Te Tai – Treaty Settlement Stories

WHĀ | 4
1860–1945 Ngā pakanga me te tāmitanga

Ngā mahi matua i tēnei wāhanga

  • 1860: Ngā Pakanga Whenua
  • 1862: Ko te Native Lands Act tuatahi
  • 1862–63: Hokioi o Niu Tireni, e rere atu ana (The War-Bird of New Zealand in Flight to You), nā Wiremu Pātara Te Tuhi, he karanga teina ki a Kīngi Tāwhiao, te niupepa reo Māori tuatahi nā te Māori anake i whakaputa
  • 1863: New Zealand Settlements Act
  • 1867: Native Schools Act
  • 1896: I tauria he taupori iti iho o te iwi Māori (42,113)
  • 1907: Tohunga Suppression Act
  • 1913: He 90% o ngā tamariki Māori e kōrero Māori ana
  • 1918: 2500 ngā Māori ka mate i te mate rewharewha
  • 1920: Ka tīmata te ako i te wetewete o te reo Māori i ētahi kura tūmataiti
  • 1924: Ko te reo Māori hei kaupapa ako i te tohu paetahi i Te Whare Wānanga o Niu Tireni (i tīmata pū te akoranga i Auckland University College i te tau 1951)
  • 1936: I tīmata te pāhotanga i te Whare Pāremata, he tuatahitanga tēnei i te ao. Ko te reo Ingarihi te reo whai mana
  • 1939:I tīmata te pakanga tuarua o te ao. I whakamahia te reo Māori i te haonga hoia. 3600 ngā Māori i pakanga i tāwahi i te ope Māori, arā, te Ope Rua Tekau mā Waru. I mate te 650 o ōna hōia, ko te nuinga he tangata kōrero Māori. Ka tīmata te heke o te reo Māori i muri i te pakanga
  • 1940: I tīmata te hūnuku haere a ngāi Māori ki ngā tāone

Mai i te 1860 ki 1945 i tino pākia te Māori e te ngaronga whenua, ngaronga tangata, i puta hoki tō rātou whakamanawanui i waenga i te hekenga o te taupori, me te āta piki o tōna taupori ina whakaritea ki tō te Pākehā. Ko te reo Māori i noho hei reo o te tokoiti, nā te kaha o te tāmitanga a te iwi Pākehā.

E whā ngā mapi motuhake o Te Ika-a-Māui e tohu ana i te mimiti haere o ngā whenua Māori.
E whakaatu ana ēnei mahere i te āta heke o ngā whenua Māori i Te Ika-a-Māui mai i 1860 ki te 1939 nā te raupatu me te hoko atu o ngā whenua.
Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand

I muri i te hainatanga o Te Tiriti o Waitangi i heke rawa iho te puritanga whenua i ngā ringa Māori. I hokona e te Karauna ngā whenua nui i ngā tau 1840–1850, ā, i raupatuhia ētahi whenua anō i muri i ngā pakanga whenua, ka riro hoki ngā whenua i ngā mahi a te Kōti Whakawā Whenua Māori. I te korenga o ō rātou whenua me ō te whenua hua hei oranga mō rātou, ka kaha kē atu te pā atu o te māuiui, o te rawakore ki te Māori.

Nā te kaha o te pā o ngā māuiuitanga o Ūropi me ngā Pakanga Whenua ki te Māori, ka heke rawa iho te taupori, ā, i te tau 1896, 42,113 i rīkoatatia i te tatauranga whenua. Ahakoa tōna pikinga anō i te whānautanga mai o ngā pēpē, ka nui te heke o ngā kaikōrero o te reo. Nā ngā matenga o te mate rewharewha i te tau 1918 me ngā pakanga e rua o te ao i heke te whakawhitinga o te reo Māori ki ngā uri whakaheke.

Mō ngā mōrehu, nā te Karauna rātou i wehe i tō rātou reo, i ā rātou tikanga, i te mātauranga tūturu anō hoki. I te takiwā o 1847, nā Kāwana George Grey i whakahau ko te reo Ingarihi hei reo ako. Nā ngā kura ‘Native’ i whakatūria i te 1867 i kaha kē atu ai tēnei kaupapa here. Nō te tau 1890 i whakaritea te kaupapa here kia whakaū i te reo Pākehā ki ngā tamariki reo Māori. I whakaritea kia ‘waiho te reo Māori ki ngā kēti o te kura.’ 1 I a Tā Himi Henare i te kura i kī atu tētahi kaitirotiro i te kura ki a ia, ‘ko te reo Pākehā te parāoa me te pata, ā, ki te hiahia koe kia whai parāoa, kia whai pata, me kōrero Pākehā.' 2

Ka pakeke ana ngā tamariki o tēnei reanga, ka whai tamariki, tino kore nei i hiahia kia ako ā rātou tamariki i te reo Māori, kei rongo hoki ā rātou tamariki i te tūkinotanga i pā ki ō rātou pakeke. He nui te pānga o ēnei tūmomo kaupapa here ki ngā Māori: ahakoa te 90% o ngā tamariki Māori e kōrero Māori ana i te tau 1913, ko te 26% noa iho i pērā i ngā tau 40 i muri mai, arā, te tau 1953.

I heke haere hoki te mana o te reo Māori i te Pāremata. Nō te tīmatanga ko te Pāremata tētahi wāhi Pākehā, ā, i tohea e te iwi Māori kia whai wāhi atu rātou. Nō te urunga atu ki te whare Pāremata i te tau 1868, i puta he tauārai reo mō ngā mema Māori (ahakoa i whakatūria tētahi kaiwhakamāori i te tau 1870, me ētahi tokotoru anō i ngā tau 1880). He wero nui te āta whakamārama atu i ngā kaupapa here me ngā tukanga Pāremata ki ngā tāngata Māori. I ngana ki te whakamāori i ētahi kauhau, i ngā pire, me ngā pepa i whai take ki te iwi Māori (pēnā i te Hansard, i Ngā Kōrero Pāremete 1881-1906) engari ko te reo Pākehā tonu te reo tuatahi o te Pāremata, ko te reo Māori hei reo tuarua.

