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Te Whaiti, Iraia Te Ama-o-te-rangi

by S. M. Chrisp

Biography

I whānau a Irāia Te Whāiti ki te tonga o Te Wairarapa i te tau 1861, i te tau 1862 rānei; ko te roanga atu o ōna īngoa ko Irāia Te Ama, Te Ama‑o‑te‑rangi rānei. Ko Te Rangihakahaka Te Whāiti rāua ko Hine‑ki‑te‑rangi ōna pakeke, ka rua nei rāua nō Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Wairarapa. Ko Irāia tā rāua mātāmua. Hei tuahine tōna whaea mō Hoani Parāone Tūnuiārangi, he kaihautū rongonui tēnei nō Ngāti Kahungunu, he tumu kōrero hoki nō tōna iwi. Tokorua ngā tāina o Irāia, ko Hoani Te Whāiti (Tutu Hōne Parāone) rāua ko Pātito. Ko tētahi atu o ōna tāina, arā, a Meiha Keepa Hiu (Hui) Te Miha he whaea kē tōna.

I kaha tonu te hou atu o Irāia Te Whāiti ki ngā mātauranga o ngā tikanga me ngā whakapapa e pā ana ki ngā hapū huhua o Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Wairarapa. Ā, e ai ki te whakaaro, nōna ka pakeke ka tino tohunga ia. Nāna anō ētahi pitopito kōrero i tuhi ki Te Puke ki Hikurangi me ētahi atu pukapuka. Ko te hapū i tino piri atu ia ko Ngāti Ngāpū‑o‑te-rangi kei te awaawa o Whakatomotomo e noho ana, arā, kei te kokoru o Palliser; tērā atu anō ōna toronga ki a Ngāti Hinewaka. Ko te whakapae, i mārama ai a Te Whāiti ki ngā kōrero o nehe, nā Hoani Tūnuiārangi a ia i ako; koirā, nō te matenga o Te Rangihakahaka i te tau 1870 me Hine‑ki‑te‑rangi i te tau 1875, ka riro nāna ngā rawa a Hoani i tiaki.

Whakataua iho ana e ōna mātua ō rātou pānga whenua i ētahi poraka o Te Wairarapa ki te tonga ki a ia, arā, tētahi taha anō o te takutai moana ki te tonga, puta atu ki te awaawa o Whakatomotomo. Ahakoa tana pūmau tonu ki te Hāhi Mihinare, mai anō i te huringa o te rau tau tana tautāwhi i te Hāhi o te Rūri Tuawhitu o Ihowā, he mea hanga rā e Haimona Pātete. Ki te whakaaro o Te Whāiti i te whai noa ia i ngā tohutohu a te poropiti rā, a Pāora Te Pōtangaroa, ā, hei āwhina māna i tōna iwi, tahuri ana ia i te tau 1881 ki te pāmu i ōna ake whenua papatupu.

Kei roto i te Paipera a te whānau ngā kōrero e mau ana, nō te 1 o Noema o taua tau, i moea e Te Whāiti a Kaihau Te Rangikakapi Maikara Āporo o Ngāti Hinewaka me Ngāti Kauhī, he hapū kārangaranga nō Ngāti Kahungunu. Nā tōna whaea anō ia i hono atu ai ki a Ngāi Tahu o Te Waipounamu me Ngāti Maniapoto. Tekau mā toru ngā tamariki a Te Whāiti rāua ko Kaihau. Tokowhitu e kōhungahunga tonu ana ka mate, hemo ana te nuinga i te mate urutā.

Nō te tau 1894, i whakawhānuitia e Te Whāiti āna mahi pāmu. Whakatū mahi ngātahi ana rāua ko tētahi Pākehā mahi pāmu, ko John Sinclair, ā, hokona mai ana e rāua te teihana o Whatarangi i a Charles Pharazyn, £10,000 te utu. Nō ngā Māori ake tētahi wāhi o taua teihana, he mea rīhi atu e rātou ki a Pharazyn. Hokona mai ana e Sinclair rāua ko Te Whāiti te mana ki aua rīhi. Nō te rironga mai i a Mary Sutherland te whakahaere o ngā mahi a tana tungāne, ka noho ko Te Whāiti rāua ko Sutherland te īngoa o tā rāua pakihi. Nō te tau 1907, i āpititia atu a Kaiwaru ki ō rāua whenua. Nō muri, hokona ana e Te Whāiti anake, te poraka o Te Karanga, 770 eka te rahi. Ki tētahi whakarite anō āna, hui katoa ōna whenua i te tau 1912 18,000 eka te nui; ko te maha o ngā kararehe i runga i te teihana o Whatarangi i taua wā nei, 20,000 ngā hipi, ā, 500 ngā kau. E hia kē nei ngā tāngata o te hapū i whiwhi mahi ki te kutikuti hipi, whai mahi atu hoki.

