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Te raranga me te whatu

by Kahutoi Te Kanawa

Nā te āhua ā-rangi i Aotearoa kāore i tipu ngā hua i mauria mai e ngā tīpuna Māori i Hawaiki hei papanga. I tahuri kē rātou ki te harakeke hei raranga, hei whatu. Ka waihangatia mai ngā taonga whakahirahira pērā i te rourou me te whāriki, tae atu ki te kākahu. 


The art of te whare pora

Te pā harakeke

Aitia te wahine i roto i te pā harakeke.

E tūtohu ana tēnei whakataukī i te whai hiranga o te toi raranga ki te ao Māori. Ko te pā harakeke he whānau harakeke kua whakatipuria, e tipu noa iho ana rānei.

Ngā tikanga hou ki te huarere kē

I te taenga mai o te Māori ki Aotearoa ka kitea he mātao ake tēnei motu i Hawaiki. Kīhai i tipu te aute nā te māeke. I whakamahia te aute hei hanga i te papanga tapa i ērā atu moka o Te Moana nui a Kiwa, engari anō i Aotearoa, ka tāmatemate te tupu, nā te makariri.

Ko tōna whakakapinga ko te muka o te harakeke. I whakamahia te muka hei hanga i ō rātou kākahu, me ētahi taonga mīharo hoki.

Ko te harakeke te piki tūranga o te aute. He nui āna whakamahinga hei whiriwhiri, hei raranga, me ētahi atu tikanga hanga papanga. Ko ētahi atu tipu i whakamahia hei raranga he kiekie, he pīngao, he kākaho me ētahi atu. 

Ngā momo harakeke

E kitea ana te harakeke puta noa i Aotearoa. Ko tēnei te tipu pai rawa mō te raranga. Nāwai ka whakatipuria ngā momo harakeke mō ngā mahi rerekē, mō te kōmāmā rānei o te muka. He wā ka takohatia ēnei taonga ki ngā iwi o rohe kē. Ko ētahi o ngā momo harakeke he pari-taniwha, he oue, he rātāroa, he ngutu-nui, he awanga, he tāneāwai, he ruatapu, he tukura, he rongotainui, he motuoruhi, me te mangaeka.

Te tapahi harakeke

Ko ngā momo e kitea whānuitia ana he harakeke, he wharariki. Ko te wharariki he ngāwari ake, ā, ka whakamahia i ngā taonga tūoi noa. He maha ngā momo rerekē, tēnā mō tōnā āhuatanga, tēnā mō tōnā āhuatanga, o te raranga.

I āta tapahia ngā rau mō te raranga kia kore ai e pāngia te rito. He huhua ngā whakataukī e whakarite ana i te whānau ki te pā harakeke. 

Te whakarite i te muka

Ka tākirikirihia ngā rau kia rite tahi te whānui. Kātahi ka hahaetia te mata pūhuki o te harakeke, ā, ka wakua ki te anga moana kia puta mai te muka. I ngā kākahu ngāwari, ka horoia anō te muka, kātahi ka tātā ki te patu muka, ki te patu whītau rānei. Ko ngā weu ka miro ki runga i te waewae kia hua mai ngā whenu me ngā aho. Heoi he hauono te iti iho o te aho i te whenu. Kīhai i tātāhia ngā aho ki te patu.

Ko ngā tae he kōwhai, he kōkōuri, he pango me te tae tonu o te muka. Ka whakamahia te raurēkau mō te kōwhai, te tānekaha mō te kōkōuri. Ina whakawhenumitia ki te ngārehu wera ka hua te parauri. E pango ai te muka ka tīkina te peha o te rākau makomako, o te hīnau rānei ka rumaki ki te wai. Kātahi ka rumakina te muka ki roto, ka whakamarokehia, ka mirimiria ki te paru. 

Te whare pora

I ngā wā o mua ka ākona te kairaranga ki roto i te whare pora. He nui ngā tikanga i paiherea ai ngā tauira. I te tīmatanga o ngā akoranga he tuku karakia te mahi, e tuwhera ai te tauira ki ngā akoranga. Ko te hunga whakahere ki te raranga ka rapu i te taha kikokiko me te taha wairua ki tōna rētōtanga. I roto i te tekau tau 1800 ka whakatakēhia tēnei mātauranga e te hunga mihinare, i ruarua ai ngā whakaritenga me ngā karakia tūturu i ngā wānanga raranga o ēnei rā.

