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Tumutara, Eruera Hamiora

by Angela Ballara

Biography

I whānau a Eruera Hāmiora Tumutara, tērā anō tōna īngoa ko Eru Hāmiora Pio, i te takiwā o te tau 1859, 1860 rānei i te rohe o Te Whāiti kei te tonga paeroa o Murupara i Te Moana-a-Toi-te-huatahi (Bay of Plenty). Ko te tamaiti tuatoru ia o ngā tamariki a Hāmiora Tumutara Te Tihi-o-te-whenua Pio o ngā iwi o Ngāti Awa me Ngāti Tūwharetoa, ā, he tohunga, he kaituhi, he kaiwhakaatu kōrero ki ngā kaimātai Pākehā pērā i a Te Peehi (Elsdon Best) mā. Ko te whaea o Eru ko Te Whakahoro, e mōhiotia ana anō ōna īngoa ko Maria Taka, ko Takawhare Te Ākaurangi o Ngāti Tūwharetoa me Ngāti Kahungunu. Mai i te tekau tau atu i 1880 ko ēnei hapū o Ngāti Awa ko Ngāi Tamaoki me Ngā Maihi o Te Teko ngā hapū i piri kaha atu ai tōna matua. Ka tino taipakeketia nei a Eru ka whakapiri atu ia ki Ngā Maihi me tana noho mai anō hoki i Te Teko. I te tekau tau atu i 1880 he Katorika te Hāhi o tōna whānau, otiia hoki kē mai ana tōna matua ki ngā tikanga me ngā whakapono o tōna tohungatanga Māori. Mahue ana i a Eru ngā whakapono e rua nei ka whāia kētia e ia te Hāhi a Te Kooti, otirā te Hāhi Ringatū kātahi anō nei ka tīmata.

Tata kore nei he tuhituhi mōna e kitea kia tae rawa kē mai ki te tekau tau atu i 1920. Ēngari i taua wā kua moea kētia e ia a Maria Mahurea o Ngā Maihi. Tērā pea he pirihimana tonu nei ia o tōna anō rōpū Ringatū, he tūranga e rite tonu ana ki ngā wātene hāhi o ētahi atu Hāhi, he tūranga e riro ana mā te hunga e whakamātau ana kia tū hei tohunga Ringatū e whakakī. Ahakoa i kāhititia ngā tohunga Ringatū hei minita i raro i te Ture Mārena (Marriage Act) o 1915, kāore te īngoa o Eru i kitea i ngā rārangi kia tae rawa ki te tau 1923. He mea tauira mai ngā karakia o te Hāhi Ringatū i te Paipera, otirā nō roto mai te nuinga i te Kawenata Tawhito, inā kē te roa o ngā tangohanga mai e akona ana e ōna pia me ōna wainga tohunga kia mau i te whatumanawa. Ka hipa nei te wā ka kitea ai te tino tohungatanga o Eru ki ngā kōrero o te karaipiture.

Tau rawa mai ki te wā o te tekau tau atu i 1920, kua tōtara wāhi rua kē te Hāhi Ringatū. Ahakoa i tohua e Te Kooti ngā poutikanga hei kaiārahi mō ngā takiwā ā-rohe o te Hāhi, kāore tonu i tau i a ia te whakaaro ko wai hei ūpoko mō te Hāhi whānui ina ka mate ia. Ko ērā i kī ai he poropiti rātau, ā, i kī ai ko rātau te kaiārahi pono, kore rawa i pai ki te katoa o te hunga e karanga nei i a rātau he Ringatū. Me te aha, arā kē atu te rerekē o ō rātau whakaaro, o ā rātau tikanga. Ko Eru tonu tētahi o aua pou i te takiwā o te tekau tau atu i 1920, e tātāwhāinga ana kia kotahi tonu te mana whakahaere mō te Hāhi Ringatū: arā, ki te whakamana i te Hāhi i raro i te tikanga rēhita, ā, ki te whakatikatika i ngā tikanga e pā ana ki ōna mema tae atu ki te taha pūtea moni. Ko tāna e whai ana kia tata kē atu āna kaupapa whakapono me āna tikanga ki ngā Hāhi Karaitiana tūturu. Tērā atu anō hoki ngā tātā ariki o te Hāhi me ā rātau rongoā anō mō ngā raruraru o te Hāhi, ko Rāpata Peene (Robert Biddle), te hēkeretari, me Koopū Erueti, te poutikanga o te rūnanga nui tonu o te Hāhi i te pokapūtanga o te tekau tau atu i 1920.

Ko tētahi āhuatanga e rite tonu ana te kitea, ko te hua mai ko te ngaro kē rānei o te hunga poropiti hou pēnei i a Rua Kēnana, i a Te Weretā me ētahi atu. Ko te āhua nei he mea whakaohooho a Tumutara me ōna hoa o tōna ake rōpū, ki te whakahaere tikanga whakarerekē atu, nā te aranga ake o ētahi atu tohunga, ko Wī Keepa Hākiaha nei tētahi i te takiwā o te tau 1923. Pērā atu anō me ētahi, i kī a Hākiaha ko ia te tamaiti i poropititia ai e Te Kooti māna e kawe āna mahi. Hiki atu ana rātau ko ana pononga ki Whakatāne, i reira ngana ai a Hākiaha kia riro i a ia te mana whakahaere o te Hāhi Ringatū tae atu ki te puku matua tonu o te Hāhi i Te Wainui i te whanga i Ōhiwa.