I te tau 1909, i heke te rahinga o ngā kaiwhakamāori ki te tangata kotahi. Ka hipa te whā tau, nā te Kaipāho o te Whare i tohu kia reo Pākehā anake te Māori mēnā e taea ana. Nō te 1933 i whakaae kia reo Māori ngā Mema Māori engari me wawe te whakapākehā i ā rātou kōrero. E toru tau i muri ka tīmata te whakapāho o ngā tautohe pāremata i te reo irirangi. Ahakoa he mahi hou tēnei i te ao, ko te reo Pākehā tonu te reo matua.

Ahakoa te hekenga o te reo Māori, i kitea te māia me te manako kia ora te reo i te mutunga o te rautau 19 me te tīmatanga o te rautau 20.

Niupepa

He aronga tōrangapū tō ngā niupepa i ngā tau mai i 1860 i mōhio ai te iwi Māori ki ngā take ture, ki ngā take hoko whenua me ngā tikanga o Ingarangi. Ko te niupepa tuatahi i puta i te iwi Māori i tapaina ko Te Hōkioi o Niu Tireni, e rere atu nā (The War-Bird of New Zealand in Flight to You), i puta i mua tonu mai i te pakanga i Waikato, i Ngaruawāhia . Nā te karanga teina o Tāwhiao nā Wiremu Parata Te Tuhi a Te Hōkioi i ētita, ā, he tautoko Te Hōkioi i te Kīngitanga.

Ka noho a ngāi Māori ki runga i tētahi motu me ngā tipu, kīrehe hoki. Ka tauronarona ngā tāngata tokorua nei. Ka tū tētahi ki Aotearoa, ka tū tētahi atu ki Waipounamu.
Ko ēnei tohu e rua nō ngā niupepa e rua a te Paremata Māori o Te Kotahitanga. Te Puke ki Hikurangi (kei runga ake), Huia Tangata Kotahi (kei raro iho).
Niupepa: Maori newspapers

Waiata

Ko te waiata tonu hei kawenga motuhake i te ahurea Māori. Nō te mutunga o te rautau 19 ka hāereere ngā kapa haka ki ngā kāinga noho, e akiaki ana i te tuakiri ā-iwi me te kohi pūtea mō ngā kaupapa hapori.

I te orokohanga ake o te hopunga puoro i Aotearoa ko ngā Māori ētahi o ngā kaiwaiata tuatahi ki te hopu i ngā waiata Māori me ngā waiata o te wā. Ko Ana Hato tētahi kaiwaiata rongonui nāna i rīkoata a ‘Pōkarekare Ana’, ‘Hine e Hine’ me ‘E Pari Rā’ i te mutunga o te 1920 me te tīmatanga o ngā tau mai i 1930.

Ko te whakapāhotanga o te hui i Ruatōria i te 6 o Oketopa i te tau 1943 hei whakanui i te whakaoatitanga o Rūtene tuarua Te Moananui-a-Kiwa Ngarimu me tana Rīpeka Wikitoria.
Archives New Zealand - Te Rua Mahara O Te Kawanatanga; New Zealand National Film Unit presents Weekly Review No. 112 (1943)

Te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao

I muri i te rautau i tāmia ai te iwi Māori, ka kitea he paku oranga i te reo Māori. I whakamahia e te kāwanatanga te reo Māori ki te whakakao i te iwi ki te pakanga me te akiaki i ngā tāngata ki te kohi pūtea hei tautoko i te pakanga.

Ko te Hokowhitu-a-Tū e haka ana ki te koraha.
E haka ana ngā hōia o te Kamupene C mō te Kīngi o Kirīhi ki Helwan, Īhipa i te 25 o Pipiri 1941'.
Alexander Turnbull Library; Tohutoro: DA-01229-F
He pānui whakaahua tawhito nō te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao. I anga atu tēnei pānui whakaahua ki ngā hapori Māori matatau ki te reo.
He pānui whakaahua mai i te tau 1941 e whakatenatena ana i te iwi Māori kia penapenahia, kia kohikohia ā rātou pūtea hei tautoko i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao i runga i te kaupapa o te Komiti Penapena o Aotearoa.
Te Papa; Tohutoro: GH015341 Poster, 'Taringa Whakarongo!'

Ko te reo Māori hei reo whakawhiti mō Te Hokowhitu-a-Tū – i whai painga hoki i te pakanga ki ngā Tiamana. Ko te reo Māori tonu hei reo whakawhiti i te reo irirangi, hei kawe i ngā karere kia kore ai ngā Tiamana e mārama ki ngā kōrero. Waihoki, ki te wareware i tētahi hōia te kupu muna i ngā pō i tana putanga i te puni, ka whakautu noa i te tūtei i roto i te reo Māori.

I te putanga atu o Aotearoa i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao i te tāmate haere tonu te reo Māori i ngā whiunga o te wā i pā ki te iwi Māori. Heoi rā, nā wai i hē, ka hē kē atu.


1 Waitangi Tribunal, te Rīpoata o te Rōpu Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi mō te Kerēme Reo Māori (WAI11), Te Whanganui-a-Tara: 1993, wh 8

2 I kōrerohia e Tā Himi Henare i te Rīpoata o te Rōpu Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi mō te Kerēme Reo Māori (WAI11), Te Whanganui-a-Tara: 1993, wh 9

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