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Kawharu, Ian Hugh

by Margaret Kawharu

Biography

Ko Tā Hugh Kawharu, he rangatira o Ngāti Whātua, he tohunga matararahi o te mātauranga tikanga tangata, he kākā wahapū hoki, otirā, he momo manukura e ai ki ngā iwi Māori tae atu ki ngā iwi whānui tonu. He rangatira whakarae ia o Ngāti Whātua Ōrākei ki te puku o Tāmaki Makaurau, ko ia hoki te heamana o tā rātou poari kaitiaki mō ngā tau rua tekau mā ono. Rongonui ana ia i tāna whakamāoritanga i Te Tiriti o Waitangi, arā, te ritenga reo Māori tonu ki roto anō i te tirohanga Māori. I taua wā e mōhio haere ana te whai tikanga o Te Tiriti i runga i tētahi tirohanga hou o ngā iwi katoa e pā ana ki te ahurei ake o tēnei whenua.

He tangata ngāwari, matatau ki te whakapakepake, pūmau hoki kia ita ai ngā mōtika Māori o te tino rangatiratanga me te pūtake kau o Te Tiriti. Katoa, katoa ka whakatakotoria e ia i runga i te huatau, te ngākaunui, me te piringa tahitanga mō te katoa. I āna kupu whaikōrero hei pōwhiri ki ngā toa hākinakina i tae mai ai ki te Taumāhekeheke o te Emepaea o Ingarangi i te tau 1990; ki ngā toa whakatere wakarā o Nu Tīreni i whakawhiwhia te Ipu Amerika i te tau 1995; tae noa atu ki ngā manuhiri mana nui pērā i a Nelson Mandela, i a Bill Clinton hoki; ko Tā Hugh te whakatinanatanga o te rangatira whai mana o te ao Māori me te ao Pākehā, ki te ao whānui tonu.

Tōna ohinga

I whānau mai a Ian Hugh Paora, e karanga noa ana ko Hugh, ki Hakatere i Te Waipounamu i te 18 o Paenga-whāwhā, 1927. Ko ia te tama nahe o Janet Knox Anderson rāua ko Wiremu Paora o Te Taoū, Ngāti Whātua. I whānau mai a Wiremu i te tau 1892 ki tōna whenua ūkaipō, ki Reweti i Kaipara. I whānau mai a Janet ki Derby, Ingarangi i te tau 1883. Ka whakangungu ia hei kairomiromi ngaio ki St Thomas’s Hospital ki Rānana i te wā o te Pakanga Nui o te Ao Tuatahi. Ka heke mai ia ki Nu Tīreni ki runga i te kaipuke hōhipere Maheno i te tau 1917. I te kaha hiahia ki ōna pūkenga romiromi ka whakarite māna hei whakangungu i te ranga tuatahi o ngā kairomiromi ki te whakatakoto tūroro turupa o te Hohipere o Ōtepoti. I te tau 1926 ka mārena a Janet rāua ko Wiremu. I whiwhi a Wiremu i tāna tohu kairūri i te tau 1913, ā, ka whai mahi ia mō te Tari Whenua, Rūritanga i mua i tāna uru atu ki te Pātariana Paionia o te Wehenga o Nu Tīreni i te tau 1916. Ka taotū kinotia e ia ki Somme i te marama o Hepetema 1916, nā konā hoki mai ai ia ki te haukāinga. Kia rua tau a Hugh, kātahi ka hūnuku te whānau ki Tāmaki Makaurau, noho ai, ā, ka hoki atu a Wiremu ki āna mahi kairūri. I tōna ohinga, i whāngai, i whakaako, i whakatupu hoki ōna mātua i a ia, ahakoa ō rāua tupuranga rerekē i tapatahi ai ō rāua uaratanga me tō rāua ngākau whakangahau hoki. Ka tupu a Hugh hei mema o te Hāhi Mihingare. Nā ngā kaumātua o Ngāti Whātua tōna ingoa Kawharu i tapa i mua i tāna kuhu ki Cornwall Park District School i te tau 1932. He whakakitenga tērā o tōna tātai hono i ahu ake i tōna tūpuna tuarua ki te taha o tōna papa, ki a Paora Kawharu, te tohunga toi whakairo rongonui. Ko te huringa o tōna ingoa, he whakaneinei atu ki tāna mahi hei kaiarataki ā tōna wā, ka mutu, he tairongo pirihonge tērā ki a rātou kua mene atu, ki a rātou anō hoki e heke mai ana. Ka mate a Hugh ki te pupuri me te hāpai i tērā ōhākī, ahakoa te aha.

