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Te Ngahuru

by Wharehuia Milroy

Biography

I whānau a Te Ngahuru ki Te Purenga i te takiwā ki Rūātoki. Ko ia te mātāmua o ngā tama e rua a Pāhiko rāua ko Kau. He uri nō ngā whakamataku o ngā rohe o Te Waimana, o Ōhiwa me Rūātoki: nō Haokitahā, nō Tūwhenuakura, nō Rōmaiwharerākau me Kōurakino. Whakaheke tonu te momo toa ki te riri ki a Te Ngahuru. I pakeke mai ia i Rūātoki, ā, i Ruatāhuna hoki. Nō tana moenga i ngā wāhine rangatira o ngā hapū maha o Tūhoe, i a Te Utu rāua ko Kūmara, ka puta ngā rongo o Te Ngahuru.

Na, i tangohia mai e ngā uri o Te Ngahuru ko te īngoa kē o tō rātau tipuna mō tō rātau hapū, mō Ngāti Koura; ahakoa anō te whakaaro e tika kē ana pea ko Te Ngahuru tonu hai īngoa mō rātau. He maramara kōrero noa hoki e mau ana mō tērā tipuna mō Kōurakino. I ahu mai ia i a Ngāti Ehutū e mōhiotia nei ko Te Whānau-a-Te Ehutū, i a Ngāti Tawarere hoki o roto o Te Whānau-a-Apanui.

I ō rāua na wā, ko Te Ngahuru rāua ko Te Rangimōwaho ētahi o ngā tino toa o Tūhoe whānui. I whāngaia a Te Ngahuru ki ngā kai maro o Mairerangi, tētahi o ngā tino whare wānanga o Tūhoe. Ko Te Honoi i waenganui o Rūātoki me Ruatāhuna te tūnga o tērā whare wānanga. Ko ōna ruānuku ko Te Whatupe, ko Taokakī; ko te ahorangi rongonui ko Tauaiti. Nā rātau i tino matatau ai a Te Ngahuru ki ngā kōrero me ngā tikanga a tōna iwi. He tangata nihoniho a Te Ngahuru. Ko te riri tonu tōna hoa. He riri nāna tonu i kimi, i tono rānei, i whakaara rānei. He wā he kiri kawa tōna wairua; he wā anō he tangata marae, he tangata noho puku. Haere tūpato tonu ai te hunga tono āwhina atu i a ia, he kore hoki e mōhiotia ka pēheatia e ia te tono. I whānui te hau o te rongo o tōna tau ki te mau patu, ēngari ko tōna tino toatanga ko te mau taiaha.

Ka tata ki te tau 1800 ka taka a Tūhoe ki ngā riri tarāwhare – hapū ki te hapū, a Tūhoe hoki ki ētahi atu iwi. Nā aua riri ka whakaputa te mana o Te Ngahuru. I te riri e kīia nei ko Whatawhatatū i Rūātoki, ka kohure ake te whakapiripiri a ngā rangatira o te iwi ki a rātau anō. Ka tono a Ngāti Rongo ki ō rātau karawa o Tamakaimoana i Maungapōhatu, kia haere mai ki te āwhina i a rātau ki te kawe-ā-riri ki a Ngāti Raka. He hapū nui tonu tērā e noho ana i ngā whenua i Ōpouriao, i Rūātoki. Ko ngā mātāika a Ngāti Raka ko ngā rangatira o Ngāti Rongo, ko Te Rohi rāua ko Te Au-ki-Ōhiwa. Na, i konei ka hua te whakaaro a Ngāti Rongo, hāunga ake te ngaki i te parekura o ngā rangatira nei, ēngari me tino patu te iwi o Ngāti Raka kia mate, mate rawa atu.

