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Te Waonui a Tāne – forest mythology

by  Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal

He nui ngā kōrero ka ahu mai te wao nui. Nā Tāne Mahuta a Rangi rāua ko Papa i wehe kia puta te ao mārama. Koinei te takenga o ngā kawanga ahurewa me ngā whaikōrero ka rongohia i runga i ngā marae.


Tāne and his forests

Te kitenga tuatahi i te ngahere

Nō te taenga tuatahitanga o ngā tīpuna o te Māori ki Aotearoa, ka kite rātou he rerekē rawa atu tēnei whenua ki te kāinga tipu i Hawaiki. He iwi kaumoana te Māori, heoi, nō te ūnga ki ēnei moutere rahi, ki tēnei whenua mātao o Aotearoa, ka ako rātou ki te ngahere me āna kōrero.

Ki te mārama te tangata ki te ngahere me āna kōrero, ka hua te oranga ki a ia. Ka ako haere te Māori ki te ngahere, ka matika mai ko Tāne Mahuta me tōna mana me āna kōrero. Me aro te tangata ki te tapu me ngā kōrero mō Te Waonui a Tāne.

Ngā kōrero a ngā iwi mō Tāne

He wāhi nui tō Tāne (ko Tāne Mahuta rānei) i ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā pūrākau. Inarā nā Tane i heheu a Rangi i a Papa kia puta ai te ao mārama; nā Tane i auaha te wahine tuatahi; nā Tāne te poho o Ranginui i whakarākai; nā Tāne ngā kete o te wānanga i kawe mai mā te ira tangata.

He maha ngā ingoa o Tāne, hei whakaatu atu ko tēhea o ōna pūmanawa kei te whakaputa.

Tāne hei tauira

Ko Tāne te tauira mō te kaha o te tangata i roto i tēnei ao. He maha ngā ingoa o Tāne, ka tohu ki te ohinga o te tangata, ki ōna pūmanawa, ki tāna i whakapono ai, ki tōna tūturutanga. He tōtika te tū a Tāne, ka taea te kawe i ngā taumahatanga o tētahi take ahakoa he aha; ko ōna pakiaka kei roto i te whenua, ko tōna māhunga kei ngā rangi.

Te orokohanga o te ao

E ai ki ngā kōrero mō te orokohanga o te ao, nā Tāne a Rangi rāua ko Papa i wehe. Nā te piri tata a Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku, ka whānau ā rāua tamariki i roto i te pōuri, i te kōpipiri. Nāwai ā, ka hōhā ngā tamariki te noho i te pōuri, ka whakatau me wehe ngā mātua.

Nā Wiremu Maihi Te Rangikāheke o Te Arawa ēnei kōrero mō te orokohanga o te ao me te ngana a ngā tuakana me ngā teina a Tāne kia wehe ngā mātua.

Ka whakatika a Rongomātāne ki te tauwehe i a rāua, kāore i wehe. Ka whakatika ko Tangaroa ki te wehe i a rāua, hauwarea ake. Ka whakatika ko Haumiatiketike, tē taea te aha. Kātahi ka whakatika ko Tūmatauenga, kāore i paku aha. Hei reira ka matika ko Tāne Mahuta… 1

Nā Tāne ōna mātua i mawehe kia puta te ao mārama.

Ngā rākau a Tāne

E ai ki te Māori, ko ngā rākau o te wao, ko Tāne Mahuta tērā, e toko ana i te rangi i te whenua kia puta he māramatanga ki te ao. Ka topea te nuinga o ngā ngahere o Aotearoa i ngā rau tau o 1800 me 1900. Whāia, ka raruraru te ao o te Māori, inarā kua kore ngā rākau toko ake i te rangi i te whenua.

Nā te hāronga o ngā ngahere ka kore ngā tauira whanonga a te ao Māori. Ko te kupu ‘tika’, mō te pai o te tū, mō te tū kāore i te hapa, pērā i te rākau. Ka puta te kupu tikanga arā, ngā whanonga tika, tae atu ki te kupu whakatika mō te aranga ake ki runga. Ka tipu ake ngā whanonga tika i te tangata, pēnei i te rākau ka tipu ake i te whenua.

