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Baker, Frederick

by Graham Butterworth

Biography

He tama a Frederick Baker nā John Francis (Frank) Baker rāua ko tana wahine, ko Jane Robinson, arā, nō te 19 o Hune o te tau 1908 nei ia i whānau ai ki Whauwhaukauri i Te Hokianga. He tangata tope puihi nei tana pāpā ēngari nō muri iho i tahuri atu ia ki te mahi pāmu miraka kau. Ko te toronga o Frederick Baker ki a Ngā Puhi nō te taha ki tōna whaea. I a ia ka pakeke nei, e ono putu tōna roa, ā, he parauri nei tōna kiri me ōna kanohi, he pango kē nei hoki ngā makawe.

I kuraina ia ki te kura o Rawhia, ā, nō muri i haere ia ki te kura tuarua ā-rohe o Rāwene (Rāwene District High School). I riro mai tana tohu mātauranga i a ia i te paenga tuaono, ā, nō te tau 1924, i puta ia i tana whakamātautau hei kaimahi kāwanatanga. Nō te 1 o Oketopa o te tau 1924 i uru atu ia ki te Tari mō ngā Mahi Nunui (Public Works Department) i Whāngārei, he karaka tauira nei tōna tūnga. Kitea ake ana ana tohu mātauranga ka tīmata nei tana mahi. Mai i a ia i te kura i mau tonu tana whai i te tākaro whutupaoro, ka uru atu nei ia ki te tīma o Waikato.

Nō te tau 1928 i whakawhitia atu a Baker ki Kirikiriroa (Hamilton), ā, i te paunga o te tau 1931 ka oti nei i a ia tana whakamātautau kaikaute tohunga (Professional Accountants’ Examinations). Ka huri atu nei ki te tau 1932, ka puta ia i ngā whakamātautau o te rōpū hēkeretari o Ahitereiria (Australian Institute of Secretaries), ā, nō te tau 1935 i whakanōhia ake ia hei hoamahi mō taua wānanga. Nō Hānuere o te tau 1933 i whakawhitia atu ia ki te Tari Arotake (Audit Office) i Te Ūpoko-o-te-Ika, ā, i reira i āwhina ia i te mahi arotake i te Tari Tuku Moni a te Kāwanatanga (State Advances Office). Ka taka mai nei ki te 26 o Tīhema o te tau 1933, moea ake ana e ia i te whare karakia Perehipitīriana i Frankton a Edna Mavis Carrie, he wahine tuitui kākahu nei nō Kirikiriroa. Tokorua nei ā rāua tamariki. Nō Hepetema o te tau 1935, ka tīmata ake nei tana mahi mā te Kaporeihana Mōkete o Niu Tīreni (Mortgage Corporation of New Zealand), ā, kitea ake ana tōna mātauranga ki te mahi kaute. I te huringa ake i te Kaporeihana Mōkete ki te Kaporeihana Tuku Moni a te Kāwanatanga (State Advances Corporation), ka whakatūria a ia hei kaitirotiro. Nō muri mai i whakaīngoatia a ia hei kaikaute rīwhi mō Ākarana (Auckland).

Nō te tau 1926 i whakauru atu ai a Baker ki te rōpū hōia ā-takiwā (Territorial Force); whakatūria ake ana a ia hei haihana i te tau 1928, ā, i te ekenga atu ki Hune o te tau 1931, ka whakapikia ake ia hei rūtene. Noho ake ana ia i te ope taua eke hōiho i Te Tai Tokerau me Waikato, ēngari nō tana pikinga mai ki Te Ūpoko-o-te-Ika i te tau 1933, nā te kore ope taua eke hōiho i reira, i noho ia hei āpiha tāpui. I te takiwā o te tekau tau atu i 1930, i mau tonu tana whakaaro ki ngā mahi hōia, ēngari he kumukumu nō te āhua o te taiao, ka tae atu nei ki te 20 o Mei o te tau 1939, ka tono ia kia whakaurua atu ia ki te rārangi hōia ngangahau. Kāti, i mua i te tīmatanga ake o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, kāore i kitea e ia he tūranga mōna, ēngari ka tae atu nei ki te marama o Noema, kātahi ka tukua atu ia ki te Ope Taua 28 (Māori) (28th Māori Battalion), arā, te hokowhitu Māori, he āpiha kohikohi mōhiotanga tana mahi.