Ko te nuinga o ngā kairaranga he wahine. Ko te atua o te whare pora ko Hine-te-iwaiwa. Koia anō te atua o te whakawhānau tamariki. 


Kākahu – woven cloaks

Te whatu kākahu

Kīhai te Māori i whakamahi i ngā rūmu (loom) me ngā wīra tākaikai (spinning wheel). Engari ana ka whakawhanakehia te whatu mā ngā matimati hei whakaputa i ngā mahinga mutunga mai o te ātaahua.

Ko te whatu aho rua me te whatu aho pātahi ka whakamahia hei whatu kākahu. I ngā wā o mua, ka tīmata te mahi mā te whakatoro i te kākahu ki runga i ngā turuturu e rua. Mai i tēnei taura ka tāiri ngā whenu, ā, ka huapae ngā whenu mai i te mauī ki te matau. Mā te whakamahi i ngā tae rerekē i roto i ngā aho ka hua ngā tāniko. Ka whanake haere ana te kākahu, kua titia anō ngā turuturu e rua kia kore ai e tautau. 

Te korowai Orimipia

E haere tonu ana te whatu kākahu mō te hunga rangatira i ēnei rā. He wā ko te hunga o tāwāhi ka mau i ēnei taonga. Mai ano i te tau 2004 e mau ana te kaipupuri haki ki ngā Whakataetae Orimipia i te korowai e kīia ana ko Te Mahutonga. Neke atu i te whitu marama e hangaia ana e Te Aue Davis rāua ko Rānui Ngārimu tēnei kākahu. Ko ngā rau o Te Mahutonga he kiwi, he tīeke, he toroa, he kākāpō. 

Ngā momo whatu

Ko te whatu māmā ki te mahi ko te whatu aho pātahi. Ka whakamahia ēnei hei hanga pākē. Ko ngā tākirikiringa ka pūpūhia ki ngā whare hei ārai atu i te ua.

Ko ngā mahinga uaua ka whakamahi i te whatu aho rua. Inā kē te ātaahua o ēnei momo kākahu rangatira. I te haerenga mai a Kāpene Kuki i te tau 1769, ka kite tāna kaitā whakaahua a Sydney Parkinson “i te mā o ngā papanga, anō nei he hiraka, rite tonu ki ngā kākahu whakapaipai i tuia ki te rūmu, ko te nuinga  o ēnei kahu mō te tāne, ahakoa nā te wahine i whatu. Ko ngā wāhine ki te pīkau i ngā mahi taimaha me ngā mahi whakaheke werawera’.1

Ngā momo kākahu

He maha ngā tūmomo kākahu, pērā i: 

  •          te kahu kurī
  •          te kaitaka
  •          te korowai hukahuka
  •          te korowai kārure
  •          te kahu huruhuru
  •          te kaitaka huaki.

He whānui ngā pakihiwi o te kaitaka kia māmā te mau ki te tinana.

Inā kē te roa ka whakahere te kairaranga ki te whatu kākahu, ka mutu he taonga tuku iho, he taonga rānei ka taea te takoha atu mō te waka taua, mō te tā moko rānei. 

Rāpaki

Ka mau anō te rāpaki, te pākē kārure rānei ki te tikihope. Nō muri kē mai te piupiu i te taenga o tauiwi. He wā kua mau maro ngā wāhine hei huna i te aroaro. Ehara i te mea i whatua ngā papanga mō ēnei momo maro, engari he wekuweku e tautau noa ana i raro, i te tātua.

He tino tau ngā kākahu i whatua mai e te Māori, ā, he maha ngā kōwhiringa mā te kairaranga i roto i tōna hanga kākahu. ‘Ko ngā tino kaupapa o ēnei kākahu he ārai i te huarere, he huna i te kaipupuri i roto i te ngahere, he whakamahana, hei tohu, hei karo, hei whakamana, hei tāwharau i te wairua, i te tinana rānei.’2

Footnotes
    • Tohutoro Margery Blackman, ‘Whatu – the enclosing threads.’ In Whatu kākahu: Māori cloaks, edited by Awhina Tamarapa. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Te Papa Press, 2011, p. 91. Back
    • Toi Te Rito Maihi, ‘Nga aho – threads that join.’ In Whatu kākahu: Māori cloaks, edited by Awhina Tamarapa. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Te Papa Press, 2011, p. 40. Back