Footnotes
  1. Hōri Kerei, Polynesian mythology and ancient traditional history of the New Zealand race: as \furnished by their priests and chiefs. Kirikiriroa: Te whare pukapuka o te whare wānanga o Waikato, 1995 (whakaputatia tuatahitia ai i te tau 1885), wh. 8. Ngā whakamārama nā Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal. › Back

Rituals of the marae

Pōwhiri

Ko te orokohanga o te ao, arā, te wehenga o Rangi rāua ko Papa e Tāne, te tauira mō te pōwhiri ka tū i runga marae, arā, ka pō, ka ao, ka ea, ka awatea. Ko te ngako o ēnei pūrākau, ko te tū a Tāne kia wehe i ōna mātua, kia puta te ao mārama. Kei te marae ātea te pōwhiri, he mahinga anō o te auahatanga o te ao i te wehenga o Papatūānuku rāua ko Ranginui. Anō me te mea e whakawehe anō ngā kaikōrero i a Papa rāua ko Rangi, arā te mahi i puta mai te māramatanga ki te ao. Tā te kaikōrero mahi he whaikōrero whakamārama, whakatau hoki mō te iwi.

Ko te whare tipuna te tauira mō Te Ao Mārama; ā, ko te marae ātea te tauira mō Te Pō. Ko te tikanga o te pōwhiri he kōrero i ngā take me ngā raruraru a te iwi, kia puta ai he māramatanga. Ka puta te hihiri a Tāne i te pō. Nā te hihiri ka wehea a Rangi me Papa kia tīaho he māramatanga ki te ao. Me kī, he kupu whakarite a Tāne mō te hihiri me te whanaketanga ka puta ake i te whenua.

Whaikōrero

Ka tū he tangata ki te whaikōrero i runga marae, kei te whakarite i a ia anō ki a Tāne. Ko te tū a te kaikōrero he tū tōtika (ko Tāne-ua-tika), kia tareka ai te waha i ngā kaupapa taumaha (Tāne-uehā), kia puta ai ngā whakaaro ikeike (ko Tāne-nui-ā-rangi, ko Tāne-te-wānanga).

Ka whakaputa e ngā kaikōrero ngā kaupapa o te wā, kia taea ai te rapu i te māramatanga me te mātauranga. Ka tū te kaikōrero pērā i a Tāne, arā, ki te hiki i te rangi ki runga kia tīaho ai te māramatanga ki te ao.


Symbolism of trees and plants

E ai ki te Māori, he maha ngā tohu i ngā tipu, i ngā manu, i ngā kararehe. Ka titiro te Māori ki te rerekē o te āhua o tēnā rākau, o tēnā rākau - te teitei, te nui, te hōrapa - ka tīkina hei tauira mō ngā whanonga a te tangata. Ka tapaina e te Māori āna tamariki ki ngā rākau, ngā tipu, ngā manu. Whāia, ka tīkina he tauira i te ngahere hei whakaata i te whanonga o tēnā tangata, o tēnā tangata.

Te mana motuhake me te aroha

Ka tīkina te tī kouka hei tauira mō te mana motuhake (he rākau tū hāhā, whai anō tērā ingoa, tī-tahi).

Ka hāngai pū te raukawa ki te whai aroha a te tāne me te wahine. Tērā a Māhinaarangi, te tapairu o Te Tai Rāwhiti, i pani te hinu raukawa ki tōna kiri i āna tūtakitanga ki a Tūrongo. Ka tapaina tā rāua tamaiti ko Raukawa, hei maharatanga mō te hinu rā. Ka noho a Raukawa hei tipuna taketake o Ngāti Raukawa.

Whānau

He kupu whakarite te pā harakeke mō te whānau. Ko te rito i waenganui pū i te harakeke, koia tērā ko te tamaiti, ko ngā rau kei waho, ko ngā pakeke.

Māheuheu

He tohu te māheuheu ki te wāhi kua mahue, kua whakarerea. Hei ētahi wā ka tipuria te māheuheu hei huna i ngā wāhi tapu kei raweketia.

Kaha

He taikākā tēnei rākau te maire, he tohu mō te kaha. Tērā te pātai ko hea te matū o te kōrero.

Kei whea te maire o ngā kōrero?

Aroha

He oriori tēnei nā te whāea ki tana tamaiti.

Taku hei piripiri
Taku hei mokimoki
Taku hei tāwhiri
Taku kati taramea 1

Nā te kakara, ka whakahuatia ngā tipu nei. Ka whakamaua ngā rau me ngā kāpia o ngā tipu pērā i te tāwhiri ki te kakī o te tangata.

Te whaikōrero

Ka tū ana te tangata ki te whaikōrero, ka whakahua ia i ngā rākau me ngā tipu hei kupu whakarite, hei kupu whakaputa whakaaro. I te rau tau atu i 1800, nā te kūare ki ngā kupu whakarite me ngā ariā, kāore te hunga Pākehā (me ētahi Māori) i mārama ki ngā kupu o ngā whaikōrero.