I te whakatūnga ake i a ia hei kāpene taupua i Ingarangi i Hūrae o te tau 1940, ka riro i a ia te whakahaere o te Kamupene Tari Matua (Headquarters Company). Kitea ake ana tana tino pai hei kaiwhakahaere i āna whakaritenga mō te whakaekenga o te hokowhitu Māori ki Īhipa i te 3 o Hānuere i te tau 1941. I te marama o Maehe, i karawhiua ake ai te hokowhitu Māori i tētahi whawhai tino kino kē nei, i a rātou ko ētahi atu hokowhitu e wawao ake nei i a Kariki (Greece) i ngā Tiamana. Ko tā Baker mahi, he whakahau i te Kamupene Tānga (Reinforcement Company), whakamataku kē ana te nui o ngā hōia i aituā. I mau herehere ia, ēngari tareka ana e ia te oma atu. Nō muri iho o tana rerenga, i kitea ake e ia he rererangi moana kāre ia i mōhio ki te whakarere, he rōnihi tere kāre i taea e ia te mīhini te whakahaere, me tētahi hōiho kāore i taea e ia te hopu, ā, i te mutunga mai, haria atu ana ia e tētahi taraka Kariki ki te tauranga whakaekenga kaipuke.

I tana hokinga atu ki te hokowhitu Māori i Kariti (Crete) e kino kē ana te taumaha o te whawhai, ā, i te matenga atu o ngā āpiha matua tokorua, riro ana i a ia te whakahaere o Kamupene A. Ahakoa te taotū ōna ake, riro ana ko ia i te ārahi atu i ngā hōia taotū e kaha ana ki te hīkoi, haria atu ana e ia i mua o te hokowhitu Māori e hoki whakamuri ana. Ko ia tētahi o te rōpū hōia nā te taua moana a te Karauna i mau atu ki Kariti. Nō tōna taenga atu ki Īhipa, ka nukuhia atu ia hei kaiārahi mō tētahi o ngā kamupene o te Ope Taua 25 (25th Battalion). Ka mutu, ka hoki anō ia ki te hokowhitu Māori hei tumuaki tuarua, he meiha nei tōna tūranga. I te matenga atu o Rūtene Kānara Eruera Love i te 12 o Hūrae o te tau 1942, whakatūria ana a Baker hei kaiwhakahaere i te hokowhitu Māori i te 13 o Hūrae, arā, he rūtene kānara taupua nei tōna tūranga.

Tae atu ki te 2 o Noema o te tau 1942 tana roa e whakahau ana i te hokowhitu Māori. Ko te tangata i a ia te whakahaere o te Taua Nui Tuawaru (Eighth Army) i taua wā rā ko Tianara Bernard Montgomery, ā, ko tētahi wāhanga o taua taua ko te Whare o Aotearoa (New Zealand Division). Nō konei i hua ai te whakaaro o Pirikitea Howard Kippenberger, ko ia nei te kaingārahu o te Pirikēti Hōia Tuarima o Aotearoa (5th New Zealand Infantry Brigade), kia riro mā te hokowhitu Māori e kōkiri ngā Tiamana e tata ana te karawhiu mai i a rātou. Ko te kōkiri tuatahi tēnei i whakahaerea ake ai e Baker. Nāna tētahi ope i ārahi haere atu hei tiro i te āhua o te huarahi, waitohu atu hoki i te whāinga rā, i te whārua o El Mreir. Kore rawa i taea e rātou te kōkiringa tuatahitanga atu, ēngari nō te whakaekenga tuaruatanga atu i te 26 o Ākuhata, i tino toa rātou, ā, ki te whakaaro nei, kātahi kē te tauira pakanga ko tēnei! Nō muri mai, he mea hoatu ki a ia te mahi whakaeke i te taha raki o te whārua o Munassib, kia hono atu ai hoki ki te hokowhitu 21 (21st Battalion) e noho ake ana i tētahi whārua e pātata tonu mai ana. Nuku rawa atu te hōrapa atu o te hokowhitu Māori ki roto i te rohe o te hoariri, ā, pū ana te mōrearea tērā rātou e tīhaoatia ake ai. I te mutunga ake o ngā whakatikatika mai a Kippenberger, i tae atu te hokowhitu Māori ki tōna tūnga i te taha katau ake o te hokowhitu 21, ā, i reira i mate atu i a rātou ngā taika o ngā Tiamana e kakari mai ana ki a rātou.