Ka tono a Te Rangimōwaho ki a Ngāti Koura, i runga i te kaupapa kia pūtahi rātau ki te pakanga ki te hoariri. He mea tiwha e ia. Ka tīkina atu tōna kahu horihori. He kārure ngā hukahuka o te horihori. Ka hoatu te ahi ki te kākahu, ka tahutahuna kia pūareare. I whakaritea me tūtaki ki Ōtamahaka, ka tūpono atu i reira a Te Ngahuru, a Te Raha me Tohiāmanu. Mōhio tonu a Te Ngahuru ki te kaupapa o te haere mai a Te Rangimōwaho. Ka ūhia te kākahu ki ngā pakihiwi o Te Raha, ka mauria e Te Raha mō te wā e rite ana hai tohu i tōna whakaae ki te whakakotahi atu i roto i te riri. Ka nanao atu a Tohiāmanu ki te kākahu ka awhitia ki ōna pakihiwi, he whakaatu ka takahia e ia te ara o Tū. Nā te aha rā, kāore a Te Ngahuru i tautoko kia uru ia ki te riri. Nō muri i te pakanga i Whatawhatatū ka parekuratia a Ngāti Raka i Ōtenuku, ka mahue raupatutia ō rātau whenua i Rūātoki ki ngā hapū o Tūhoe kai reira tonu e noho ana i tēnei rā.

I te tau 1821 pea ka haere a Te Ngahuru me tana hapū me Ngāti Koura ki Raehore, te pā e tū ana i te taha tika o te awa o Mana-ō-Rongo (Mangaōrongo) ki Ruatāhuna. E haere ana ki tewhakarite i a rātau, mō te haere mai a Te Arawa ki te whawhai. I reira ka kōhurutia e ia a Rangiruru o Ngāti Rongo. Ka whāia e Ngāti Rongo. Ko te utu ko te whanaunga o Te Ngahuru, ko Titi. Ā, nō te tau 1823 ka hoki rātau ko tana iwi ki Rūātoki, ka noho ki Te Kōau, ki te pā i te taha tonga ki Waikirikiri. I uru atu anō ia ki te patunga o ētahi o Te Whakatōhea, i te taha rāwhiti o te mārua o Rūātoki. Kātahi ka whakarite a Te Whakatōhea me ērā o Ngāti Raka i noho ai i Rūātoki, kia tūria te riri ki a Tūhoe ki Te Kōau. I whai wāhi anō a Ngāti Rongo, a Ngāti Tāwhaki me Ngāi Tūranga ki ngā riri nei. Ka hinga rātau ki Te Kōau, ki Ōtairoa. Ko te matua o Te Ngahuru, ko Pāhiko, i hinga ki Ōtairoa; ka mutu, he maha ngā wāhine rangatira o Tūhoe i mau herehere, ka heria ki Ōpōtiki. Ko te wahine matua a Te Purewa ko Hinekura; ko te wahine a Te Umuariki, ko Mamaka; ko Te Mihinga, ko Matarau, ko Tirahaere. Heoi, i unuhia te tikanga mau herehere i runga i te nuinga o ērā wāhine, ka whakahokia ki Rūātoki.

He mate nui, he mate kino tō Tūhoe i Ōtairoa. Ka whakatau ngā hapū o Rūātoki ki te whakaea i taua mate. Ka riro mā Te Ngahuru e taki te taua o ngā hapū tata nei, o Ngāi Tūranga, o Ngāti Rongo, o Te Urewera me Ngāti Kōura ki te riu o Te Waimana. Ka whakaekea a Ngāti Raka i Tīwhana. Ka hinga ko ngā rangatira matuao Ngāti Raka, ko Te Moanawaipū rāua ko Rangitūmatarau. Nō te riri o Te Pou-o-Urutake ka tūturu te panaia o Ngāti Raka, mai i ngā rohe o Rūātoki me Te Waimana. Ko ngā mōrehu o Ngāti Raka i noho – i whanaunga tata, i moemoe rānei ki ngā hapū o roto o Tūhoe – kāore e whai mana ana ki ngā whenua i raro i tērā īngoa hapū.