He tongi nā Tāwhiao

He tongi tēnei nā te kīngi Māori tuarua, nā Tāwhiao. Ka whakahuataia te maha o ngā tipu:

Māku anō e hanga tōku whare
Ko tōna tāhuhu, he hīnau.
Ōna pou he māhoe, he patatē
Me whakatupu ki te hua o te rengarenga
Me whakapakari ki te hua o te kawariki.

2

E ai ki tētahi whakamārama, mā te ringa o te Māori anake tōna anō oranga e whakapakari.

Footnotes
  1. W.  Colenso, Vestiges: reminiscences: memorabilia of works, deeds, and sayings of the ancient Maoris.'Transactions of the New Zealand Institute 24 (1891): 459 › Back
  2. J. McLeod Henderson. Ratana: The origins and the story of the movement. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Te Rōpū Poronihiana, 1963, wh. 57. › Back

Posts and stumps – pou and tumu

Pou

He mea hanga te pou i te rākau. Waihoki, āta whakatūria ai te pou ki tētahi wāhi ake hei tohu. He tauira; ko te pou rāhui ka tohu ki tētahi whenua kua rāhuitia, tētahi whenua kua āta wehea. He whakamārama anō mō te wāhi i whakatūria taua pou, tae rawa atu ki te momo rākau i tāraia.

Ka whakaritea ētahi tāngata ki te pou, inarā, he pērā i te pou, kua tāngia rātou ki te moko whakairo, kua whakaritea he mahi nui hei whakatutuki mā rātou. Kāore i kore ka whai tūranga taua tangata ki roto i ngā mahi a te whānau, a te iwi, ka taka ki runga ki ōna pakihiwi ngā taumahatanga, pērā ki te pou.

Te tumu

He momo pou anō te tumu; koirā te tumu o te rākau, hāunga te korenga o te rākau. Kāore te tumu e tuaina, e nekehia rāneitia ki wāhi kē. Nā te whai pakiaka ki roto i te whenua, ka herea ngā waka ki ngā tumu. Whāia, ka ūhia te kupu tumu mō te kāhui ariki, nā tō rātou noho pūmau ki ō rātou ake whenua, nā tō rātou tū kaha ahakoa he aha ngā uaua o te wā; inā:

Ko te tumu herenga waka.

Sayings from the forest

Inā te maha o ngā whakataukī ka whakahua i tēnā rākau, i tēnā tipu hei kupu whakarite, hei kupu whakaahua.

Tōtara

He tohu te tōtara mō te rangatira nui. He whakataukī tēnei i te matenga o tētahi rangatira:

Kua hinga te tōtara i Te Waonui a Tāne.

Ko te whakaruruhau anō he tōtara haemata.

Waihoki, ko te rangatira nui ka whakaritea ki te tōtara haemata, arā, he tōtara inā te kaha o te tipu:

Ka haere te tōtara haemata, ka takoto te pukatea wai nui.

He kupu whakarite te tōtara mō te hunga rangatahi, ka āhei te hurihuri haere ki ngā hui, ki ngā marae. Hāunga anō te hunga kaumātua, ka noho ki te tiaki i te kāinga; ka whakaritea ki te pukatea, he rākau taumaha ka tipu ki ngā wāhi repo.

Ngā pūmanawa o te tangata

He kupu whakarite te ongaonga (tree nettle, Urtica ferox) mō te tangata keke:

He tangata ongaonga.

He rākau taikākā te maire, mō te tangata pūmau:

E, ko te matakahi maire.

He kōpēpē te para tawa; inā whakahuatia mō te tangata mataku:

He tawa para, he whati kau tāna.

Nā te taikākā, ka whakaritea te toa ki te manga tawa:

Ka mahi te tawa uho ki te riri.

Mate

Arā te whakataukī mō te tangata ka mate, kīia ana ka hoki ki Te Pō mō ake tonu atu, kāore e wana ake anō pērā i te tī rākau:

Ehara i te tī e wana ake.

Kākahu

He kaha te mangemange (Lygodium articulatum), he torotoro te āhua tipu; arā te whakataukī:

Kia pēnei te mārōrō o tō kākahu me te mangemange.

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, 'Te Waonui a Tāne – forest mythology', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-waonui-a-tane/print (accessed 26 February 2020)

He kōrero nā Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, i tāngia i te 24 Sep 2007