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Mangakahia, Hamiora

by Angela Ballara

Biography

E kīia ana i whānau a Hāmiora Mangakāhia (ko Tana tētehi o ōna īngoa, nō muri mai ka tapaia ki a Piripi) i te tau 1838 ki Waikaurau, kei te takiwā pea o Whangapoua i te rāwhiti o Moehau (Coromandel Peninsula). Ko tōna whaea ko Rīria Pōau (Pōnau rānei), nō Whangapoua anō. Nā ngā pakanga i waenganui i a Ngā Puhi me tōna iwi, i whānau ai a Rīria, ā, whakatipuria ai ia ki Tūhua (Mayor Island). I reira hoki ka tūtaki ia ki a Piripi Te Aue Te Ikatoroa o Ngāti Kahungunu. Koinei te matua o Hāmiora. I mau hereheretia pea a Piripi e Ngāti Maru i te tekau tau atu i 1820. I te mutunga o ngā pakanga i te tekau tau atu i 1830, ka whakahokia e Rīria tōna whānau ki Whangapoua noho ai. I heke iho a Hāmiora i a Ngāti Maru rāua ko Ngāti Tamaterā, ēngari ko tōna tino iwi ko Ngāti Whanaunga. Ko Ngāti Hei rāua ko Ngāti Pare ōna karangatanga hapū. I tono whenua hoki ia i raro i a Ngāti Huarere, te iwi i reira i mua atu e noho ana.

I tipu ake a Hāmiora Mangakāhia i roto i te ao hou mahi moni o te Pākehā; nā tōna whaea rāua ko tōna whanaunga, ko Te Ngārahu i tīmata ngā kānataraka hoko rākau ki Whangapoua. I tōna whanaketanga, ka haere ia ki a Wī Paekohe mō ētehi tau noho ai i Tūranganui-a-Rua (Poverty Bay). He whanaunga tēnei nō tōna matua. I te tau 1862 ka akona e ōna kaumātua ki te whakapapa me ngā kōrero tīpuna i Whareongaonga. Ahakoa kua roa kē ia e noho Karaitiana ana, ā, ka riro hei Mōmona i muri mai, he tauira anō hoki ia nā te tohunga matakite, nā Toiroa i Nukutaurua i Te Māhia. I te matenga o Toiroa i te tau 1867 ka mahue āna mahi mā Hāmiora e kawe. Nā tōna tuakana, nā Mohi, arā i ngaro rā tētehi wāhi nui o ōna whenua, ia i tohutohu kia tūpato ki te Pākehā. He kaiwhakahaere a Mohi i te Kōti Whenua Māori, he tangata tōrangapū, ā, e whakaari ana hei tangata whakataetae i te tūranga Mema Māori mō te Hauāuru i ngā pōti o te tau 1876, whāia ka mate i te tau 1875. Ka taka ngātahi iho hoki te awe o Mohi me āna kawenga ki a Hāmiora.

E toru ngā moenga wāhine o Hāmiora Mangakāhia. Kāore i te mau te īngoa o te wahine tuatahi. Ko Puriake, ko Pauaka rānei te wahine tuarua, nō Ngāti Awa. Nāna ka puta tokorua ngā tamariki, ko Hāmiora Whakakoro Mangakāhia tō mua, he tāne, he mea wahine tō muri. Noho nei ka mawehe a Mangakāhia rāua ko tana tama mātāmua. Ka moe anō a Hāmiora i tana wahine tuatoru i te whakapaunga o te tekau atu i ngā tau 1880, i te tīmatanga rānei o te tekau atu i 1890. Ko Meri Te Tai te īngoa o tēnei o āna wāhine nō Te Rarawa. Tokowhā ngā tamariki o tēnei moenga, ko Mohi rāua ko Waipapa, he tāne; ko ngā tamāhine ko Whangapoua Tangiora Edith rāua ko Mabel Te Aowhaitini.