Nō muri o tēnei pakanga, ka mōhio te rangatira o Ngāti Raka a Tapoto kua tino ngaro ō rātau whenua, ka kimi i te huarahi o te tatau pounamu. Ka noho ki Rūātoki mō ētahi rā, ka haere kia kite i a Te Ngahuru i te pā i Ōtamahaka. Ka takoto i a Tapoto tana kōrero ki a Te Ngahuru: 'E noho i konei i tō tāua kāinga. E hoki ana ahau ki Ōpōtiki. Hai muri i a au, kai takahia te ara o Tū ki te rāwhiti.'

I mau tonu te mana o Te Ngahuru ki ngā iwi o Tūhoe i Rūātoki me Ruatāhuna i taua wā. Ko tana tino hoa ko te manu-kura ko Te Kea, me tana tama me Te Aho o Ngāti Rongo. Ka puta te whakaaro i a Pā-i-te-rangi o Ngāti Rongo me patu e ia a Te Kea mō tētahi hara āna i mua atu. Ehara, ko ia kē te mea i mate i a Te Kea, ka tukuna tōna tinana ki roto i te repo. Ka whakaritea e Ngāti Rongo he taua tuarua, ka tūturu i a rātau te patunga o Te Kea. I konei, ka haere a Te Ngahuru rāua ko tōna taina ko Te Kauanga, ki Te Tawa kai Rūātoki. Ka patua ko Te Hiakai o Ngāti Rongo hai whakaea. I a rāua e hoki ana ki te kāinga, ka tūpono atu ki a Te Wahamīanga ka kaikinotia e Te Ngahuru. Ka rua ai ngā ika-ā-te-mate hai whakaea i te patunga o Te Kea. Nui atu te rere o te kōrero me whakaea ngā mate nei. Ēngari, nā runga i te tokomaha o ngā mātua o Te Ngahuru, nā runga hoki i ōna tātai ki ngā hapū, kāore i whai hua ērā kōrero.

Ki te tirohia te āhua o ngā riri a Te Ngahuru, otiia, ērā ki a Ngāti Raka, ka kitea te tohu nui o ēnei toanga ōna. Ko ngā rohe e taka ana ki raro i te kaupapa whenua raupatu a Tūhoe, i riro mai i a Ngāti Raka. Nā reira ka noho ko ia te tino pūtake o te whakatakoto a Tūhoe, i te rohe i whai mana ai ia i mua i te murunga o ōna whenua. I murua aua whenua i Hānuere 1866 i raro i te kawe a te Ture mō te Whakanoho i te Hunga Mārie (New Zealand Settlements Act) 1863.

Ka tū ngā hui a te Kōmihana o Te Urewera i roto o te rohe pōtae o Tūhoe i muri mai o 1896. I reira ka whakarauwakatia e Ngāti Koura te nuinga o ana tono whenua i runga i te āhua o ngā kāinga i nōhia e Te Ngahuru me te korahi o tōna mana. Ko tētahi o ngā tino pā o Rūātoki i nōhia e Te Ngahuru, ko Te Tapuwae. I muri o te riri ki Ōtenuku, ka whiriwhiria e ōna rangatira kia rāhuitia taua pā hai okiokinga mō ngā tūpāpaku whai mana. Ko Te Tapuwae tonu te urupā rongonui o roto o Rūātoki. Tae rawa mai ki te tau 1955, kua kōpāpā rawa hai tanu tūpāpaku. E ai ki te kōrero, ko te rangatira e noho ana ki tēnei pā ko ia te pakihiwi kaha, ā, he tangata whai mana i roto i ngā whakahaere, i ngā take nui ā te iwi.

