Kōrero: Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Ko te tino tikanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi (Treaty of Waitangi i roto i te reo Pākehā), te pukapuka taketake o Aotearoa, he rangapū i waenganui i Ngāi Māori me te Karauna o Piritānia. Ahakoa ko tūmanako kia whakakotahi, nā ngā māramatanga rerekē ki te tiriti, me ngā whatinga, i tutū ai te puehu. Mai i ngā 1970 i mōhio haere te hunga tūmatanui ki te tiriti, ā, i whānui haere te whakapau kaha ki te whakahōnore i te tiriti me ōna mātāpono.

He kōrero nā Claudia Orange
Te āhua nui: Signatures on the East Coast sheet of te Tiriti o Waitangi

He korero whakarapopoto

Ngā whakaahua me ngā rauemi katoa o tēnei kōrero

He aha Te Tiriti o Waitangi?

Ko te Tiriti o Waitangi he whakaaetanga ā-tuhi i hangaia i te tau 1840 i waenganui i te Karauna o Piritānia (te kuini) me ngā rangatira Māori neke atu i te 500. I muri iho, ko Aotearoa tētahi koroni nā Piritānia, ā, ko Ngāi Māori hei kirirarau Piritānia. Heoi anō, he rerekē ngā māramatanga me ngā kawatau o Ngāi Māori me Ngāi Pākehā.

Te tuhi hukihuki me te waitohu i te tiriti

Ka tuhia te tuhinga hukihuki o te tiriti ki te reo Pākehā, kātahi ka whakamāoritia ki te reo Māori e te mihinare, Te Wiremu Karuwha rāua ko tana tama, Eruera. I tāpaetia ki tōna 500 tāngata Māori ki Waitangi i te 5 o Pēpuere 1840, ā, he nui te tautohetohe. Ao ake i te rā, te 6 o Pēpuere, neke atu i te 40 rangatira i waitohu i te tiriti. Ka haria haeretia te tiriti puta noa i te motu, ā, he maha ake ngā rangatira i waitohu ai. Ka waitohua e te nuinga o Ngāi Māori te tiriti reo Māori. 

Ko ētahi take i waitohu ngā rangatira i te tiriti ko te hiahia kia whakahaeretia te hoko o te whenua Māori ki te Pākehā, ā, kia whakahaeretia hoki ngā tāngata whai Pākehā. Ka hiahia hoki rātou ki te hokohoko me te Pākehā, ā, i whakapono rātou mā te whanaungatanga hou ki Piritānia e whakaoti i te whawhai i waenganui i ngā iwi.

I te āwangawanga te hunga kāore i i waitohu i te tiriti ka ngaro te tū motuhake me te mana, ā, i hiahia rātou ki te whakatau i ā rātou ake tautohetohe. Kāore ētahi rangatira i whai wāhi atu ki te waitohu, nā te mea kāore i haria ki ngā rohe katoa.

He aha te kōrero a te tiriti?

Kāore i ōrite te tikanga o te tiriti reo Pākehā ki tō te tiriti reo Māori.

Upoko Tuatahi: i roto i te reo Māori i tuku ki Kuini Wikitoria te kāwanatanga o te whenua, engari i roto i te reo Pākehā i tuku ki a ia te sovereignty i runga i te whenua - he kupu kaha ake.

Upoko Tuarua: I oatitia ki ngā rangatira 'te tino rangatiratanga' e te tiriti - ko ngā āhuatanga o te rangatira i runga i ō rātou whenua, kāinga, taonga hoki. I tuku hoki ki te Karauna te mōtika ki te mahi tahi me te Māori ina hoko ana i te whenua. Ka tuku te tiriti reo Pākehā ki ngā rangatira te 'exclusive and undisturbed possession' o ngā whenua, ngā ngahere, ngā taunga ika me ētahi atu rawa. I tuku hoki ki te Karauna te mōtika motuhake ki te mahi tahi me te Māori ina hoko ana i te whenua.

Upoko Tuatoru: i tuku ngā momo e rua i te whakahaumaru o te kuini me ngā mōtika o ngā kirirarau Piritānia.

Te tiriti i te rautau tekau mā iwa.