I tīmata āke i konei te hanga kaupapa mō te pakanga mō Aramaina (El Alamein). Haere atu ana a Baker ki tētahi hui, he whakaatu nei i ngā tikanga mō te whakaeke te mahi, ā, tuhia ake ana ki tōna rae ngā mokamoka o te mapi. I tana hokinga atu ki tōna takuahi, ka hangaia e ia tētahi heri kirikiri hei whakatauira ake mā ngā āpiha o te hokowhitu i te āhua o te whawhai e takatū nei rātou ki te kōkiri. Kitea ake ana i konei tōna kaha ki te tiro i ngā mokamoka o te whakahaere. Honoa ake ana te hokowhitu Māori ki tētahi pirikēti o Peretānia. Mākūware noa ana te whakatakoto o ngā kaupapa kia pēhea te whawhai, ā, nā te hē katoa o te whakaatu mai o ngā tohu whenua, tērā whakanōhia kētia mai ana te hokowhitu kia kotahi māero ki te tonga te tawhiti atu i te wāhi e tika kē ana mō rātou. Whakahaua ana e Baker tana rōpū mōhiotanga ki te whakatakoto anō i ngā tēpa mō te tīmatanga o te kōkiri i te wāhi tika. I te mutunga ake o ngā kōrero nui kē nei, i tareka e Baker ngā āpiha o ērā atu o ngā hokowhitu te nuku kē atu ki ō rātou tūranga tika ake nei i te raki. Hāwhe hāora noa nei te roa o te whawhai ka tino whara a Baker. Mō tōna kairiri ki te ārahi i te hokowhitu Māori i ūhia tonutia atu ia ki te tohu toa DSO, ā, whakahokia tūrorotia mai ana ia ki te kāinga. Tino whara ake ana ko tōna waha me tōna arero, ka tata nei ki te kotahi tau ia e takoto ana i te hōhipera, e pokaina ana kia āhei ake anō ai ia ki te kōrero. I te whā marama ko ia ake i te whakahaere i te Ope Taua 28 (Māori), e hia kē nei ngā angitūtanga.

Kāore pea a Baker i tino hāngai atu ki tana taha Māori. I roto i ana kōrero i tuhia ake e ia mō ngā hōia Māori, he wairua wehe kē mai nei te āhua o ana kōrero, me te rangirua anō hoki ōna i te tuatahi. Ahakoa anō, i whakamīharo ia ki te kaha o te Māori ki te whawhai, ā, ki a rātou mā noa nei o te hokowhitu, he Māori tonu ia: tīmata ake ana ngā tuhituhinga atu a ngā āpiha o Ngāti Porou ki a Tā Āpirana Ngata i te marama o Pēpuere o te tau 1943, ki te tangi mō te rironga atu o ngā Kānara Māori tokorua nei, o Love rāua ko Baker. I te mahinga ake o te tāhuhu kōrero mō te ope taua Māori, ka puta ake nei te pātai a Kippenberger ki a Tā Bernard Freyberg mehemea he Māori a Baker, ā, waitohua ake ana ia ki roto i te rārangi kānara Māori.

He hīkaka nō te kāwanatanga kia whakatūria te mahi whakanohonoho hōia i runga i te taumata tika, i whakaīngoatia ai a Baker hei tumuaki mō te Tari Whakanohonoho Hōia (Rehabilitation Department) i te marama o Noema o te tau 1943. I Pōneke (Wellington) nei ia ka whakaurua atu ia hei mema mō te Poari Whakanohonoho Hōia (Rehabilitation Board), e tūmanako nei ki te whakawhiwhi ake i ngā hōia ki ētahi mahi mā rātou e whai oranga ai, me te mahi whakatika kia tōtika ake ai ngā nohanga kāinga. Nā runga i ngā whakaratonga popore pai ake a ngā whare kāwanatanga, i whiwhi whare ai te hunga hōia, 17,000 te tokomaha, nui atu rānei; whakaritea ana hoki he moni āwhina hei hoko whare mai, 73,000 pea te rahi. Tae rawa ake ki te tau 1963, kua eke kē ki te 217,179 te nui o ngā hōia i runga i te rārangi īngoa ake o te poari, e āhei nei te poari ki te whakahaere akoranga mahi ā-rehe, hoatu pūtea mātauranga, whakanohonoho tangata ake rānei ki runga i te whenua, tuku moni tārewa atu rānei hei whakatū mahi kaipakihi.