Iti nei te aro atu a Te Ngahuru ki te pū, ahakoa anō e mātau ana ki te mana kai te ngutu o te pū. I te wā o te whakaariki o Ngā Puhi, kua kite kē ia ka hōrapa nui te mate o tōna iwi, mehemea kāore rātau e hoki ki te tāwharau i ngā ngāherehere o Ruatāhuna. I taua wā anō, kua tīmata kē te whakatō kānga ki ngā whenua mōmona i Ōpouriao me Rūātoki. Ko te āhua nei ahakoa anō kāore a Te Ngahuru i pārekareka atu ki ētahi mea hou, i manakohia atu e ia ngā kai hou, ngā kākahu, me ngā momo kōhua. Nā reira, ahakoa tōna ū ki ngā tikanga a tōna iwi, ko tōna wairua e rata atu ana ki ngā mea hou e uru mai ana ki tōna ao.

Nā ngā hīkoi a ngā tamariki a Te Ngahuru, ka takoto te tauira mō ngā rohenga hapū o roto i a Rūātoki me Ruatāhuna. Ko tana tama ko Piki he tangata toa ki te whawhai; he tohunga ki te tito haka, waiata hoki. He tama anō ko Te Ahoaho, he rangatira toa ki te pakanga, he tohunga ruānuku, he toi nō ngā kōrero o Ngāti Koura me Te Urewera. Nō te tamāhine a Te Ngahuru nō Te Kura, ngā uri kua tohia ki te mauri o te whare nui i Mātaatua ki Ruatāhuna, e kīia nei ko Te Whai-a-te-motu. I hangaia tērā whare mō Te Kooti Arikirangi i te tau 1888. Ko te tuatoru o ngā tama a Te Ngahuru, ko Waiari. I puta tōna rongonui ki ngā mahi whakatū rākau, ēngari i noho tonu tōna mana i raro ake i ērā o ōna tuākana, me tērā o tana tama me Tamarau Waiari.

E ai ki te kōrero, e toru ngā whakatauākī nā Te Ngahuru i whakapuaki. Ka uia atu ana mehemea ka haere ia ki te tautoko i te riri ki a Ngāti Raka, ka whakahokia e ia: 'Ko Ngāti Koura tēnei, he kiri kawa ki te rākau.' E mea ana ahakoa ko wai, ka pakangatia e ia e Ngāti Koura. He kupu anō tēnei nāna: 'Kei takahia te pae hiwi o Te Tāhū-o-Haokitahā.' He whakatūpato – kaua hai pokanoa te tangata ki te takahi i te rohe pae maunga kai raro i tōna mana. I whiti atu i te mārua o Rūātoki ki te riu o Te Waimana. Ā, he raruraru tō te tangata pokanoa ki te haere i tērā rohe, kāore i mātua tono. Ko te tuatoru o ngā whakatauākī nei e rite tonu ana ki te mea tuatahi. Ēngari ko te whakatakoto nā Tūhoe tūturu ake: 'Ngāti Koura touareare.' Kai hea te riri kai reira hoki ahau a Ngāti Koura.

Nō te takiwā ki te tau 1823, i whakaekea ai a Te Urewera e Pōmarenui me ngā whakaariki o Ngā Puhi. Tērā pea i mate mai a Te Ngahuru i taua tau. E kīia ana nā te mate urutā, nā te rewharewha i hemo ai. I mate ki Ōhāua-te-rangi. Kai te raki o Ruatāhuna kai ngā taha tika o te awa o Whakatāne tērā kāinga. Kai reira ia e tanu ana, ā, e mōhiotia ana taua wāhi e ētahi o ngā pūkōrero o Ngāi Tūhoe. He pou herenga atu tēnei nā Tūhoe i ōna kōrero o tōna tāhuhu kōrero me ōna tūtohu rohe whenua.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Best, E. Tuhoe. Wellington, 1925

    Tuhoe–Waikaremoana Trust Board. Manuscripts and interviews. Private ownership


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Wharehuia Milroy. 'Te Ngahuru', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t52/te-ngahuru (accessed 4 June 2020)