Ahakoa kāore te katoa o ngā rangatira i waitohu i te tiriti, i whakatau te kāwanatanga o Piritānia nā tēnei i noho ngā Māori katoa i raro i te mana o Piritānia. Kāore e roa i ara ake ngā whawhai i waenganui i Ngāi Māori me ngā tāngata whai Pākehā i hiahia i ētahi atu whenua. He nui ngā wā kāore te kāwanatanga i aro ki ngā whakahaumaru pea a te tiriti mō ngāi Māori.

I te tau 1858 i kōwhiri ētahi iwi Māori i te rangatira o Waikatoa, i a Te Wherowhero hei kīngi Māori tuatahi, me te aha, kia whakahaumaru i te whenua Māori. Ki te kāwanatanga he wero tōtika tēnei ki te mana o Piritānia, ā, ka urutomo i te Waikato. Tērā ētahi atu pakanga i waenganui i te kāwanatanga me ngāi Māori, ā, i raupatuhia te whenua i ētahi iwi nō Te Ika a Māui.

Nō te mutunga o te rautau tekau mā iwa ko te nuinga o te whenua kāore i te whiwhia e ngāi Māori, ā, he iti te mana tōrangapū a ngāi Māori. I whakawhānuihia rawatia te taunga mai a te Pākehā me te kāwanatanga hoki.

Ko ngā urupare Māori ki te tiriti

He maha ngā Māori kāore i whakapono ka ū tonu te kāwanatanga ki ana herenga i raro i te tiriti. He nui ngā hui a te Māori i te mutunga o te rautau tekau mā iwa ki te taupatupatu i ngā take tiriti. I waenganui i te tau 1882 me te tau 1924 e whā ngā rōpū Māori i haere ki Ingarangi ki te tuku petihana ki te kuini me te kīngi o Piritānia me te kāwanatanga ki te tono kia tautokohia ngā mōtika tiriti. Ka whakatū te Kīngitanga i tōna ake pāremata, te Kauhanganui, i ngā 1880, ā, i te tau 1892 i whakatūria te pāremata a te Kotahitanga.

Te tiriti i te rautau rua tekau

Ka hokona tonutia te whenua Māori i te rautau rua tekau, ā, i ētahi wā ka tangohia e te kāwanatanga mō ngā mahi tūmatanui (kua pērā mai i ngā 1860). I te tīmatanga o te rautau rua tekau i whakauru mai ngā rangatira pērā i a Āpiranga Ngata i ngā kaupapa ki te whakawhakanake i te whenua Māori, ā, i tīmata te kāwanatanga ki te tautoko i ngā pakihi pāmu Māori. I whakaaetia ētahi mōtika hī ika e te kāwanatanga i ngā 1920.

I te tau 1932 i koha te kāwana-tianara, Lord Bledisloe, me tana wahine i te whare me te whenua i waitohua ai te tiriti i Waitangi ki te motu. I te tau 1940 i whakanui te motu i te 100 tau i mua i te waitohutanga o te tiriti. Ko te tūmanako ko te hui he whakaaturanga o te whakahīhī me te kotahitanga a motu, engari he iti iho te matangareka a te Māori nā te mea kāore i whakahōnoretia te tiriti.

I muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao tērā ētahi whakamaumaharatanga i te 6 o Pēpuere i ia tau, ā, i tipu haere te mōhiotanga a te hunga tūmatanui ki te tiriti. I ngā 1970 me ngā 1980 i horapa haere ngā porotū mō ngā mōtika tiriti.

I whakatūria e te Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi ki te whakarongo ki ngā kerēme kua whati i te kāwanatanga te tiriti, me te tuku tūtohu ki te kāwanatanga. I tīmata te kōrerotia o ngā mātāpono o te tiriti - he rangapū i waenganui i te kāwanatanga me ngāi Māori - i roto i ētahi ture o Aotearoa, ā, i horapa haere te mōhiotanga ki te tiriti. Heoi anō, he hātepe haere tonu te whakaeatanga o ngā amuamu i raro i te tiriti.

Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Claudia Orange, 'Te Tiriti o Waitangi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-tiriti-o-waitangi (accessed 14 June 2024)

He kōrero nā Claudia Orange, i tāngia i te 20 o Hune 2012, i tātarihia i te 28 o Māehe 2023 me te āwhina o Claudia Orange. He mea whakamāori nā Basil Keane