Whai Mātauranga

He mea nui te whai mātauranga ki te whānau Kawharu. Ko Hauraki Paora te tupuna o Hugh ki te taha o tōna pāpā, ā, he minita Wēteriana ia. Nāna i whakatūturu i āna tamariki katoa ki te whai mātauranga. Koia ko Wiremu tētahi o ngā tauira Māori tuatahi ki Auckland Grammar School, heoi, nā Hugh i whai haere i ōna tapuwae. Ka eke ake ia ki ngā tohu mātauranga, engari anō mō ngā hākinakina. Nā, ka mau ia ki ngā akoranga nui o te āta haere me te whakaraupapa mahi kia nanaiore ai ia ki te taumata tutuki. Rite tonu ki tōna pāpā ka wikitoria ia ki te Campbell Vase me te kapu puhanga o te kura, otirā, ka tākaro whutupōro ia i te Kapa Tekau mā Rima Tuatahi mō ngā tau e toru. I ngākau pai ia ki te tākaro kirikiti me te tū hei kāpene o te Kapa Tekau mā Tahi Tuatahi. I tāna tau mutunga, ko ia te ihumanea i ngā Kaipara Tuākana. He amotauira hoki ia mō ngā tau 1943–5. Huri te wā, ka tapaina te hōnore o Auckland Grammar School ki runga ki a Hugh, arā, ko ia te Ākonga Onamata i te tau 2003 hei whakamihi mō āna whakatutukitanga tinitini i te roanga o tōna ao.

Ka tīmataria e Hugh te whai mātauranga pūtaiao. Ka hūnuku ia ki Te Whanganui a Tara ki te whai i te mātai aronuku, mātai ahupūngao ki Victoria University College me te whai mahi ki te Tari Māori atu i te marama o Maehe 1953. Ka whakapōtae ia ki tana Paetahi Pūtaiao i te tau 1954. Tērā hoki tōna autaia ki roto i te Kapa Whutupōro Māori o Nu Tīreni e rite ana ki te haere ki Whīti, engari auare ake i tētahi wharatanga ōna. Ahatia, ka whiwhi kē ia i te Karahipi Tā Apirana Ngata i te tau 1955 hei whai mātauranga tikanga tangata ki Emmanuel College, University of Cambridge, ā, mahue atu ko āna mahi ki Te Tari Māori. Ka whakatutuki a Hugh i tana Tohu Paetahi nō Kemureti i te tau 1957, kātahi ka whakaroa atu i tāna karahipi mō te whakauru ki Exeter College, University of Oxford hei whai i tētahi Paetahi Tuhi Reta, ā, tutuki ana tērā i te tau 1958. Ka akoako ia i tētahi putanga matua o te tāmitanga a te Pākehā mō te pēhea o te nuku mana whenua mai i te whānau, hapū, marae, papakāinga ki te mana kē atu o te takitahi. Ka titiro hoki ia ki te pātahitanga o tērā ki ngā tikanga o te noho Māori. I mauroa, i tāroa hoki ngā ākinga o taua kaupapa ki roto i a ia. Ka whakauru ia ki tētahi Kairangi Rapunga Whakaaro i raro i ngā whakahaere a Tā Edward Evans-Pritchard engari ko te Rawa Whenua Māori tāna kaupapa, nā reira, ko Nu Tīreni te nukuroa o tāna rangahau tikanga tangata. I te 26 o Oketopa 1957, ka mārena a Hugh rāua ko Hermina Carola Margaretha (Nina) Schepp ki Amsterdam, Hōrana. I a rāua ki Oxford ka whānau mai tā rāua mātāmua ko Margaret tōna ingoa, ā, ka hoki atu te whānau ki Nu Tīreni i te tau 1958. Ka tokorua atu anō ā rāua tamāhine, arā, ko Evelyn rāua ko Linden. Nāwai rā, ka whakawehe ngā mātua, ā, ka tokorau ōkawatia e rāua i te tau 1969.