Mai ka pakeke, ka muia a Mangakāhia e te Pākehā e hiakai ana ki ōna whenua i Whangapoua, he kauri me ētehi atu rākau rā hoki ngā kai o runga. Kāore i momoho āna pakanga ki te Kamupene Rākau Kauri (Kauri Timber Company), ki te Kamupene Papa Rākau o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Timber Company), ki te rōia ko Frederick Earl te īngoa. Te mutunga atu ka tukua ōna pānga whenua ki ngā kaimōkete. He pērā anō āna tono i muri mai mō ngā pānga o Wī Paekohe i te takiwā ki Tūranga (Gisborne) me Waikawa (Portland Island) i te tau 1914 ki 1916; kāore i tutuki. I tōna hemonga, kotahi anō te poraka nui o ngā whenua e hia mano eka kē i tōna whānau i mahue mai ki a Mangakāhia.

He wā anō i whakaaro ia kotahi tonu te rongoā mō ngā mate ohaoha o te Māori; ko te whakakore atu i āna tikanga manaaki, ina hoki kei te pau kē ngā moni i utua mō ngā whenua, i ngā mahi a ngā rangatira e manaaki rā i te tangata. Nā te mamae o tōna kiri i ngā take e pā ana ki ōna whenua, ka puta tōna tautōhito ki ngā mahi a te rōia i roto i te Kōti Whenua Māori. Kāore i ārikarika ngā iwi i tua atu i ōna ake ki te tono i a ia kia pakanga i ā rātou take ki te kōti. Tae rawa ia ki Horotiu (Cambridge), ki Pirongia, ki Ahuriri (Napier). Ka whakatūria hei āteha mā te kōti ka haere i te motu ki te whakawā i ngā tono a ngā iwi, ki Maketū, ki Mōkau tae atu ki ngā huihuinga huhua mō te poraka o Horowhenua. I te tau 1891 ko ia tētehi o ngā Māori tokoiti e whāia ana e te Kōmihana mō ngā Ture Whenua Māori i ngā huinga ki Ākarana (Auckland), ki Waipāwa hoki. Ka puta tana hiahia kia whakatūria he taraipiunara hei whakatau i ngā take whenua katoa i waenganui i te Māori me te Pākehā, kia whakakorea atu hoki ngā ture e pā ana ki te Kōti Whenua Māori.

Nā ngā mahi a te Kotahitanga, arā, te kaupapa pāremata Māori, ka puta te rongo tōrangapū o Mangakāhia. I Pēwhairangi (Bay of Islands) ia i te tau 1889, i te wā i whakamātau ai a Ngā Puhi ki te whakakotahi i ngā iwi Māori o Te Ika-a-Māui me Te Waipounamu hei rōpū tōrangapū; nōna tētehi o ngā tohu tuatahi i tāia ki runga i ngā 'kirihipi' (tuhinga) whakakotahi. I Āperira o te tau 1892, ka tohua e Heta Te Haara mā Mangakāhia e whakamārama te tikanga o tēnei whakakotahitanga ki ngā māngai o ngā iwi i te hui whakatuwheratanga i tū ki Te Tiriti o Waitangi, te whare nui e tū mai rā i Pēwhairangi. Ka whakamāramatia e ia te hiahia o te Kotahitanga ki te whakatū kāwanatanga Māori hei whakahaere i ngā take whenua me ngā take Māori huhua. E tika ana tēnei whakaaro i raro i te rārangi 71 o te Ture Whakamana o te Koroni (Constitution Act) o 1852, ā, ka riro ko tēnei rōpū hei mau i ngā mahi whakaū i te iwi kia kotahi i raro i te mana o te Tiriti o Waitangi. Nā te Tiriti i uhi te mana o te Kuini ki Aotearoa katoa, ēngari nā te Tiriti anō hoki i uhi te tino rangatiratanga o ngā whenua Māori ki te Māori anake. I raro i ngā tikanga Māori, e ai ki a Mangakāhia, he mana kē tō te Kuini, he mana kē tō te Māori, e kore tētehi e maoho ki runga i tētehi. Me tana kī anō hoki ki te puta he raruraru i waenganui i te Māori me te Pākehā nā te Kotahitanga i whakatenetene, he pai ake me whakarere atu.

