ka whakamoea ngā wāhine rangatira o Tūhoe ki a Te Whenuanui, kia puta ai he uri rangatira. Ko Te Haupai tō Ngāti Kākahutāpiki, ko Anitana tō Ngāti Manunui. Ēngari kua pū kē te ruha ki a ia i taua wā, kore noa iho i puta he uri mō ēnei hapū. I whiwhi tamaiti rawa a Anitana, ā, e ai ki a Ngāti Manunui nā Te Whenuanui, ēngari nō muri i whakaatu ai te māmā nā tētahi kē tana tamaiti.

I tītakataka tonu a ia ahakoa kua kaumātuatia. I te tau 1901 ko ia tētahi o ngā rangatira o Tūhoe i tae ki Rotorua ki te pōhiri i te tiuka o Cornwall, o York rāua ko tana hoa rangatira. Ka whakawhiwhia a Te Whenuanui ki te mētara. I Hune o 1904 ka tono kia wawe te whakatū i tētahi kura ki Ruatāhuna. (Nō te tau 1917 rawa i tutuki ai tēnei take.) I te tau 1905 noho rawa mai ia i Waikaremoana ki te whakahaere i ngā mahi hanga whare i reira. Ka tū ko Te Poho-o-Tūhoepōtiki ki Te Waimako. E ai ki te kōrero, i aituātia te kaumātua nei ki reira i te tau 1906. E mahi ana i tana hōiho hou, ka tumeke te hōiho, ka kāhaki. Ka mau te ringa i te taura, ka tōia. Ahakoa kāore i hemo, koinei te tīmatanga o tōna māuiui, ā, nō te tau o muri mai ka mate. Ka rāua ki roto i te kāwhena matā, ka tāpukena ki muri i Te Poho‑o-Tūhoepōtiki. I te tau 1910 ka hahua, kātahi ka whakahokia ki Te Whai-a-te-motu ki reira takoto ai. Ka mahue mai ko ōna whare ko Te Whai-a-te-motu me Te Poho‑o-Tūhoepōtiki hai whakamaumaharatanga ki a ia, tae noa ki te pepeha, 'Ko Panekire te maunga, ko Te Whenuanui te tangata.'


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives (New Zealand). 1868, A--8A

    Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives (New Zealand). 1871, F--2

    Best, E. Tuhoe. Wellington, 1925

    Temara, P. 'Te ahua o te kupu whakaari: the nature of prophetic sayings'. MA thesis, Victoria, 1991


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Pou Temara. 'Te Whenuanui', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2t33/te-whenuanui (accessed 26 September 2020)