Ngā tau whakatūranga ki whaitua

I tōna hokianga mai ki Nu Tīreni, ka whai mahi anō a Hugh mō Te Tari Māori hei kaitoko i te ora ki Tāmaki Makaurau. Nā konā, ka wheako ai ia i ngā kaupapa a ngā whānau Māori pērā i te whai whare, te toko i te ora, te whai mātauranga, me te whakahaere tari ki ngā rohe katoa o Tāmaki Makaurau, o Waitematā, o Kaipara hoki. Koia, ka takoto ērā wheako hei papa mō āna akoranga ngaio. Kei roto i ngā nekenekehanga o ngā tikanga whenua Māori ka whaipānga tērā ki ngā rawa whenua tūturu o Ngāti Whātua ki Kaipara, koia anō tōna hononga mana whenua ki ōna tūpuna. Kua rīhi kē aua rawa whenua mō ngā tau rima tekau, engari i te paunga o tērā rīhi, ka huri aua hunga whaipānga hei kaipupuri tonu ki roto i te manatōpū Ōtakanini Tōpū. Ka kuhu atu a Hugh hei mema o te komiti whakahaere, noho mai ai mō te roanga o tōna oranga hei whakawhanake i te whenua mō te pāmu hīpi, pāmu mītikau hoki. I te tau 1960, ki runga i tētahi whakawhiwhinga tūranga rangahau a André Mayer nā te Rōpū Haupā, Ahuwhenua (FAO) o Te Rūnanga Whakakotahi i ngā Iwi o te Ao, ka āhei a Hugh ki te whakarahi ake i āna rangahau o mua hei tūhura i te whakaawenga o ngā tukunga o te Kōti Whenua Māori ki ngā kaupapa whakawhanake, whakatōpū hoki me te pānga o tērā ki ngā tikanga tuku iho a te iwi Māori me āna whakaritenga pāpori. Ka whakaruruhau mai ia e ngā rangatira pērā i a John Rangihau me ngā kaumātua o Ngāi Tūhoe, o Te Whānau a Apanui, o Ngāti Porou, o Ngāti Maniapoto, o Ngāti Whātua, o Te Māhurehure hoki. Ka noho nama ia ki a rātou katoa mō ō rātou manaakitanga me ā rātou kaha tautoko i ngā whitiwhitinga whakaaro e pā ana ki ngā take whenua Māori. Ka mahi ia ki ngā rohe i Aotearoa whānui i ngā tau 1961–2, kātahi ka whakawhiti ki tarawāhi ki te rangahau haere i ngā hōtaka whakawhanake hapori ki Inia, ki te tonga-mā-rāwhiti o Āhia hoki.

Ka whakaatu atu ia i tāna pūrongo rangahau ki taua Rōpū Rūnanga FAO, ka mutu, ka hoki atu anō ia ki Oxford i te tau 1963 ki te whakatakoto i tana tohu Kairangi. Kei tāna pukapuka Māori land tenure: studies of a changing institution (1977) tāna whakatōpūtanga rangahau B.Litt, D.Phil hoki me tāna tātaritanga o te Ture Tari Māori i whakahoungia i te tau1967. Ko te aronga o tāna mahi tātari, ko ngā take tohetohe ki te kōpā, ki te tango ā-ture tonu i ngā rawa whenua Māori e noho oha kore ana. Ka rongonui taua pukapuka i ngā akoranga whare wānanga i tētahi tauākī e pā ana ki te Kōti Whakawā Whenua Māori o te rau tau 1900 e mea ana, ‘he mihini urupatu ia e kaikai ana i ngā tikanga whenua tuku iho o te iwi Māori’.1 Ka rangahau tonu a Hugh i te tau 1964 ki te taha o tōna ake iwi me tōna karangatanga matua a James Te Hīkoi Paora, ā, nā te Rangahau Mātauranga o Aotearoa i tautoko. Ka puta he pukapuka anō Ōrākei: a Ngāti Whātua Community (1975) i mātai haere i ngā kaupapa mātauranga o ngā tamariki ki roto, ki waho atu hoki i ngā taiao ā-iwi. Nā Lord Ballantrae (kāwana-tianara Tā Bernard Fergusson, 1962–1967) te kupu whakataki o taua pukapuka i tākoha mai nā tōna ngākaunui ki te iwi o Ōrākei me tōna piripiri ki a Hugh hei hoa tautoko.