I te 20 o Āperira 1892 ka eke atu ia ki runga i te komiti tirotiro i ngā whāinga a te Kotahitanga. Ko ētehi o ngā take i puta i tā rātou pūrongo ko te whakakore atu i te Kōti Whenua Māori me āna āteha tae atu ki ngā ture katoa e pā ana ki taua kōti. Me whakatū hoki he komiti Māori ki te whiriwhiri i ngā whenua papatipu o te Māori, ā, me mutu te haere ki ngā kōti whenua Māori hāunga ērā e whakawā tuarua ana i tētehi take whenua. Ka tae ki te mutunga o te hui whakatuwheratanga, kua oti i a ia anake ngā pepa mō te huinga tuatahi o te Pāremata Māori ki Waipatu i Hune 1892. Nō te 17 o taua marama ka pōtitia ia hei pirimia mō te Rūnanga Nui (te whare o raro, he mea pōti anō hoki); nā Hēnare Tomoana rāua ko Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui i tautapa. E whā rā i muri mai ka puta tana pire e tono ana kia tukua he pitihana ki te kāwanatanga koroni kia whakakorea ngā ture katoa e pā ana ki te whenua me te iwi Māori, ā, kia whakawhititia mai te mana whakahaere ki a rātou.

Kāore ia i pōtitia anō hei pirimia mō te huinga tuaruatanga o te Pāremata Māori i te tau 1893, ēngari i whāia tonutia ōna mōhiotanga. Kāore pea i paingia tōna reo whiu i te kōrero, ina hoki i Āperira, hui rawa te Rūnanga Ariki (te whare o runga) ki te pei i a ia i te Kotahitanga, ēngari nō te 1 o Mei ka whakawahia ia hei mema mō te Rūnanga Nui. Ka takoto tana kōrero ki te Pāremata Māori i tōna hiahia ki te tū hei mema Māori mō te Pāremata koroni, ā, kua whakakāorea e ia tōna utu ā-tau, e £500 te nui, kia wātea ai ia ki te mahi mā te Kotahitanga. Ko tētehi wāhi o tana utu i ahu mai i tana tūranga āteha.

Nō te huinga tuawhātanga a te Pāremata i Rotorua i te tau 1895, ka pōtitia anō a Mangakāhia hei pirimia. Ko te mea e maumaharatia ana o taua hui, ko ngā mahi whakaātete a Hēnare Tomoana e whakatū rā i a ia hei ūpoko mō te āpitihana, i runga i te tohe kia tuku iho a Mangakāhia i tana tūranga. Ko tana whakapae, kāore i tika te whakahaere a Mangakāhia i ngā tahua moni a te Kotahitanga. He pai nō te whakamāramatanga a Mangakāhia me te tokomaha o ngā rangatira i hē kē mai ngā tahua i te wā i riro ai tana tūnga pirimia i a Te Whatahoro Jury.

I tua atu i ōna tūmanako hao, nā te rerekētanga o ngā take i waenganui i a rāua ko Hēnare Tomoana, ka kitea e tōtara wāhi rua haere ana te Kotahitanga; kore rawa hoki taua riri i tau. Ko Mangakāhia te māngai mō te hunga kāore i kūpapa ki ngā hiahia o te kāwanatanga koroni. I tipu mai ēnei raruraru i runga i ngā pire e rua e tono ana kia tū mana motuhake te Māori; nā Hōri Kerei Taiaroa tētehi, nā Hōne Heke tētehi. Ko tā Taiaroa e tono ana kia tukua te mana whakatū hui ki te Pāremata Māori, ā, ko tā rātou he hanga i ngā pire mā te kāwana e whakature. Ko tā Heke pire e tono ana kia tū mana motuhake ngā wāhi whai mana ai te Māori, kāore he wāhi mō te kāwana i tana pire. Koinei te pire i tautokona e Mangakāhia.

