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Whaanga, Hirini Te Rito

by Peter J. Lineham

Biography

I whānau a Hirini Te Rito Whaanga ki Te Māhia. E ai ki te kōrero a te tokomaha, ko tōna tau whānau ko 1828. Ko ia te tama mātāmua a Īhaka Whaanga, he tino rangatira nō Ngāti Rākaipaaka, me Ngāti Kahungunu. Ko tōna whaea ko Te Haka Rākātō. He tauira a Hirini nō te whare wānanga o Waikawa (Portland Island), ā, nō muri iho ka haere hei kaimahi tohorā. E ai ki ōna uri, e toru ōna moenga wāhine. Ko te wahine tuatahi ko Katirina Apatū; e ai ki te kōrero, nō te tau 1850 ka mate. Kotahi tā rāua tamāhine, ko Te Rina. Ko Rīpeka Pōmare tana wahine tuarua, he māreikura nō Te Māhia. Tokorua ā rāua tamariki, ko Raiha rāua ko Ereti. Whāia ka mate a Rīpeka i te tau 1863, ka moe a Hirini i a Mere Mete, he tamāhine nā tētahi kaiwhai tohorā o Te Māhia, nā Hachem Schmidt (ko John Smith tētahi o ōna īngoa). Tokowhā ngā tamariki o tēnei moenga, ko ngā mea i ora ko Mihi Mere rāua ko Katarina; ko ngā mea i mate tamariki, ko Īhaka rāua ko Heneriata.

Nā Hirini i ahu ngā whenua o Ngāti Rākaipaaka i Te Māhia, ā, pai ana āna mahi. Ko tōna matua ko Īhaka te kaiawhi i ngā Pākehā o te rohe, ā, ko ia hoki te kaihautū o ngā kūpapa i ngā pakanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860. Ka whai a Hirini i tana matua ki ētahi o ngā pakanga. He whānau piripono tēnei ki te Hāhi Mihingare, ā, kore rawa e rata atu ki te hāhi Pai Mārire me āna pononga Hauhau. Ēngari ka mutu ngā pakanga, ka puta ngā kōrero tāwai a ngā Māori o tērā takiwā mō te Hāhi Mihingare. Ki a rātou hoki nō te kāwanatanga taua Hāhi. I Ākuhata me Hepetema o te tau 1884, ka tae atu ngā mihingare Amerikana tokotoru o te Hāhi Mōmona, arā, o te Hāhi o Ihu Karaiti mō te Hunga Tapu o ngā Rā o Muri Nei (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), ki Nūhaka ki te kauwhau i tā rātou rongopai, ā, e haere pērā atu ana ki Te Tai Rāwhiti. E 210 ngā pakeke o Te Māhia i huri ki tēnei Hāhi, ko te nuinga nō te Hāhi Mihingare. Ko Hirini te tangata whai mana o ngā Māori i uru atu ki taua Hāhi. Ka iriiria ia he Mōmona i te 30 o Noema 1884 e John C. Stewart. Ka riro i a Hirini ngā ngākau o aua mihingare Mōmona – he taitamariki katoa. Ko ia hoki ki te whakawhiwhi ki te taonga, ki te manaaki. Aronuingia ana ia ki te whaikōrero i ā rātou hui Mōmona.

Nā tana whakaaro ko ia te kaiārahi mō te oranga wairua o tōna iwi, ka ngana ki te haere me te hunga heke huri noa i te ao, ki 'Hīona' (Zion), ki te whakaū i ngā tikanga ā-wairua a ngā Mōmona i ō rātou temepara i Utā (Utah). Ko te tau 1894 tērā. E waru tau i mua atu, i te tau 1886 ka riro tana whanaunga a Pirika Whaanga hei tamaiti whāngai mā ngā Mōmona, ka haria ki Salt Lake City. Ahakoa tōna kūare ki te reo Pākehā, ka pau te kaha o Hirini ki te mahi moni hei haere. I te 14 o Hānuere o te tau 1894 ka whakawahia ia e ngā mihingare Mōmona hei pirihi o te tikanga a Ārona. Nō Hune o taua tau ka whakawhiti ia ki Amerika i runga i te tima Monowai. Ko ōna hoa haere, ko tana wahine ko Mere Whaanga, ko tā rāua mokopuna ko Hirini (Sid) Christy (he tama tēnei nā Mihi Mere), ko te irāmutu a Mere ko Wātene Smith, ko tā rāua tamāhine whāngai ko Ena Pōmare, ko tana auwahine ko Apikara me āna tamariki ko Īhāia rāua ko Īhaka. Tokotoru ngā mihingare Mōmona i hoki i tō rātou taha, arā, ko William Douglass, ko Lars Christian Rasmussen me William Wesley Gibson. I te wā e ngaro atu ana ka mahue iho te whare o Hirini ki Nūhaka hei kāinga mō ngā mihingare Mōmona.