Tāna Umanga Ngaiotanga

Nā te whānui me te hōhonu o tōna māramatanga ki ngā ritenga o te iwi Māori i aua wā rā, me tāna matatau ki te mahi rangahau, ka whiwhi a Hugh i tētahi tūranga ahorangi matua mō te mātauranga tikanga tangata ki Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki Makaurau ki te taha o Ahorangi Ralph Piddington i te tau 1965. Ka whakatikatika ia i tētahi kohinga tuhinga nā āna tauira, arā, Conflict and compromise: essays on the Māori since Colonisation (1975), ā, ka whakamaharatia tērā ki a Piddington. I te tau 1970 ka tapaina Hugh hei ahorangi tūāpapa o te mātauranga tikanga tangata, o te mātauranga Māori hoki ki Massey University, ā, ka mau tonu ia ki tērā tūranga tae atu ki te tau 1984. I mārena ia i a Freda Violet Rankin i te 23 Mei 1970 ki Oromāhoe, Pēowhairangi. Ko Freda tētahi o ngā wahine Māori tuatahi o Aotearoa ka whakawhiwhia tāna tohu toi whakanako; āe rāpea he ringatoi ia, he kaiako toi, he kaiako akoranga koiri hoki. Ka hūnuku te whānau rātou tahi ko te māmā o Hugh, ko Margaret hoki ki Papaioea, noho ai, i te tīmata o 1971. Ka whānau mai ngā tamāhine tokorua anō ki reira, arā, ko Merata rāua ko Amokura.

I ngā tau o te waru tekau, i a ia e mātanga hāpai ana mō Te Kaunihera Māori o Aotearoa, ka āwhina a Hugh ki te tuhi aratohu hei hangahanga ture ānamata kia āhei tonutia e te iwi Māori te whakamahi i ō rātou whenua ki runga i ā rātou tikanga whakahaere me ā rātou tuku ihotanga i oatitia ai ki roto i Te Tiriti o Waitangi. Kaha whakapono ana ia, ‘Ahakoa kei roto i Te Tiriti te parahauranga mō te mana kāwanatanga i Aotearoa, he ōrite tonu te mātāpono parahauranga mō te iwi Māori kia pupuritia te manatōpūtanga o ō rātou uara Māori ki roto rawa i ngā ture o te whenua.’2 I te tau 1985, ka hoki anō ai a Hugh ki Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki Makaurau hei tumu mō te mātauranga Māori e noho iho mai ana i raro i te Tari o te Mātauranga Tikanga Tangata i taua wā. Ka whakahaere ia i te hanganga mai o te marae o Waipapa me ngā mahi whakairo, mahi whakanikoniko hoki i te wharenui o Tāne-nui-ā-rangi. Tūwheratia ai tērā i te 20 Pepuere 1988. Ko taua marae rā te ātea rangatiratanga Māori o ngā akoranga me ngā rangahau, ā, ka motuhake te Tari Māori i tōna mana āhua ake i te tau 1992. Ahakoa i rītaia a Hugh hei ahorangi hōnore i te tau 1993, ka kuhu tonu ia ki te ao o tōna whare wānanga. Ka tiaki i ngā tauira tohu paetahi, ka tāpukapuka, otirā, ka whai kōrero hoki ia i ngā take e whaipānga ana ki te iwi Māori. Ka noho ia hei perehitene o te Manatōpū Poronēhia i ngā tau 1993 ki te tau 2005 i te koanga ngākaunui ōna nā te mea ko tōna karanipāpā hoki tētahi o ngā mema tōmua o taua Manatōpū nō te tau 1892. I a ia e tū ana hei kaitohu tuatahi rawa o Te Whare Rangahau o Tā Hemi Hēnare i ngā tau 1993–1995, nāna i whakatū i tētahi hōtaka rangahau e whaitake ana ki ngā iwi o Te Tai Tokerau hei āwhina i tā rātou ake whanaketanga pāpori, ohaoha hoki.

