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Tama-i-hara-nui

by Steven Oliver

Biography

Ko Tama-i-hara-nui (Te Maiharanui rānei) te ngārahu o Ngāi Tahu i te taha raki o Te Waipounamu i ngā tau tuatahi o te rau tau 1800–1899. I whānau ia i mua noa atu i te paunga o te rau tau 1700–1799 i te rohe o Ngā Pākihi-whakatekateka-a-Waitaha (Canterbury Plains). Ko tōna matua ko Te Whakatitiro, ko tōna whaea ko Pipiriki. He uri te wahine a Tama-i-hara-nui, a Te Whē, nā Manaia. Tokorua ā rāua tama, ko Te Wera rāua ko Tūtehounuku, ā, ko tā rāua tamāhine kotahi ko Ngā Roimata.

Nō Ngāti Rakiāmoa, tētahi o ngā hapū rongonui o Ngāi Tahu, a Tama-i-hara-nui. He kaingārahu i whakaaro nuitia e tōna iwi nō te mea ko ia tō rātou ariki tuku iho. Kāore ngā tāngata noa iho i titiro atu ki tōna kanohi. Me i te tau tana ātā ki runga kai, me whakangaro aua kai. Ki te kore, ka hemo rātou i ngau kē.

I te ngahurutanga tuatoru o te rau tau 1800–1899, ka tupu tētahi pakanga i waenga i a Ngāi Tahu tonu, nō te mea i whakamaniorotia a Tama-i-hara-nui. I te pā o Waikākahi, kāore i tawhiti rawa atu i Wairewa (Lake Forsyth) i whakakahungia e tētahi wahine ko Murihaka tōna īngoa, he kahu kurī nō Tama-i-hara-nui. Hei whiu i tēnei hara ōna, ka patua e te iwi o Tama-i-hara-nui, a Rerewaka, he pononga nā ngā whanaunga o Murihaka. Ka whakatika mai ērā ka patua tētahi rangatira, ko Hape te īngoa. Ko te wahine a Hape te tuahine o ētahi rangatira tokorua o te pā ki te pito tonga o Waihora (Lake Ellesmere), i Taumutu. Nō te rangona kua patua a Hape ka whakaekea e te iwi o Taumutu te pā o Waikākahi. He ruarua nei o Waikākahi i hinga. Ko te marangatanga mai tērā o Tama-i-hara-nui me tana ope taua ki Taumutu, ka pāhuatia. Ka puta te tono a te iwi o Taumutu ki a Ngāi Tahu o Ōtākou (Otago) kia haere ake. Taro ake, ka puta atu te taua a Taiaroa me Te Whakataupuka hei tuarā mō Taumutu. Ka whakakotahi mai a Kaiapoi i ō rātou taha kātahi ka huakina te pā o Wairewa. Nō te houtanga atu ka kitea kua mahue kē te pā. Kua tae kē atu hoki te whakaohiti a Taiaroa ki te hunga i rere, arā, tokorua ngā tāngata mau pū e ārahi atu ana i te ope tuki. E ai ki ngā kōrero, koia nei te wā tuatahi i mau pū ai te toa ki te rohe o Ngā Pākihi-whakatekateka-a-Waitaha.

Nā te mea kāore he ika i hinga i Wairewa ka mataku ngā toa o Kaiapoi kei puta he kupu rōrā mō rātou. I tūponotia atu e rātou te irāmutu a te rangatira rā a Taununu, ka patua kia mate. Ko te motu o Rīpapa i te whanga o Te Whakaraupō (Lyttelton Harbour) te pā o Taununu. Hei ngaki i tana mate ka hiki atu tana hikutoto ki te rautipu, kātahi ka pōkia te pā o Whakaepa, ka whārona awateatia te tini o te tangata. E pātata ana te wāhi tū o Whakaepa pā ki te tūranga o te tāone o Coalgate o ēnei rā, arā, i te tai whakaroto o Waikirikiri (Selwyn River). I tukia anō a Wairewa pā e Ngāi Tahu ki Ōtākou. Ahakoa i whakaohitia anō rātou e Taiaroa, i tēnei wā i arumia rātou kātahi ka patupatua. Nā te mea i kainga e Ngāi Tahu ō rātou huānga anō, ka tapaina te riri nei ko Kaihuānga. Tokorua o te hunga i parekuratia he whanaunga tata nō Tama-i-hara-nui. I mua i te hokinga o te ope taua o Ōtākou ki te kāinga ka whakangaromia e rātou ko te iwi o Taumutu te pā i Rīpapa. I hoki tahi atu rātou ko te iwi o Taumutu ki Ōtākou, kua kore hoki e taea e te kotahi o Taumutu te tū atu ki a Tama-i-hara-nui.

Kātahi a Tama-i-hara-nui ka haere atu ki Ōtākou. Nāna i whakakīkī te nuinga o te iwi o Taumutu kia hoki ki te haukāinga i runga i tana kī atu kua ū te maungārongo i reira. Ko ia i hoki wawe ki te taritari ope taua māna, kātahi ka whanga mō te hunga i rere rā ki Ōtākou kia hoki ake. E ai ki a Hākopa Te Ataotū, tētahi o taua ope a Tama-i-hara-nui, ahakoa te whiwhi pū a tana ope, kāore a Tama-i-hara-nui i tino hiahia ki te whakatutuki i tana kokoti i tana kitenga atu e mau pū ana te hunga i rere rā. I whakawherehia ia e ētahi o ana toa kia tukia te hunga rā. Ko te whakatikatanga atu tēnā o te kauaeroa ka patupatua. E kīia ana i hinga ki a Tama-i-hara-nui ētahi tonu o ana whanaunga i taua whawhai.