I te wā e mārō ana te haere o te mahi a te Tari Whakanohonoho atu i te tau 1946 ki te tau 1953, £19 miriona te nui o te moni e pau ana ia tau, ā, nuku atu anō hoki i te 1,100 te nui o ngā kaimahi. Noho waengarahi tonu ake ana a Baker i ngā whakahaere o te tari. I runga ia i ngā komiti whakahaere me ngā komiti tohutohu katoa o te poari, ko ia rā te kairuruku o te whakahaere o te mahi whakanohonoho. He mea whakatū anō

hoki ia ki te rōpū ahu whakamua o te motu (Organsation for National Development), te whakamātauranga ki te whakatakoto kaupapa a te kāwanatanga Reipa mō muri i te pakanga, nā te aha rā korekore ana i tutuki.

I whakatakariri tonu nei te Māori mō ngā tikanga whakanohonoho ake a te kāwanatanga mō ngā hōia Māori i te mutunga ake o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. Heoi anō nō te tau 1940 mai i kī ai te kāwanatanga kāore he rerekē ake o ngā whakarite mō te Māori rāua ko te Pākehā. Taka mai ana ki a Baker te mahi whakatutuki i te take nei. Kitea tonutia atu e ia te tika o tētahi rōpū ake mō te Māori anake, ka tautokona ake e ia te whakatū i tētahi komiti pūtea mō te whakanohonoho hōia Māori (Māori Rehabilitation Finance Committee). Whakamahia ake ana e te Poari Whakanohonoho ko te Tari Māori (nō muri nei i hurihia te īngoa o te Tari ‘Native’ ki te Tari ‘Māori’) hei kanohi mōna, ā, tohea ake ana e Baker kia rite tonu te tika mai o ngā ratonga ki te Māori ki ērā anō e whakawhiwhia atu nei ki ngā hōia mōrehu Pākehā. Me ka kite nei ia kāore i te hāngai aua tikanga rā, kaha ana tana whakahē kia oti rawa te whakarerekē ake. Nā runga i tēnei kaupapa āna, ka oti i a ia te kī taurangi a Ngata, arā, mehemea e utua ana e te Māori he utu nui mō tō rātou rangatiratanga tangata, me whiwhi hoki rātou i ngā tino painga.

Nō Āperira o te tau 1954, i whakakorea ake te Tari Whakanohonoho, rāua kētia ake ana hei wāhanga mō te Tari Taiwhenua (Department of Internal Affairs). I mau tonu te noho mai a Baker hei kaiwhakataka, ā, kāti hoki nō te 15 o Hepetema o te tau 1954, i whakatūria atu anō hoki ia ki te Kōmihana Kaimahi Kāwanatanga (Public Service Commission). Nō te 1 o Hune o te tau 1958, i hinga ai a Baker i Pōneke i te mate manawa; mahue ake ana i muri i a ia ko tōna hoa wahine me tā rāua tamāhine, tama hoki.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Baker, F. & E. M. Baker. Papers, 1909–1981. MS-Group-0079. WTU

    Butterworth, G. V. & H. R. Young. Maori Affairs: Nga Take Maori. Wellington, 1990

    Cody, J. F. 28 (Maori) Battalion. Wellington, 1956

    Obit. Northland Magazine No 3 (July 1958): 4–5, 7

    ‘Rehabilitation chief arriving tomorrow’. Wanganui Herald. 15 Dec. 1943: 8


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Graham Butterworth. 'Baker, Frederick', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 2000. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/5b3/baker-frederick (accessed 6 December 2019)