Tāniko and tukutuku

He tikanga ahurei

Ko te tāniko ka kaha whakamahia ki ngā paenga o ngā kākahu. Ko te tikanga tā i te tāniko he kawe haere i ngā miro katoa i muri i te papanga. Ina hiahiatia tētahi o aua tae, ka tuia whakamuatia, me te tākaikai i ērā atu tae ki roto. I tua atu i Aotearoa, kāore e kitea te tāniko puta noa i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Kua ngaro noa atu te tikanga o ēnei tāniko. 

Ngā tauira tāniko

Kāore i taea e te kairaranga te whakamahi i ngā tauira piko, nā reira he tapatoru, he taimana, he pae, he ara tukutuku ngā tāniko. He pango, he whero, he mā te nuinga. Anei ngā tāniko e kitea whānuitia ana i ēnei rā:

  • nihotaniwha
  • nihoniho
  • waharua 
  • kaokao 

Te whakamahi tāniko

He tino kaha te tāniko nā reira i whakamahia ki ngā paenga o ngā kaitaka me ngā kaitaka paepaeroa. Hei ētahi neke atu i te kotahi paepae tāniko i te remu o te kākahu kotahi.

I muri i te taenga mai o te Pākehā, ka tere kapohia atu ngā wūru, ngā hiraka me ngā kātene ki roto ki ngā tāniko. Ka whakawhānuitia atu ngā tauira tāniko ki ngā tohu kāri, ngā pūāhua, arā atu, arā atu. Mai i ngā tāniko o ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1900 ka hua mai ngā pari, ngā puru, me ngā tīpare a ngā kapa haka Māori. Mai i te tekau tau 1950 ka hangaia ngā tātua ki te tāniko.

Te whakamahi tukutuku

Ko te tukutuku, ko te arapaki rānei te momo raranga ka whakamahi kē i te kākaho. Ka whakamahia tēnei tikanga hei whakaniko i ngā pakitara o ngā wharenui, ki waenganui tonu i ngā pou whakairo.

I ngā wā o mua ka hangā te tukutuku ki te kākaho, ka hereherea ki te kaho. Ko te tae o ngā kaho he whero, he pango rānei. I runga i tēnei papa ka tuia atu ngā otaota (he mea huri te tae) ki ngā kākaho me ngā kaho. Ko te pīngao te otaota ka kaha whakamahia, tae atu ki te kiekie (mā, pango rānei.)

Ngā tukutuku ki Te Kotahitanga o te Ao

Nā Toihoukura i hanga ngā tukutuku 50 kia iri ki roto i te whare o te uepū matua o Te Kotahitanga o te Ao ki te Āporo Nui. Nā te tohunga raranga nā Christina Hurihia Wirihana i ārahi ngā mahi a ngā kairaranga 40. I te tau 2010 ka tīmata rātou ki te tangotango i ngā kiekie mai i te pae maunga o Waitākere, me te pīngao mai i Tūranganui-a-Kiwa me Rotoiti. I tauiratia ngā tukutuku i te ao hou me te ao tawhito.

Ngā tauira tukutuku

He ingoa tō tēnā tukutuku, tō tēnā tukutuku. Ko poutama tērā e tohu ana i te huarahi ki te mātauranga, te ora me te angitu. Ko purapurawhetū tērā me ōna rīpeka mā. Ko roimata tērā me ōna turuturunga mā. He rite tonu te āhua o te pātiki ki te taimana, ā, ki te pātiki ika tonu. 

Ngā tukutuku o te ao hou

Mai i te pānga tuatahi ki te Pākehā kua hua mai ngā tauira hou. Ko te tauira ko te wharenui o Porourangi ki Waiōmatatini, i hangaia i te tekau tau 1870. Ko ōna tukutuku ngā mea tuatahi kia whakaatu i te tūāhua o te tangata. Ko ētahi atu tohu hou ko ngā waitohu whetū, rarauhe, pūāhua hoki. Kātahi ka nanao atu ki ngā rākau hou pērā i ngā papa rākau, i ngā papatiti, i ngā kiri kangarū me ngā otaota hei whakamāmā ake i te mahi. 