Ko 1828 pea te tau i heke ake ai a Ngāti Toa i te raki i raro i a Te Rauparaha ki te āpiti i a Ngāi Tahu i Kaikōura. Nō te taenga ake ka tukia kātahi ka whakangaromia. Menā kāore a Ngāti Toa, tērā pea kua whawhai haere tonu a Ngāi Tahu ki ā rātou anō. Ko Ōmihi pā tērā i pōkia e Ngāti Toa, kātahi ka ahu pērā atu ki Kaiapoi. E ai ki a rātou i haere kē mai rātou i runga i te rangimārie ki te hokohoko pounamu. I haere rangatira atu a Tama-i-hara-nui ki te hōpuni o Te Rauparaha ki te whakatau i tērā i runga anō i ngā tikanga manaaki a te Māori. E ai ki ngā kōrero tupuna a Ngāi Tahu kua whakatūpato kētia a Tama-i-hara-nui kua tātaingia e Ngāti Toa kia nukaia a ia me te rongo anō hoki nā rātou i whakapoke te urupā o tētahi o ana whanaunga. Ko Te Pēhi Kupe tētahi o te ope rangatira o Ngāti Toa i hou atu ki te pā o Kaiapoi ki te hokohoko. Kātahi ka tohetohetia tētahi poro toka pounamu. Ko te tahuritanga mai tēnā o te hunga o Kaiapoi ka patua a Te Pēhi Kupe mā. Nā te mea he iti rawa te taua a Te Rauparaha hei huaki i a Kaiapoi i taua wā, ka whakatahi ia ki te motu o Kapiti.

I a Ngāti Toa i Kaiapoi ka patua e rātou a Te Puhirere me tētahi atu kaingārahu o Panau, e tū mai rā i te taha pāwhakarua o Hakaroa (Banks Peninsula). E noho kūare ana te tokorua nei i a rāua e whakatata atu ana ki te pā, e takoto mai ana te hoariri. Nō te whakahokinga o ō rāua kākahu ki Panau, ka whakaaro a Tama-i-hara-nui kua huraina rātou ko tana iwi. Ka whakaekea e ia te takiwā ki Panau, ka mau hereheretia ngā tāngata.

Kei Kapiti a Te Rauparaha e whakatakoto kaupapa ana hei ngaki i te mate o Te Pēhi Kupe. I whakataungia e rāua ko Kāpene John Stewart o te pereki Elizabeth te whakarite kia whakamahia e Stewart tana kaipuke mā Te Rauparaha. Ko te utu mō taua whakaritenga e 50 tana muka harakeke. I rewa atu i Kapiti i te 29 o Oketopa 1830 me ana toa 100. I noho huna ngā toa i te taunga o te kaipuke i waho atu o Takapuneke i te whanga o Akaroa. E hia kē nei ngā karere i tukuna e Stewart ki a Tama-i-hara-nui i ngā wāhi tupunga harakeke i Wairewa, ki te whakamōhio atu kua tae mai tētahi kaipuke ki te whakawhitiwhiti pū mō te muka harakeke. I te ekenga mai o Tama-i-hara-nui rātou ko tana wahine me tā rāua tamāhine, ka puta ake a Te Rauparaha me ana toa ki te tāwai i a ia mō te ngāwari o tana mau hereheretanga. Ka haere a Te Rauparaha mā ki uta, ka whakaekea a Takapuneke, ka hinga te tokomaha noa atu o rātou.

He maha ngā kōrero mō te mau hereheretanga me te matenga o Tama-i-hara-nui. Ko ētahi e kī ana, i te wā e haere atu ana rātou ki Kapiti ka patua e Tama-i-hara-nui tana tamāhine a Ngā Roimata, he mea panga rānei nāna ki te wai kia kore ai e whakataurekarekatia. Ko te kōrero anō a ētahi i tūpou atu tana wahine a Te Whē i te kaipuke. Kore i taea e Tama-i-hara-nui te aha, e mau kē ana hoki i te mekameka.

I tau te Elizabeth ki Kapiti i te 11 o Noema 1830. I pupuri hereheretia a Tama-i-hara-nui ki te kaipuke ā tae noa ki te wiki whakamutunga o Tīhema. Nā te mōhiotanga o Kāpene Stewart e kore ia e whiwhi i ētahi muka harakeke anō i a Ngāti Toa, ka tukuna atu e ia a Tama-i-hara-nui ki a rātou i Ōtaki. He maha ngā kōrero e pā ana ki tōna matenga. Ko te nuinga e whakaae ana nā ngā wāhine a ngā rangatira o Ngāti Toa i patua ki Kaiapoi ia i whakamamae. Ēngari i noho māia tonu ā mate noa.


He whakaaturanga anō

Rārangi pukapuka

    Hight, J. & C. R. Straubel, eds. A history of Canterbury. Vol. 1. Christchurch, 1957

    Jacobson, H. C. Tales of Banks Peninsula. Akaroa, 1884

    McNab, R. The old whaling days. Christchurch, 1913

    White, J. The ancient history of the Maori. Vol. 3. Wellington, 1888


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Steven Oliver. 'Tama-i-hara-nui', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1990. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/1t6/tama-i-hara-nui (accessed 26 September 2020)