Hei ratonga mō te marea

I te roanga o tōna ao, ka kawea tāna āta kauawhi, tāna pākiki, me ōna whakaaro nui ki te whakatinana i ngā tikanga o Te Tiriti o Waitangi, me te ahuahu i tētahi āhua o te iwi kākano-rua. He mema ia o te Komihana a te Karauna mō ngā Kōti (1976–8), ā, ko ā rātou taunakitanga ka aratakina ngā panonitanga ki roto i ngā hanganga o te pūnaha ture.

Ka poua ia ki te Poari o te Tari Māori (1987–90) i te wā o te kāwanatanga Reipa tuawhā me āna kaupapa here kia tuku iho ai te mana whakahaere ki ngā iwi, ki reira tuwhera atu ai ētahi āheinga hou e tū rangatira ai te iwi Māori. Ka noho ia ki te Taraipiunara o Waitangi mō ngā tau tekau (1986–96), ā, ka ringa tuhituhi ia i ngā pūrongo tekau mā rua, tae rā anō ki ngā pukapuka e toru o te Ngāi Tahu Report (1991). I roto i tērā pakirehua ka whakatauria e te Taraipiunara i te ‘hara kikino rawa atu’ a te Karauna, kātahi ka taunaki i tētahi whakaritenga ā-iwi e āhei ai a Ngāi Tahu ki te kōwhiriwhiri tahi me te Karauna hei rapu oranga, ā, whakatinanatia ai hoki. He tikanga hou tērā ka takoto hei papa mō ngā kereme ka whai muri iho mai. Nāna anō ngā whakaaturanga ki ētahi atu pakirehua a te Taraipiunara pērā i ngā kōkōraho Wai 262 Indigenous Flora and Fauna and Māori Intellectual Property, Wai 1071 Foreshore and Seabed. Ka whakatika a Hugh, ka tuhi tahi hoki i te pukapuka Waitangi: Māori and Pākehā perspectives of the Treaty of Waitangi (1989), tētahi kohinga kēhi mātai ka tūhura i ngā āheinga ahurea, āheinga kāwana me ngā kōpiri kei roto i Te Tiriti. Ka whakaputa te pukapuka i te pō i mua i te huringa tau 150 o te hainatanga o Te Tiriti, ā, ka noho tērā hei tohutoro aro whānui ki ngā ture ka whaipānga mai ki te marea. He ringa tautoko ia i te putanga tuarua o te pukapuka Waitangi Revisited (2005), tētahi arotake i ngā whanaketanga o te wā mai i te putanga tuatahi, whai muri i ngā ture a te kāwanatanga 2004 mō te Takutai Moana. I roto i aua putanga e rua, ka mātai tiro atu a Hugh i ngā mātātaki mō te hapū ki Ōrākei e pupuritia tonutia ana te mana tangata whenua o Tāmaki Makaurau. He inati āna mahi mō ngā hapori. Kei roto ia i ngā kaupapa whakahaere o te Tumu Toi, te Pouhere Aotea, me ētahi atu tūranga mana whakahaere ki Tāmaki Paenga Hira mō ngā tau koni atu i te rua tekau tau. He mema ia o Tāmaki Paenga Hira i ngā tau 1985–1996, nāna hoki i āwhina i te whakatū rōpū kaitohutohu e kīia ana, te Taumata ā-Iwi o te whare pupuri taonga. I roto i tērā anga motuhake mō ngā māngai Māori ka aro katoa taua rōpū ki te mana whenua o Ngāti Whātua ki te paparahi o te whare me ōna hononga ki ngā iwi noho tata o Ngāti Pāoa, o Tainui hoki. I te hui tuatahi o te Taumata ā-Iwi i te tau 1997, ka kōwhiri pōti ai a Hugh hei māngai mō tōna iwi. He tūranga tērā ka kawea ki tōna reo whakatītina me ōna mana āhua ake, ā, ka āta pupuritia aua mahi rā tae noa atu ki tōna hemotanga.