Whāriki, raranga and whiri

Ngā taonga muka o ia rā

I tua atu i ngā kākahu me ngā tukutuku, ka hanga anō te Māori i te whāriki, i te kete, i te kupenga, i te hīnaki, mā ngā tikanga raranga e rua. 

Whāriki

Ko te huhua o ēnei taonga ka whakamahi i te tikanga raranga e kīia ana he whāriki. He rerekē i te tikanga raranga, ka haere tōrua kē ngā weu.

Ngā momo whāriki

Ko te whāriki he tikanga raranga mō te mahi whāriki anō. He whakahirahira ngā whāriki i mua i te taenga mai o tauiwi, inā rā i te nuinga o ngā whare whakairo ko te oneone noa iho te papa. He maha ngā momo whāriki i hangaia. Ko te whāriki me te tūwhara ētahi momo pakari. Ko ētahi anō he ngāwari hei moenga, pērā i te takapau me te tīenga. Ko te takapau wharanui mō te wahine ka whakawhānau tamariki. Tērā anō hoki te tāpaki ka hīpokina ki runga hāngī hei pupuri i te mamao. Ko taua tikanga raranga anō rā tērā ka whakamahia hei hanga rā mō ngā waka tere moana. Heoi nō te kore haere o ngā terenga ki ngā moana pāmamao, ka kore anō tōna tikanga raranga.

E hangā tonutia ana te whāriki hei hora ki rō wharenui i ēnei rā. He rite tonu ka horaina ki raro i te tūpāpaku ki ngā tangihanga hei tohu whakaute ki te mate. 

Raranga

Ko te raranga hei mahi rourou, hei mahi kete me ngā taonga ririki i hāngai pū ki te ao Māori o mua. Ka mutu ko te rourou te taonga tuatahi ka mahia e te kairaranga. He mea hanga te rourou ki te rau harakeke. Kotahi noa iho te whakamahinga, ka whiua. Nō te whiwhinga ki ngā pereti, ka ngaro haere ngā rourou, engari e kitea tonutia ana ki ētahi o ngā marae.

Te whakamahi raranga

Karekau he pūkoro o ngā kākahu taketake, nā reira ka hangaia ngā tūmomo kete ki te tī kouka (he whanake rānei), ki te nīkau, tae rawa mai ki te harakeke. Ko ngā kete iti ka karangatia he pūtea, ā, ka whakakīia ki ngā kakara hei taonga. I ngā wā ka tata te whānau tamariki a te tohunga raranga, ka mahi ia i te kete whakairo. Kātahi ka whakaūria ki te karakia ki ngā atua. 

Whiri

Ko te whiri te tikanga mō te hanga i te maro, i te tīpare me te tātua. He pakari anō tēnei momo raranga hei hanga taura hei kawe i te kai, i te wāhie. 

Te hao ika

E ai ki tētahi manuhiri o Wīwī i tae ki Pēwhairangi i te tau 1772 ka whakamahi te Māori i āna taputapu hao ika. ‘Inā kē te tau o ngā momo aho me ngā momo kupenga, anō nei te huatau ki ō ngā tohunga o te kāinga.’ Nāwai e rima tekau tau i muri mai, ka whakaū te kaihoko a Joel Polack i tērā whakaaro: ‘he kaha ake ngā aho hī ika i ērā puta noa i Ūropi. Heoi he mahi takeo te hanga aho, arā ka romi, ka tuha, ka romi, ka tuha.’1

Ngā kupenga me ētahi atu

Ko tētahi mahi whai pānga ki tērā ko te hanga i ngā kupenga me ngā taputapu mahi kai. Ka mahitahi te tāne me te wahine ki te tā i ngā kupenga nui. Inā rā mā te kāinga tonu e tā tētahi kaharoa, neke atu i te 2 kiromita tōna whāroa. He whāiti iho ngā mata o waenganui i ngā tahataha hei pupuri i ngā ika. Ka tāia ngā kupenga iti hei tōanga, me ngā hīnaki, ki te piritā.