Kāore i pai ki te Perehitinitanga Tuatahitanga o te Hāhi Mōmona, arā, ki te perehitini tonu me āna kaunihera ka rua, te haere atu o ngā ākonga Māori ki Salt Lake City. I mahara hoki te hunga nei, tokorua kē ngā wāhine a Hirini i haria mai e ia. He wā tēnei e uaua ana te tūnga o te Hāhi ki roto i Amerika mō ana tikanga moe wāhine huhua. Ahakoa tēnei raruraru, hoatu ana mā John C. Stewart, arā, te mihingare o mua atu, a Hirini mā e manaaki. E noho ana a Stewart i te tāone o Kanab ki te tonga o te rohe o Utā. Whakatika atu a Stewart ka whakakīkītia a Hirini kia whakapaua āna moni ki ngā kaupapa e puta ai he hua ki a Stewart; hua kore ana a Hirini, mate kau ana ia i te kore moni. Whakatika atu te Rōpū Māori (Māori Association) o Hīona, he rōpū mihingare Amerikana kua hoki atu i Niu Tīreni, ka haria a Hirini ki Salt Lake City, ka hoatu he kāinga mō tōna whānau.

Ka pau te kotahi me te rua o ngā tau, kei te ngaro tonu a Hirini. Nā te kore i pai o te Hāhi kia haere ngā Māori ki Amerika i āwangawanga ai te hunga kāinga. Ka taka ki te tau 1898 ka tonoa a Hirini e te Perehitinitanga Tuatahitanga kia hoki mai ki Niu Tīreni ki te kauwhau i te rongopai. E 69, e 70 rānei ōna tau i taua wā. Ko tana hokinga mai tērā, kōkeko ana ia ki āna mahi a te Hāhi. Ko tōna tino hiahia he whakaemi i ngā whakapapa hei āwhina i āna mahi i roto i ngā temepara o te Hāhi Mōmona. He nui ngā iwi i haeretia e ia ki te kauwhau i te rongopai i te taha o Ezra T. Stevenson, he Amerikana i haere mai hei aporei mō te mīhana Mōmona i Aotearoa. I Te Māhia e hua kaha ana ngā mahi a Hirini.

Whāia ka karangatia anō kia hoki ki Utā i Āperira o te tau 1899. Ko tōna nohoanga atu tērā, kore rawa i hoki mai. Nō te 17 o Oketopa i te tau 1905 ka mate a Hirini. E rua ngā hokinga mai o Mere ki te wā kāinga i muri i te matenga o tana hoa ēngari kāore e tau te noho, ka hoki anō ki Utā. Nō te Aranga o te tau 1941, ka huraina te whakaahua o Hirini i Nūhaka i te huihuinga a te Hāhi Mōmona. Ka noho a Hirini Te Rito Whaanga hei tangata tino nui ki ngā Māori o tēnei Hāhi.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Britsch, R. L. Unto the islands of the sea. Salt Lake City, 1986

    Lineham, P. J. 'The Mormon message in the context of Maori culture'. Journal of Mormon History 17 (1991): 62--93

    Obit. Te Puke ki Hikurangi. 18 Dec. 1905

    'Rongo korero'. Huia Tangata Kotahi. 1 Sept. 1894


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Peter J. Lineham. 'Whaanga, Hirini Te Rito', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1993, updated o Hānuere, 2012. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/2w13/whaanga-hirini-te-rito (accessed 20 May 2024)