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Te Whakatōhea

by  Ranginui Walker

‘Tangohia mai te taura i taku kakī kia waiata ahau i taku waiata.’ I waiatahia ēnei kupu e Mokomoko, i whakapaetia hētia i te tau 1865 mō te kōhuru o tētahi mihinare. Hei whakawhiunga mō te kōhuru nei, ka raupatuhia e te Karauna ngā whenua nui o Te Whakatōhea. Ka riro ā rātou mahinga kai i te takutai, ngā mahinga kai i ngā awa, arā, te kahawai me te haku, tae rawa ki ngā kai o te ngahere, te manu me te kiore.


Lands and resources

E ono ngā hapū o Te Whakatōhea i tēnei wā: Ko Ngāti Ruatakena, Ngāti Patumoana, Ngāti Ngahere, Ngāi Tamahaua, Ngāti Ira, Te Ūpokorehe. E 35 kiromita te whāroa o te rohe ki-tai o Te Whakatōhea kei te taha rāwhiti o Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi, atu i Te Moana-a-Tairongo (Ōhiwa) ki Ōpape. Ko Maraetōtara i Ōhope te paenga whenua ki te uru; ko Tarakeha te paenga whenua ki te rāwhiti, kei waenganui i Ōpape me Awaawakino. Huri atu ana te rohe ki te tuawhenua, ka anga ki te tonga mā-rawhiti, whakahipa atu ai i nga maunga whakahī tae noa atu ki tua tata o Matawai.

He huhua o ngā kai o te rohe o Te Whakatōhea. Ki Ōhiwa kei te uru, e karangahia ai ko ‘Te tamāhine a Te Whakatōhea’ (he kōrero whakarite mō te rahi o te tuangi, te kuku, te pūpū e kitea ana ki reira. He nui te ika ki konei.

E rua kiromita ki te taha rāwhiti o Ōhiwa ko te awa o Waiotahe, ka hau te rongo mō ana pipi mimiti kore. Kei waenganui pū i te rohe whenua o Te Whakatōhea, ko Pākōwhai me te tāone o Ōpōtiki, koinei te tūtakitanga o ngā awa o Wai-o-weka rāua ko Ōtara. I ngā wā e tika ana ka rere whakarunga te kahawai, te kanae, te haku i ngā awa nei mō ētahi kiromita. Ko Pakihi kei te tāhuna o te awa, he mōmona ngā kaimoana o tēnei wāhi.

Atu i Ōpape ki Awaawakino i te pito rawhiti ngā toka moana, kikī ana i te kuku, te pāua, te kina, te koura. E whā kiromita atu i konei ki te uru ko te awa o Waiaua, te wāhi i whakatauhia e Tāpuikākahu inā:

Te kai hoki rā i Waiaua!
He whare moenga mōu mō te tangata
Hei kume kupenga i te ākau. 1

Ko te nuinga o nga pā tūwatawata kei tātahi e tū ana, hei tiaki i ngā mahinga kaimoana o te iwi. Kāore he pā maioro i ngā pae maunga, he puni noa iho mō te kaupeka mahi kai i te wao. Kei ngā takiwā o Toa Toa, o Whitikau, o Wai-o-weka ngā wāhi e tipu ana te aruhe, ngā wāhi mahi tuna, mahi manu pēnei i te kererū, te kākā, te kōkako, te weka, te kiwi. I ngā wā o te pakanga, koinei te wāhi tāwharau o te iwi.

Footnotes
  1. Ngata, A. T. Ngā mōteatea, Part III. Wellington: Polynesian Society, 1970, p. 93. › Back

Ancestors

Tarawa

Ko Tarawa te tipuna tuatahi o Te Whakatōhea kia tau mai i Hawaiki. E ai ki tētahi kōrero, i kauhoe mai a Tarawa ki Aotearoa ā, pae ana ki Paerātā, ki te taha rāwhiti o te awa o Waiotahe. Ka waihohia e ia ana ika mōkai ki tētahi puna i reira. Ko te ingoa o tenei puna ko Ōpōtiki-mai-tawhiti. I muri mai ka utaina te ingoa o Ōpōtiki ki te tāone. E rua ngā pouwhenua i whakatūria kei te wāhi i ū mai a Tarawa, ko tētahi hei whakamaharatanga mō nga tāngata tuatahi ki tēnei whenua, ko tētahi mō ngā tūpuna Pākehā nō muri kē ka tae mai.