Takitahi noa iho ngā Māori i rite ki a Te Whāiti mō te hoko whenua; ka mutu, nā runga i tana mahi ki te hoko mai me te whakahaere o tana teihana, nāna i mutu ai te mahi ngaro haere tonu o ngā whenua Māori o Te Wairarapa, kua 40 tau kē te roa e pērā ana. Tae rawa ake ki te tau 1908, ko te rahi o te whenua e mau tonu ana i te Māori, ko 140,000 eka anake. O te katoa, 33,000 anake ngā eka e pāmutia ana e ngā kaiwhiwhi o te whenua. Kia huihui katoatia ngā kararehe a ngā iwi Māori o Te Wairarapa e mahi pāmu ana, kore rawa i rite ki te maha o ngā kararehe a Te Whāiti. Kāre kau he rerekētanga ki a ia me he Māori, he Pākehā rānei āna kaimahi; he whakamātautau tonu tāna mahi i ngā momo tikanga mahi o te mahi pāmu.

Whiwhi katoa ana te iwi whānui Māori o Te Wairarapa ki ngā mōhiotanga o Te Whāiti ki te whakahaere whenua. Ko ia tonu tētahi i pōtitia ki te komiti whakahaere i ngā rāhui moana o Te Wairarapa, me te komiti whakahaere anō hoki o Pouākani, he poraka kei te tāone o Mangakino i nāianei, e 30,000 eka te rahi. He mea tuku te poraka nei e te kāwanatanga ki ngā hapū o Te Wairarapa hei whenua whakawhiti mō ō rātou moana. Kei roto i Te Puke ki Hikurangi ētahi tuhituhinga āna e pā ana ki ngā momo tikanga a te ahu whenua me te mahi pāmu.

Hei waha kōrero mō ngā pānga o tōna whānau me tōna hapū, i whakatūria ai ia ki ētahi atu komiti. I noho ia hei heamana mō te komiti o te marae i Kohunui, ā, hei mema mō te komiti whakahaere i te pā o Pāpāwai, te tūranga o te Pāremata Māori. Nō te tau 1906, i pōtitia a ia ki te Kaunihera o Rongokako (Rongokako Māori Council), arā, ki te tino rōpū whakahaere i ngā iwi Māori o Te Wairarapa, mō ngā tau e 20 mai i te tau 1900. Nō muri, ka riro i a ia te tūnga heamana kairīwhi. E mau tonu ana i a ia tana tūnga mema i runga i te kaunihera tae noa ake ki te tau 1912. I tua atu i ēnei, he tūranga rūtene tōna i roto i te ope hōia tūao mau raiwhara eke hōiho o Te Wairarapa (Wairarapa Mounted Rifle Volunteers), he kamupene hōia Māori tēnei; he tumuaki anō hoki ia nō te Kamupene Māreikura, he tā nūpepa nei te mahi.

Nō muri nei, ka heke a Te Whāiti rātou ko tōna whānau ki tōna kāinga nui, ki Te Kārearea i Hūpēnui (Greytown). Manakohia ana rāua ko Kaihau e ngā tāngata ake o Hūpēnui, ā, i whai wāhi anō rāua ki ētahi mahi hei painga ake mō te hunga katoa o reira. Tuku koha ana rāua mō ētahi kaupapa mō te katoa te pai. Kitea nuitia ana tō rāua kaha i roto i te rōpū tāmau whenua, he kohi tahua te mahi hei āwhina i te Pakanga Tuatahi. Nō te tau 1908 pea, i huri ai a Te Whāiti hei Meihana. He tūnga tuatahi tēnei ki te Māori.

I mate a Irāia Te Whāiti i te mate whurū ki Hūpēnui i te 15 o Noema o te tau 1918, ā, tanumia ana ki te urupā i Rānana i te awaawa o Whakatomotomo; nō te tau 1923, ka hangaia e tōna whānau he kōhatu whakamaharatanga ki a ia. Ko te kōrero, i te wā i mate ia, e £36,000 te rahi o ana rawa ake. Nō te matenga, ka whakamutua te mahi ngātahi a Te Whāiti rāua ko Sutherland; kātahi ka wāwāhia ōna whenua ki āna tama tokotoru; tokotoru āna tamāhine i mahue ora mai. Tekau mā waru ngā tau a Kaihau e noho ana i Te Kārearea i Hūpēnui ā mate noa ia i te 19 o Hānuere o te tau 1937. Kei te taha ia o tana tāne i Rānana e takoto ana.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Aburn, A. Pirinoa. Carterton, 1987

    Carter, M. Early Palliser Bay. Featherston, 1982

    Te Whaiti, I. 'Nga tatai tipuna me nga tatai korero o Ngati Te Hiha'. MS Copy micro 105. WTU


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

S. M. Chrisp. 'Te Whāiti, Irāia Te Ama-o-te-rangi', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3t24/te-whaiti-iraia-te-ama-o-te-rangi (accessed 22 November 2019)