I tohea e Tumutara rāua ko Rāpata Peene te whakaaro o Hākiaha: ko tā rāua whakahē nui, he whakatakahuri kē atu tana mahi i ngā pononga a te Hāhi Ringatū i te Paipera, me ngā whakaakoranga tonu a Te Karaiti. I mataku anō rāua kei riro te papa kauhanga o te Hāhi i Te Wainui tae atu ki ngā moni, i ngā momo tāngata pērā me Hākiaha. I te tau 1924 i tētahi huihuinga a te whakaminenga o te Hāhi, ka mana te kōkiri a te rōpū taituarā o Tumutara kia whakatūria a ia hei ūpoko mō te Hāhi Ringatū, arā, ko tōna īngoa hāhi ko pīhopa. Ā mate noa ia, mana tonu ai tōna rēhitatanga hei minita hāhi. I haere pīhopa atu ia ki tētahi hui i Te Poroporo, i Whakatāne, i te 12 o Tīhema 1925, i reira i iriiria e ia ngā tāngata e 50, ā, tokorua anō hoki ngā minita hou i whakawahia. Nā roto mai o te whakaaro kia taka mai ngā mana whakahaere o te Hāhi ki raro i te rōpū kotahi, ka kaha kē atu tā rātau noho tōtara wāhi rua, me te aha, tino nui kē atu te pakaru atu o te wāhanga whai i a Tumutara ki waho o te Hāhi.

I te tau 1928 ka whiriwhiria e te whakaminenga o te Hāhi, kua tino riro kē te whakahaere i a Erueti rāua ko Rāpata Peene, tētahi kawenata, ā, whāia rā rēhitatia ana te Hāhi i raro i te Ture mō ngā Rōpū Kaporeihana (Incorporated Societies Act) o 1908 i te marama o Noema 1929. Hei tā te kawenata, ka tapaina te ūpoko o te Hāhi ko te 'perehitini' me te aha, i ētahi wā whiua hē kētia ana te īngoa nei ki a Tumutara. I tērā wā anō i whakatakotoria he rārangi īngoa mema tūturu me ngā rangatira anō nō rātau te whenua, arā, ngā eka e 600 i tukua atu rā ki a Te Kooti i Te Wainui. He mea āta hanga tēnei whakahaere hei tāwharau i te Hāhi Ringatū tūturu me āna rawa.

Kāore a Te Raumoa Balneavis, hēkeretari a te Minita Māori, i rata ki te kupu 'perehitini' me te kupu 'pīhopa'. Ko tāna i tohe ai, ehara ēnei kupu i te kupu Māori, i te īngoa hoki i whiriwhiria ai e Te Kooti, ā, he wehewehe tikanga noa anō tā ngā kupu nei. Ka tonoa e ia a Tumutara kia rukea atu ērā ka hoatu e ia he īngoa kē anō. Kāore hoki a Tumutara i rata ki te īngoa tumuaki mōna; i ētahi wā he momo īngoa whakahua kē tēnei i Te Karaiti, ā, nā konā e kore rawa ia e taunga hei kawe i taua īngoa. Ko ētahi atu īngoa he mea tango mai i te Kīngitanga me te hunga Hauhau. Ki tā Tumutara nō roto mai i te Hāhi Ringatū i te reanga Karaitiana nō reira ka mau tonu ia ki te īngoa pīhopa.

He wairua marae te wairua o Tumutara, otirā nō ngā Hāhi katoa, ā, e pai noa ana ki a ia te whakahaere karakia i te taha o ngā minita o ētahi atu Hāhi. I te tau 1928 nāna i whakahaere te karakia hura i te kōhatu whakamaharatanga ki a Te Pouwhare Te Roau, he pakeke Tūhoe nō Rūātoki. I konā anō ka tukuna atu e ia ngā whakahaere o muri mai ki te pīhopa Māori o te Hāhi Mihinare, ki a Pererika Pēneti (Frederick Bennett) me Tā Āpirana Ngata anō hoki. Ko tā Eru Tumutara, he rea kē te Hāhi Ringatū nō te Hāhi Mihinare, otirā, nāna tonu i whakataurite ngā karakia o te Hāhi kia tata rite ki te kaupapa whakahaere a te Karaitiana.

I mate a Eru Tumutara i Te Teko i te 11 o Hānuere 1930, i mahue mai ko tana wahine me ā rāua tamariki tokorima. Nā Mānihera Tūmātahi, te minita Mihinare i Te Ngae he tino hoa anō nō Tumutara, i tuhi tētahi poroporoaki whakaaroharoha mōna ki te nūpepa a te Hāhi Mihinare, ki Te Toa Takitini. Ki tā Tūmātahi mehe i roa atu a Eru e ora ana, kua kaha kē atu te piri a te Hāhi Ringatū me te Hāhi Mihinare. Nāna i whakakopi tana poroaki ki ngā tino kupu whakakotahi a Eru, arā, 'tātau tātau'.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Greenwood, W. The upraised hand. 3rd ed. Wellington, 1980


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Angela Ballara. 'Tumutara, Eruera Hāmiora', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4t27/tumutara-eruera-hamiora (accessed 16 November 2019)