Tautūrangi

Ko Tautūrangi te tipuna rongonui i tae mai i runga i te waka Nukutere e 26 whakapaparanga i mua i te tau 1900. I tau mai a Nukutere ki tētahi whanga paku e awhitia ana e te kōhatu, ka herea ki tētahi kōhatu papatahi he mā te tae, ko Te Rangi te ingoa. Ka rewa a Nukutere i Te Rangi ka huri ki Te Kōtukutuku; i reira ka pae a Tautūrangi me tōna iwi ki uta. Ko te mahi tuatahi mā Tautūrangi e riro ai te mana o te whenua, he piki mā te kōawa o Waiaua ki Kapuarangi he tihi i te tuawhenua. I reira ka whakanōhia e ia a Tamaīwaho, he atua i kawea mai i Hawaiki mā runga i a Nukutere. Ko Te Wakanui te ingoa o te iwi o Tautūrangi i ōna rā, ā, tatū rawa ki a Tūtāmure, e waru whakapaparanga i muri mai.

Tūtāmure

Nā Tūtāmure i whakatū te paenga whenua ki te rāwhiti i waenganui i a Te Wakanui me Ngāi Tai ki Tōrere, mai i Te Rangi kuhu whakauta ki Ōroi. I te patunga o tana tuahine a Tāneroa e tana tāne, ka whakaekea e Tūtāmure a Maungakāhia, te pā o Kahungunu. I tēnei pakanga ka whati te taiaha o Tūtāmure. Ka nanao a ia ki tana patu parāoa, ka ākina nga pane o te hoariri, mate rawa. Mai i tērā wā i mōhiotia ai a Tūtāmure me tana iwi, ko Te Panenehu. Ka whakatūria e Tūtāmure te pā o Poutōtara kei roto ake o Waiaua, hei aukati i nga whāinga utu a Ngāti Kahungunu. I nōhia e Tūtāmure ētahi pā ki Waiaua, ko tētahi ko Makeo, te pā koeko kei muri i te marae i Ōmarumutu.

Muriwai

Kia whakatāne au i ahau

E iwa whakapaparanga i muri o te taenga mai o Nukutere i Hawaiki ka tau a Mataatua ki te pūaha o Whakatāne. Ko Muriwai, tipuna o Te Whakatōhea, tētahi i runga i te waka. Nō te makeretanga o Toroa, te rangatira, rātou ko ngā tāne ki te tirotiro i te whenua, ka mahue ngā wāhine. Kāore rātou i aro ki te aukume, te piki me te heke o nga tai o Aotearoa. Nāwai ā, ka kawea haerehia te waka e te ia o te wai. Ka tū ake a Muriwai me tana kī, “Ka whakatāne au i ahau!” I konei ka kūmea e ia te waka ki uta. Koirā te takenga mai o te ingoa o Whakatāne.

E iwa whakapaparanga i muri mai i te taunga o Nukutere ki Aotearoa, ka tau a Mataatua ki Whakatāne. Koinei te waka i haere mai a Muriwai, he tipuna nui o Te Whakatōhea. I haere a Rēpanga, te tama a Muriwai, ki Ōpōtiki, ka moe i a Ngāpoupereta. He uri whakaheke a Ruatakena nō Rēpanga, ko ia te tipuna nui o Ngāti Ruatakena (e mōhiotia ana ko Ngāti Rua). Ka whai atu a Hine-i-kauia, te tamāhine a Muriwai, i tōna tungāne ki Ōpōtiki, ka moe i a Tūtāmure. Nā tēnei piringa, ka puta te iwi o Te Whakatōhea, i whakakotahi ai ki a Te Panenehu.


Kahuki

Ko Tūtāmure ki te rāwhiti, ko Kahuki ki te uru. Nō te hapū o Te Whakatāne a ia, ko Waiōtahe tōna kāinga. I whakaekea ētahi atu wāhanga o te hapū hei ranaki i te mate o tōna matua, a Rongopopoia.

Ka hoki a Kahuki ki Waiōtahe ka whakatū i tōna pā kia tata ki te awa. Ka noho ngā mōrehu o Te Whakatāne, o Ngāti Raumoa, o Te Ūpokorehe ki Waiotahe me Ōhiwa i raro i te mana o Kahuki. He wā anō ka whiua a Te Ūpokorehe e ngā taua o Ngāi Tūhoe rāua ko Ngāti Awa e tomo mai ana i te uru. I ngā wā o te raruraru ka rere a Te Ūpokorehe ki Ōpōtiki maru ai. Ko te whawhai mutunga i waenganui i a Te Whakatōhea me Ngāi Tūhoe rāua ko Ngāti Awa i tū Ōhope. Nā Te Rupe a Te Whakatōhea i ārahi kia puta. Ko tana haka ko ‘Te kōtiritiri te kōtaratara!’

