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Tuhawaiki, Hone

by Atholl Anderson

Biography

Ko Tūhawaiki i tū hei rangatira amorangi mō Ngāi Tahu ki Murihiku i te matenga o Te Whakataupuka i ērā wā i te tau 1835. E whakaarohia ana nō te tīmatanga o te rau tau mai i 1800, ka whānau ia ki Murikauhaka kāinga i Tauhinu (Inch Clutha). Ko Ruapuke tōna wā kāinga i a ia ka pakeke. Heoti, ko te rohe o Ngāi Tahu puta atu hoki ki ērā atu wāhi ōna takahanga waewae.

Ki te takina mai ōna kauwhau i ngā kāwai rangatira ka kitea ōna hononga ki a Ngāi Tahu, ki a Ngāti Māmoe. Me tīmata mai i a Tūrākautahi. Nāna ko Kaweriri, he toa rongonui i mate ki Murihiku. Me waiho i konā. Nā Manawa rāua ko Paroparo ko Te Kaihaere matua o Tūhawaiki. Ko Te Kaihaere he uri nō Kaweriri.

Kia huri ake ki tōna kōkā, ki a Kura, ko Kukure rānei. Ko te rangatira o Ngāi Tahu nāna i whakapūmau te rongo taketake a Ngāi Tahu ki a Ngāti Māmoe, ko Te Hau-tapunui-o-Tū, uri o Tūteahunga nāna ko Honekai, i moe rā i a Kohuwai, kia puta ki waho ko Kura. Ko Kohuwai he mokopuna nā Raki-ihia uri o Tūtemakohu o Ngāti Māmoe. He hoa kakari ērā toa a Tūtemakohu rāua ko Kaweriri.

Ko ngā īngoa e mōhiotia ana tēnei tangata, ko Hōne, ko John Tūhawaiki; ki ngā kaipatu kekeno i Te Ara-a-Kiwa (Foveaux Strait) ko 'Bloody Jack'. E mōhiotia paitia ana ōna tūpuna, ēngari kei te hapa ngā kōrero mō ngā torotoronga o tōna whānau, tae atu ki te rārangi o āna tamariki. Na, me huri ki a Hōnekai, te pāpā o tōna whaea. Ko tōna tuahine ko Te Wakarawa, nāna ko Wakaka, kia puta ko Takaroa, tētahi o ngā wāhine maha a Tūhawaiki. Tokorima ā rāua tamariki. Ko tētahi anō o āna wāhine ko Te Uira, he mokopuna nā Te Ruahine tungāne o Kohuwai. He tamāhine tā Tūhawaiki rāua ko Te Uira. I tōna matenga, ka whakaarohia he wahine tuatoru tāna, ko Irikautoa, ko Kirihaukau rānei.

E ai ki a Te Hōtereni (Edward Shortland), i runga i ngā kōrero a Tūhawaiki ki a ia, ko Kīhau rāua ko Poko he tama nā Tūhawaiki rāua ko Te Uira. Nō te tau 1830 pea i whānau ai a Kīhau, ka iriirihia ko John Frederick. Ko tētahi kōrero anō ko Tahawaiwai – kē te whaea o Kīhau – ko Touari anō tētahi o ōna īngoa. Heoi, ka tae ki tōna wā, ka tukuna te mana ki a Kīhau hei tū i te tūranga o tōna matua. Ko tana wahine ko Madeleine Kurukuru, tokotoru ā rāua tamariki. Ko Alfred Frederick, ko John, me Ellen. Nā rātou anake ngā tākerekere a Tūhawaiki e mōhiotia ana i tēnei rā.

I te tau 1827, ka tūtaki te kaipatu kekeno rā, a John Boultbee, ki a Tūhawaiki i waho i te ngutu awa o te Mata-au, arā, ko te Matāu (Clutha) o ēnei rā. Ki tōna whakaaro e 34 pea ngā tau o Tūhawaiki i taua wā. Ko te rite hoki o tōna āhua ki tōna matua kēkē ki a Te Whakataupuka. Ki a Boultbee he teina, tuakana ngā tokorua nei. Mai i te tau 1820, i te hemonga o te nuinga o ngā rangatira o Murihiku, ko Te Whakataupuka te whakakapi o Tūpai hei rangatira matua mō Murihiku. Ka topatopa te haere o ngā mahi momoho a Te Whakataupuka, ka piki haere te tohungatanga ā-iwi o Tūhawaiki.