Ngāti Whātua Ōrākei

Ahakoa te tinitini o āna kaupapa, ka kiri whakauka tōna kaingakaunui ki a Ngāti Whātua. Nāna i tautoko i te whakatūranga o Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Whātua; i te tupu me te whanake haere o te kereme o Te Tiriti a tōna iwi ki Kaipara, ki ngā rohe hoki o Tāmaki Makaurau; i te tūhononga whai tikanga tonu i waenganui o Ōrākei me Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki Makaurau ki roto i tētahi manatū ōkawa mō te kotahitanga i te tau 2003. I mahi takawaenga ia ki roto i ngā whakaritenga tahitanga me te Karauna hei whakahoki mai te papa whenua o Takaparawhau ki tōna ake iwi. Ka noho heamana ia ki te Poari Whenua Rāhui o Ngāti Whātua Ōrākei ki reira āta whakaritea ai te mana whakahaere takirua o Ōrākei rāua tahi ko Te Kaunihere o Ākarana i te ‘Whenua Rangatira’ tētahi wāhanga o Takaparawhau hei wāhi wātea mō te marea. Kei runga noa atu ia hei pouhere mō tōna hapū ki roto i ngā panonitanga maruwehi o te wā: mai i te whakakorenga o te mana tangata whenua ki tētahi wāhi tapu, he hauwhā eka noa iho; kia tū kē mai tētahi rangatōpū hou e whairawa ana i āna tūāpapa ohaoha, tōrangapū, ahurea hoki. Koia ka tū rangatira te iwi kia whai rawa, kia whai māia me te tūperepere, te pāhautea hoki.

Whakatutukitanga

Nā runga i ngā tutukitanga me ngā pūmanawa rangatira o Hugh hei kaiwhakamauru, ka whakawhiwhi ia ki ngā hōnore maha rawa; tērā tōna Tohu Tā i te tau 1989 mō āna ratonga mātauranga, mō te iwi Māori hoki; tērā tōna Tohu Hiranga i te tau 2002 e whakamana ana i āna mahi mō Aotearoa katoa; tērā tōna Tohu Kātua o Tāmaki Makaurau i te tau 2005. Nāna hoki i whiwhi i te Mētara Elsdon Best i te tau 1992, otirā ka tohi ia hei Autaia o Te Apārangi i te tau 1994. Ka whakamānawa te University of Oxford hei Autaia Hōnore o Exeter College, hei poumatua hoki o te Pitt-Rivers Museum Society. Ko Tā Hugh ōhākī ki Aotearoa ka tohua te tino uaratanga o te atawhai, te rangatira, me te mōhio. Whakaaturia ai e ia te mīharo me te māhorahora o tōna wairua pai ki ngā tāngata katoa. Āe, e rite pērā ana ia ki tā te āhua titikaha o ngā tūpuna o Ngāti Whātua i tā rātou pōwhiri atu ki a Kāwana Wiremu Hopihana i te tau 1840 kia whakatū ai te tāone o Ākarana i tō rātou tuku whenua. I mate a Freda Kawharu i te tau 2000. Ka mate tara ā-whare a Hugh i tōna kaumātautanga 79 ki roto i te amonga o tōna whānau ki Milford, Tāmaki Makaurau i te 19 o Hepetema 2006. Ka tīraha mai ia ki Ōrākei kātahi ka takahi i te huarahi ki Reweti ki reira tanumia ai ki te taha o ōna mātua. 

Footnotes
  1. I.H. Kawharu. Māori land tenure: studies of a changing institution. Oxford, 1977: 15. Ki muri
  2. I takoto ki ‘Māoris “lose out” in the pākehā land laws’. Manawatū Evening Standard. 9 March 1983. Ki muri

He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Durie, M. ‘A tribute to Sir (Ian) Hugh Kawharu 1927–2006. Annual report of the Royal Society of New Zealand: incorporating the ... Academy Council yearbook 2007

    Kawharu. A. ‘Hugh Kawharu. ONZ, FRSNZ (1927–2006).Exeter College Association Register 2007: 23–6

    Kawharu. I.H. Ōrākei: a Ngāti Whātua community. Te Whanganui-a-Tara, 1975

    Kawharu. I.H. Māori land tenure: studies of a changing institution. Oxford, 1977

    Kawharu. I.H. (ed). Waitangi: Māori and Pākehā perspectives of the Treaty of Waitangi. Tāmakimakaurau, 1989

    New Zealand Māori Council. Kaupapa te wāhanga tuatahi. Typescript, 1983

Pae tukutuku


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Margaret Kawharu. 'Kawharu, Ian Hugh', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 2023. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/6k2/kawharu-ian-hugh (accessed 24 June 2024)