Te haka a Te Rupe

Nā Te Rupe te haka nei. I hakaina e Te Whakatōhea i mua i tētahi whawhai i Ōhope i toa rātou ki a Ngāi Tūhoe.

Te kōtiritiri te kōtaratara ki Ōhope e
Haere tītaha ana te kaha o te kupenga ki uta rā e
Hurahia te tangata mate
Hurahia te tangata mate

Houhoua e te ure
Ki roto ki te onepū
Kei motu tī kariri i te tūpere ha!

I whawhai tonu a Te Whakatōhea i te paenga rāwhiti, ki te aukati i a Ngāi Tai ki waho o Waiaua. I Awahou te riri whakamutunga. Ko Punāhamoa te kaingārahu o Te Whakatōhea. Ko te wā tēnei i mua tonu i te taenga mai o te Hāhi Karaitiana. Ka patua a Ngāi Tai ki Awahou, ka poroa te māhunga o tō rātou rangatira a Tūterangikūrei. I hoatuna he toki pounamu e Ngāi Tai hei utu mō te ūpoko o tō rātou rangatira. Ko Te Waiwharangi te ingoa o taua toki pounamu; i tēnei wā kei te Whare Pupuri Taonga o Whakatāne e puritia ana.


From European contact to today

He rite a Te Whakatōhea ki te nuinga o ngā iwi Māori, i koa rātou i te whakatūnga o ngā ture Pākehā me te Hāhi Karaitiana, hei whakatau i ngā pakanga ā-iwi. Tino kino ngā pakanga i waenganui i ngā iwi i te whā tekau tau atu i te huringa o te rau tau 1800, te wā o ngā ‘Pakanga Mau Pū’.

He wā pai te wā o te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi me te taenga mai o ngā mihingare

Te kōhuru i a Te Wākana (Carl Völkner)

I whakatūpato a Te Whakatōhea i a Te Wākana kia kaua e hoki ki tō rātou rohe nā te whakapae he heri kōrero a ia mā te kāwanatanga. Nō te tau 1865 i e raruraru ana te tāone o Ōpōtiki e ngā Hauhau, ka whakamatea a Te Wākana. Hei utu mō tōna mate, ka raupatutia e te kāwanatanga te e 144,000 eka i raro i te Ture mō te Whakanoho i te Hunga Mārie (New Zealand Settlement Act) o 1863. Ko tētahi anō take e hiahia ai te kāwanatanga ki aua whenua, hei whakanoho i ngā tāngata whai mai tāwāhi. Ka raupatutia te takutai atu i Maraetōtara ki te awa o Waiaua. Ka whiua ngā hapū kia noho ki tētahi rāhui whenua iti ki Ōpape.

Nō te tau 1952 utua ai e te Karauna tētahi wāhanga o te paremata mō tēnei hara, i tukuna he pūtea e 20,000 pāuna ki Te Whakatōhea. Nā tēnei tahua ka tū te Poari Kaitiaki o Te Whakatōhea.

Te Whakatōhea i ēnei rā

E ono ngā hapū o Te Whakatōhea kei te ora i ēnei rā: Ko Ngāti Ruatakena (Ngāti Rua), Ngāti Patumoana, Ngāti Ngahere, Ngāti Tamahaua, Ngāti Ira, Te Ūpokorehe.

Ko te Poari o Te Whakatōhea te kaiwhakahaere o ngā rawa o te iwi, pēnei i ētahi whare nunui me ētahi pāmu e rua. I tua atu, kei te āwhina te Poari i ngā whare kōhungahunga me ngā ratonga hauora a te iwi. Kua tū ētahi kaupapa whakaako i ngā mahi pāmu, te whāngai manuhiri, te ahuwhenua, te ruku moana tae noa ki ngā mahi arumoni, te whakahaere pakihi, ngā mahi rorohiko. Kua pakari a Te Whakatōhea ki te kuhu ki ngā whitiwhitinga kōrero me te kāwanatanga kia hua ai he whakataunga whānui mō ōna kerēme.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Te Whakatōhea (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Ko 1901 te tau whakamutunga rawa i pātaihia ai te Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou. Heoi kāore i pātaihia kia whakatakotohia ngā iwi maha.

  • tatauranga o 1901: 599
  • tatauranga o 1991: 5,637
  • tatauranga o 2001: 9,948
  • tatauranga o 2006: 12,069
  • tatauranga o 2013: 12,177

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Te Moana a Toi: 4,890
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 2,382

 


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Ranginui Walker, 'Te Whakatōhea', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-whakatohea/print (accessed 6 July 2020)

He kōrero nā Ranginui Walker, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 1 Mar 2017