Ahakoa i te tū pirimia tonu ia i te tau 1897, kāore a Mangakāhia i tae ki ngā huinga o Āperira me Oketopa. Nō te 17 o Āperira kua mate tana tamāhine, 26 te pakeke, o tana moenga tuarua. I muri mai ka pāngia kinotia a Mangakāhia e te mate rūmātiki. Ko ia tonu te pirimia i te tau 1898. Ka puta tana whakahau i Te Puke ki Hikurangi e whakaatu ana e 37,000 ngā Māori i haina i ngā kirihipi a te Kotahitanga mai i te 13 o Maehe 1889 ki te 6 o Oketopa 1897. Ka puta tana kupu whakatūpato mō te mōketetanga a te kāwanatanga koroni i Aotearoa ki ngā kaipakihi Ingarihi, me tana whakahau anō i te iwi kia mau ki te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia mau ki te rārangi 71 o te ture whakamana o te koroni o te tau 1852, kia mau hoki ki ngā kirihipi a te Kotahitanga i hainatia ai e rātou.

Ka whānui kē atu te tōtara wāhi rua o te Kotahitanga i te rironga o ngā hui a te Pāremata ki Pāpāwai i te rōpū ārikarika a Hēnare Tomoana rāua ko Tamahau Mahupuku i te tau 1897 me te tau o muri mai. Ko te take nui o taua wā ko te Pire Whakatautau, Whakahaere hoki i ngā Whenua Māori (Native Lands Settlement and Administration Bill). Nā te pirimia, nā Te Hētana (Richard Seddon) i kōkiri i Pāpāwai. Ka tāpiritia ki tana oati kāore e hokona anō e te kāwanatanga, e te Pākehā rānei, he whenua Māori mehemea ka ture tēnei pire. Ki a Mangakāhia me tana rōpū, he whakatamariki tā te pire i te tangata ahakoa te pai o te āhua; ka puta āna kōrero whakahē ki a Te Hētana i Pōneke (Wellington) i Hūrae o te tau 1898. Ko ngā whenua ka tukua ki ngā poari kua oti te marohi ka riro tonu mā te kāwanatanga e whakahaere, ka pau ngā hua moni i ngā utu whakahaere a ngā poari, ka toe mai ko ngā īngoa anake i runga i te pepa a te hunga nō rātou te whenua. Nāna me ētehi atu i kohikohi ngā tohu hainatanga – 9,775 te maha – ki runga i te pitihana whakahē i te pire.

I ōna tau whakamutunga, ka noho ki Te Pungapunga i Whangapoua, ki te whakamātau ki te whakatikatika i ōna ake raruraru whenua. I te tau 1907, ka tae ki te hui i Waahi ki te kōrero i ngā raruraru i puta ake i ngā takatakahitanga i te Tiriti o Waitangi, ki te whakatū hoki i te Kotahitanga hou i raro i te Tiriti me te ture whakamana i te koroni o te tau 1852. I raro i ngā ture a tēnei rōpū hou ka taea te tuku inoi ki te kāwanatanga o te Emepaea. Ka puta anō tana whakamahara mō ngā take i kōkiritia i mua atu, ka whakaae ki te tuku i tētehi rōpū whāiti he māngai ki Ingarangi ēngari kāore i tutuki tāna i wawata ai.

I tae anō a Mangakāhia ki Pāpāwai i te tau 1911. Koinei tētehi o āna haere whakamutunga; ka pū hoki te ruha, ā, kua riro ko te tūru wīra hei waewae mōna i ōna tau whakamutunga. E ai ki tana kāwai whakaheke, nō te 4 o Hune l918 i mate ai; ka tāpukena ki tētehi tuapuke i runga ake i tōna kāinga i Whangapoua.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    N.Z. Native Land Court. Minute books: Coromandel, 1865--1900. Micro MS Coll. 6. WTU

    Williams, J. A. Politics of the New Zealand Maori. Seattle, 1969


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Mangakāhia, Hāmiora', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2m29/mangakahia-hamiora (accessed 14 December 2019)