Āpiti atu hoki, ko ngā tukinga a Ngāti Toa i Kaikōura, i Kaiapoi, i Ōnewa i Akaroa. Tuarua ko te kōhurutanga o te rangatira o Ngāi Tahu, o Tama-i-hara-nui i Kapiti. Tuatoru, ka whati te tini rerenga i ngā pakanga a Te Rauparaha. Nā konei ka neke te mana ā-iwi o roto i a Ngāi Tahu ki te taitonga. I ngā waitaua rautipu a Ngāi Tahu ki a Ngāti Toa, ka rangona te māia o Tūhawaiki, me te mūrere hoki ki te ārahi taua.

I ngā rā e potapotae ana ki 1833, ka uru atu a ia ki te waitaua tuatahi e ahu whaka-te-raki ana. Ko ngā kaiārahi ko te tama a Tama-i-hara-nui, ko Tūtehounuku, ko Tangata Hara o Wairewa (Lake Forsyth) me Mākere o Murihiku. Ka tae ki Kāparatehau (Lake Grassmere), ka heipū ohoreretia atu te ope o Ngāti Toa i tātahi. I te nōnoketanga i ngā kare o te moana, ka rarautia atu a Te Rauparaha e tētahi o rātou. Ka pahuhutia e ia tōna kākahu, kātahi ka ruku, puta atu ana! He maha ngā pūrongo e kī ana ko te tangata nāna i rarau te rangatira whakahirahira o Ngāti Toa – ahakoa mō te wā poto noa – ko Tūhawaiki. Kātahi ka rere tāwhāinga ngā taua nei mā Te Koko-a-Kupe (Cloudy Bay) me te ahu whakapapa haere atu ki Kurateau (Tory Channel).

Ka taka ki te tau 1834, ka hiki atu tētahi hikutoto a Ngāi Tahu ki Te Koko-a-Kupe i raro i a Taiaroa rāua ko Te Whakataupuka. Ko te āhua nei kāore a Tūhawaiki i uru atu ki taua waitaua. Ēngari i muri tata tonu i tōna tūranga hei amorangi i te tau 1835, ka takuna mai he mate ki te wā kāinga, ki Ruapuke. Ko Te Pūoho-o-te-rangi te haere ana me tōna marau iti o Ngāti Tama mai i Te Taitapu ki Te Tai-o-Poutini (West Coast). Ka tāwhai atu i Tīoripātea (Haast Pass) ki roto o Murihiku. Kua tae tēnei ki ngā rā tōmuri o 1836. I tae atu te pūrongo ki a Tūhawaiki i Awarua. Rere tonu atu ia ki Ruapuke ki te whakahiato i āna toa, ka hoki ki te huaki i a Ngāti Tama i Tūtūrau. Ka pūhia ko Te Pūoho, ka mau hereheretia tōna apataki.

I Hānuere o te tau 1838, ka hanepī te eneene riri a te waitaua o Ngāi Tahu ki a Ngāti Toa i Te Koko-a-Kupe. Kāore e tino mōhiotia ana mehemea i reira a Tūhawaiki. I te tata paunga o te tau 1839, nāna i arataki te waitaua whakamutunga ki te tai whakararo. I Wairewa, ka rokohanga atu ngā kaimahi patu tohorā a George Hempleman. Nō Ngāti Toa ētahi o rātou. Kotahi i kōhurutia. E kore hoki e taea te pātari mai a Te Rauparaha i Kapiti. Ka whakatauria kua ea i te ika o Waiwera. Haere ake nei ka whakarērea e ia tērā mahi,te kawe a riri.