Ko te tāparepare o te tāruke he mea tā ki te piritā, ā, ko te mata ka tāia ki te tira mānuka me te harakeke. Hei hopu tuna te hīnaki, hei pupuri rānei i te tuna mō te kai. He atamai anō te hanganga o te whare manu me te tāhiti manu. Ko te mangemange, ko te kiekie ētahi o ngā rākau ka whakamahia, ka mutu he rauemi e kitea ana i te takiwā o ngā kōhanga manu. 

Footnotes

Revival of Māori fibre work

Te paheketanga

Nō te rautau 1900 ka tāmate haere te mātauranga raranga. Nā te urunga mai o ngā kaka Pākehā me ngā papanga hou, te ngaro haerenga o ngā manu Māori, me te whakatakē a ngā mihinare ki ngā tikanga o te whare pora, ka waimeha te mātauranga. 

Diggeress Te Kanawa

Mā wai e kōrero te kaha o ngā māreikura i whakahere i a rātou anō ki te oranga tonutanga o te raranga. Tētahi tino kairaranga, kaiako hoki ko Diggeress Te Kanawa (nō Ngāti Maniapoto me Ngāti Kinohaku), arā, te tamāhine o te tohunga raranga a Kahurangi Rangimarie Hetet. He kanohi kitea a Te Kanawa ki ngā hui a te Rōpū Wāhine Māori i te tekau tau 1950, mō te whakatairanga i te mahi whāriki me ētahi atu tikanga raranga. Neke atu i te 50 tau a ia e kuika nei kia mairangatia te aranga anō o te raranga Māori. He kaiwhakaū a Te Kanawa nō Te Roopu Raranga Whatu o Aotearoa. He nui ngā tohu kua whakawhiwhia ki a ia, pērā i te CNZM i te tau 2000, me te tohu kairangi hōnore i te tau 2007.

Te Rito

Nō te tau 1969 ka whakaarahia te kura raranga ā-motu, a Te Rito, ki Rotorua, i te taha tonu o te kura whakairo ki Whakarewarewa. Ko te tumuaki tuatahi o Te Rito ko Emere Schuster. Ka ako a Te Rito i te tauira ki ngā toi me ngā pūkenga e pā ana ki ngā raranga taketake mā te hōtaka toru tau te roa (mā tētahi ako harangote ki waenga hapori). He mea ako te tauira ki ngā toi me ngā tikanga, ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā tauira a tēnā iwi, a tēnā iwi. He mea ako anō ngā raranga Māori taketake ki ngā whare wānanga me ngā kura. 

Te Aho Mutunga Kore

I te tau 2004 ka tuwhera te taiwhanga o Te Aho Mutunga Kore ki te whare o Pātaka ki Porirua. I tae te whakakitenga ki ngā whare taonga o ngā rohe, i mua i te whitinga atu ki San Francisco i te tau 2005. Whai muri i te haerenga toru tau i Amerika, ka auraki mai a ‘Te Aho Mutunga Kore’ ki tōna whakakitenga mutunga ki Ōtautahi, ki Te Puna o Waiwhetū – neke atu i te 81,000 te marea i tae atu.

Ngā pā harakeke hou

Kātahi ka tūtū mai ngā pā harakeke hou ki tēnā marae, ki tēnā rōpū hei tautoko i te whakaaranga anō o te toi raranga. Ka mutu kei te rāhui o Janet Stewart ki Ōtautahi te pā harakeke o Te Kōrari. He taonga te pā harakeke ki te hunga raranga o Ōtautahi. I mahitahi te kaunihera me ngā rōpū raranga ki te waihanga i te pā harakeke. 

Ngā kaitiaki o ngā kōrero tuku iho

I te rautau 2000 he maha ngā kairaranga Māori ka ū tonu ki ngā papanga, ngā tae, ngā tauira me ngā tikanga raranga. He nui anō te hunga e urutau ana ki te horopaki o ēnei rā. Ko ngā kiri kānga, ko ngā wūru me ngā kura manu tauiwi ētahi o ngā taonga hou e whakamahia ana i ēnei rā. Heoi kei te ngākau-nui tonu te hunga kaitiaki o te tikanga raranga kia ū tonu ki ngā whakarerenga iho a rātou mā. 


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Kahutoi Te Kanawa, 'Te raranga me te whatu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-raranga-me-te-whatu/print (accessed 20 September 2021)

He kōrero nā Kahutoi Te Kanawa, i tāngia i te 22 Oct 2014