Ka huri ki te mahi hokohoko. Ka hokona atu e ia he whenua i Hakaroa (Banks Peninsula) ki a Hempleman; ko te utu he poti iti mō te takutai moana, ko Mary Ann te īngoa. I hoki a ia mā runga i tana poti ki tana kāinga ki Ruapuke. Ehara tēnei i tana hokonga tuatahi i te whenua. I te tau 1832, ka hokona e Te Whakataupuka a Rakituma (Preservation Inlet) ki a Peter Williams, he tangata patu tohorā anō. Nō Tīhema o 1835 rā anō ka whakamanaia e Tūhawaiki taua hokonga. Atu ki Hepetema 1838, ka hokohokona anō e ia ētahi maramara whenua i te takiwā ki Te Ara-a-Kiwa ki ngā kaipatu tohorā, patu kekeno i reira e noho ana.

Ka whakapau ngā rā o Hepetema 1838, ka rere a Karetai rātou ko Taiaroa, ko Tōpi Pātuki, ko Haereroa me Tūhawaiki ki Poihākena (Sydney) mā runga i te Magnet. I reira, ka tahuri rātou katoa ki te hokohoko i ngā whenua o Murihiku, tata tonu ki te rua miriona eka i hokona i te marama o Oketopa. Ko te utu, iti iho i te £500 me ngā rawa tāpiri. I te hokinga mai, ka hokohokona anō ngā whenua rahi tonu mō te utu iti noa iho. Ko ētahi o ngā rangatira o Murihiku i pērā anō te ngākau nui ki te hoko whenua.

I Hānuere o 1840, ka hoki anō a Tūhawaiki ki Poihākena. I reira, ka tūtaki atu ki a George Gipps, te kāwana. I ērā wā, ko te kāwana i Poihākena te kaitiaki i ngā ture i Aotearoa nei. Ka whakamātau tērā ki te taupare i ngā mahi hokohoko whenua. Ka kī atu ka āta tirohia ngā hokonga whenua katoa e te ture i te 14 o Hānuere. Nā reira, ka whakahaua e ia me mutu te hoko noa o ngā whenua, ēngari me hoko ki te Karauna anake. Tē whakatoatoa ai a Tūhawaiki mā ki ērā kōrero. Te taki tūnga ake, ka hokona te katoa o Te Waipounamu me Rakiura ki a Johnny Jones rāua ko W. C. Wentworth i te 15 o Pēpuere. Ka hainatia e Tūhawaikite pukapuka hoko, ko tōna īngoa ko 'John Towack, King'. Ka utua tonu mai ki a ia £100, āpiti atu ko te utu ā-tau ā muri atu, e £50.

Me pēhea anō hoki e mana ai tērā tuku i ō rātou whenua? Ruarua noa nei ngā pukapuka tuku i whakamāorihia kia mārama ai ngā kaihoko; ko ngā roherohenga i hauwarea noa iho te tohungia. Hanga noa iho ka tuhia he tātai o te takoto o te whenua. Ko ētahi o ngā whenua e inaki ana; ko ētahi anō e hia kē nei ngā hokonga. Nā reira kāore ngā kaitango i ngākaurua menā e mana ana ā rātou take; ā, ko ētahi i tere tonu te wāwāhi i ō rātou whenua, ka hokohokona tuaruatia. I te tirohanga i ngā whenua i kokorahotia, tē taea te whakamana te nuinga. I te tau 1840, ka whakatūria e Gipps he kōmihana i raro i a Kānara Edward Godfrey hei whakawā i ngā mahi hokohoko whenua. He tino pono rawa atu ngā kōrero a Tūhawaiki i te aroaro o taua kōmihana. E ai ki tā Te Hōtereni i mīharo a Godfrey ki te mārama o te whakatakoto kōrero me te tohungatanga o tērā rangatira ki te tohu i ngā paenga o ngā whenua.

Tutuki rawa ngā mahi hokohoko a Tūhawaiki i ngā hua o āna mahi hoko whenua. I tōna hokinga mai i Poihākena i Maehe o 1840, ahakoa kāore kē ia i whai i ngā mahi pāmu, nāna i mau mai ngā kau tuatahi ki Ruapuke. I te mea kua āhua waia ia ki ngā mahi patu tohorā, koia rā kē tāna i whai ai. Ka whakahaerengia e ia he teihana i te kokorutanga o Awarua (Bluff Harbour). He maha ana kaimahi Pākehā. Heoti, ka huakore te patu tohorā, ka kimihia e Tūhawaiki me ngā rangatira o Murihiku he mahi kē anō mō ā rātou poti, arā, he mau i ngā tāngata, he kawe taputapu, ki ngā takiwā o te motu. He maha ōna kaipuke. Ko te Mary Ann; ko te Levin nō rātou ko Tōpi Pātuki mā; ko te Perseverance he kaipuke whaiwhai kekeno i waihangatia houtia hei kawe taputapu. Ki a Johnny Jones, he kaipuke hauā; ēngari ka riro mā Tūhawaiki e whakarere, pai noa iho. Mahue ake i a ia ētahi o ngā waka.

Nō te marama o Hune 1840, ka mauria te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Ruapuke mā runga i te kaipuke, te Herald. Ka hainatia e Tūhawaiki tōna īngoa, ko John Touwaick. Ko ngā kōrero mōna i tōna ekenga atu ki te kaipuke, whakahirahira ana ōna kākahu o te hōia āwhina āpiha tūranga teitei o te hokowhitu o Peretānia (Great Britain). Ko ngā maurua o tōna tarau he kōura. Ko tōna pōtae tapa toru i tiaria ki te kura. Me tana tūmau, he Māori anō, me ngā kākahu e tika ana mō tōna tūranga.

I tēnei wā, he whare papa tō Tūhawaiki, e rua ngā rūma. Ā, kua tau ki te katoa ko ia te amorangi o Ngāi Tahu. E rua tekau te kaha o tōna pouturiao, rite tonu ki ō ngā hōia o Peretānia ō rātou kākahu me ā rātou rākau. Waihoki, ka whakaaro pūkeke ia kia tino riro mai i a ia ngā painga e ahu mai ana i te kirimina hou o te Tiriti. Kāore i ngaro i ngā Pākehā te pakari o āna mahi hokohoko; tōna mātau ki te kōrero, ki te pānui, ki te tuhituhi hoki i tō rātou reo. Kua waia hoki ia ki ngā āhuatanga mō te mahi moni, tae atu hoki ki te pēke moni. Kia haere ki āna kaipakihi, kua mau i tōna hūtu, me tōna koti roa, koti mā; tae atu hoki ki tōna wati mau tīni. Ka mau te wehi!

Heoi rā te mātakitaki a ngā tāngata haere i te ao, pērā anō i a ia rā! Ēngari ngā mihinare, ko ētahi i pohewa he tino kino āna mahi i mua. Kei ngā tuhituhi a te minita, a J. F. H. Wohlers, te kōrero i rite kē a Tūhawaiki ki te kaihoko hōiho; 'he tangata pīnono, he nanakia, he tītipa hoki…nā ērā mahi i waenga i ngā Pākehā i whiwhi ai ia i tōna tūranga whakahirahira'. Ka whakahāweatia hoki mō tōna kaingākau ki te waipiro, te wāina, te parani me te rama.

Ahakoa ehara ia i te tangata whakapono, i pono tonu tōna hiahia kia noho he mihinare ki Ruapuke. He inoi tonu tana mahi ki a Te Wātikena (James Watkin), te mihinare Wēteriana i Waikouaiti, kia tukuna mai he mihinare Pākehā. Ehara i te kaiwhakaako Māori tāna i hiahia ai. Kua tae kē anō hoki a Tāmihana Te Rauparaha o te Hāhi Mihinare, rāua ko Horomona Pōhio o te Hāhi Wēteriana ki te torotoro i ngā iwi o Ruapuke. Nō te tōmuatanga o te tau 1844, ka rere tahi atu a Pīhopa Herewini (G. A. Selwyn) rāua ko Tūhawaiki mā runga i te Perseverance. Ka mauria e Tūhawaiki ki tōna kāinga noho ai. Ahakoa e whakapono ana ki ngā tikanga a ngā hāhi i whati mai i te Hāhi Katorika, kāore i te mārama mehemea i iriirihia rawatia a Tūhawaiki.

Heoi, ka tae a Wohlers hei kaiwhakaako i Ruapuke, i Mei o 1844, kua pahemo kē mai a Tūhawaiki ki te heri i a Te Herewini ki Akaroa. Kātahi ka rere ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington Harbour); ka mauria ki te aroaro o Kāwana Pitiroi (Robert FitzRoy). I muri iho ka hoki ki te whakahaere i te hokonga o te whenua i Ōtākou (Otago) ki te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Company). Nā tēnei take ka kumea mai ngā rangatira aporei ki Ōtākou i Hune. Ka āta tirohia mārikatia e ia ngā rūri me ngā whakamāramatanga i tuhia ki te kirimina. E ai ki a Hōri Karaka (George Clarke), anei tāna mōteatea wahapū:

Tēnei mātou ngā mōrehu kua poharatia;
Taro ake nei tē kite ai te Pākehā i tōku ngaromanga ki te korehāhā!
I ōku nei rā he iwi kaha he iwi tini mātou…
Ēngari ko te hoariri kino kē atu i a Te Rauparaha, ko ia rā tēnei,
Ko te toronga mai o te Pākehā me āna waipiro, me āna mate kikino.
Ki ō koutou whakaaro ko te mutunga mai o te kino mātou.
Titiro ki te hunga weriweri o Poihākena,
Ngā utanga kaipuke i kawea mai ki tēnei takutai
Ki te patu tohorā, ki te patu kekeno.
Nā rātou i mau mai ngā mate urutā, ngā mate tauhou,
Kāore nei i mōhiotia e ō mātou mātua, hei pēhi i ā mātou, ā
Ngaro noa i te mata o te whenua.

Nō te 31 o Hūrae 1844, ka hainatia te tukunga o te whenua i Ōtākou. Ko te wāhanga ki a Tūhawaiki e £900. Ko te nuinga i tukuna ki Pōneke (Wellington) ki a David Scott hei hoko mai i tētahi poti anō me ētahi taputapu. I noho tonu a Tūhawaiki ki Ōtākou ki te whakatikatika i ngā tautohetohe mō ngā utu ki ērā o ngā rangatira, ki te whakahaere hoki i āna nei take.

I ngā rā tōmua o Oketopa 1844, ka rere whaka-te-raki ia i roto i tētahi kahupapa waka itiiti. Nō tō rātou taenga ki te kūrae o Paparoa (Tūhawaiki Point) i te 10 o Oketopa, ka ākina e te au tuke, ka tahia atu a Tūhawaiki ki te moana. Ko te whakaaro nā te hoe ākau pea ia i āki. Ka haere te wā, ka pae ki te raki, ki Mutumutu. Ka haria kia tanumia ki Te Wai-a-Te-Ruatī. He pā tawhito tēnei e tautiaki ana i te pito tonga o Ngā Pākihi-whakatekateka-a-Waitaha (Canterbury Plains), kei heipū ka hoki mai anō a Te Rauparaha. Nō konei ka whakarērea taua pā, ka whakatapua hoki te poti, ka whakahokia ki Hakaroa pirau ai. Nō Ākuhata o te tau 1846, ka whakahokia e Tōpi Pātuki ngā kōiwi o Tūhawaiki ki Ruapuke āta tanu ai.

Ko Tūhawaiki tētahi o ngā rangatira whakahirahira o Te Waipounamu. Ā, he tino pakari tōna awe i te taenga tuatahitanga o te Pākehā ki tērā motu. Hāunga anō tōna kāwai rangatira, ka tāpiri atu hoki te pahekotanga o te hinengaro punenga ki ōna pūmanawa ki ngā mahi hokohoko, tōna māia, me te āhuareka tonu o te tangata. He aituā tino nui te hinganga o Tūhawaiki i te wā e tū ana mai te ope matua o ngā Pākehā me he ngaru whati mai.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Begg, A. C. & N. C. Begg. The world of John Boultbee. Christchurch, 1979

    Hall-Jones, F. G. King of the Bluff. Invercargill, 1943

    McLintock, A. H. The history of Otago. Dunedin, 1949

    McNab, R. The old whaling days. Christchurch, 1913

    Natusch, S. Brother Wohlers. Christchurch, 1969

    Shortland, E. The southern districts of New Zealand. London, 1851


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Atholl Anderson. 'Tūhawaiki, Hōne', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t110/tuhawaiki-hone (accessed 15 November 2019)