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Te ohanga onamata a rohe – economic regions

by Basil Keane

Ka kainga katoa ngā moa, ka tahuri te Māori ki te kai i ētahi atu kai kē. Ko te kūmara tētahi o ngā tipu i ora i tā rātou hekenga – he tino kai, ka mutu ki hea whakatipuria ai te kūmara, ka waihangahia he pā. Kāre i tipu ngā huawhenua ki ngā takiwā o te tai tonga, nā reira i hopukina, i kohikohia ō rātou kai.


Tradable commodities

Te taenga mai i ngā moutere

I tae tuatahi mai ngā tīpuna Māori ki Aotearoa i te takiwā o te tau 1300. Nā tō rātou ahunga mai i te moutere rikiriki i te takiwā pāru o Poronīhia, ka urutau rātou ki tēnei whenua roa, mātao hoki. Matua ake, i horapa rātou ki ngā moutere i runga i ngā au moana, me te tūhura haere i ngā whenua pai mō te noho. I rapu anō rātou i ngā wāhi kai, ngā papanga whatu kākahu, ngā wāhi haumaru, ngā rākau pai me ngā awa pai mō te whakatere waka.

Ngā nōhanga tōmua

E whakaarotia ana i nōhia tuatahi ai i Te Ika-a-Māui i mua i te totoro ki Te Waipounamu. I tere tā rātou horapa i ngā moutere e rua nā te nui o ngā kararehe nui hei whai – pērā i te moa me te kēkeno. E whakaarotia ana he wā e noho ōrite ana te nuinga tāngata o ngā moutere e rua nei. Heoi nāwai ā ka nui ake ngā tāngata i Te Ika-a-Māui. E whakapaetia ana kāre rawa te taupori i Te Waipounamu i kake ake i te 5,000 te rahi.

Ngā taonga ahuone hou

He nui ngā tipu i mauria mai i Hawaiki. Ko ētahi i tipu ki tēnei motu ko te kūmara, te taro, te uwhi, te hue, te aute me te tī pore. Mōmona te tipu o ēnei rākau ki te tai whakararo o Te Ika-a-Māui. Kīhai te pōporohua, te niu me te panana i tipu ki Aotearoa nei – he tipu ēnei i mauria haere e ngā tīpuna Māori i ō rātou torotoronga i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Ngahere

I te taenga tuatahi mai o te Māori ki konei, 80 ōrau o te whenua e kapi katoa ana i te ngahere. Ko ngā hua a Tāne, ko te kai a Haumiaroa ngā tino kai. Hāunga anō i Hawaiki ka tipu te niu, te pōporohua me te panana i te roa o te tau.

Ka tahuna ngā ngāherehere ki te ahi kia wātea ai mō te ahuwhenua me te wana ake o te aruhe. He whānui ngā ngāherehere i tahuna ki ngā takutai moana o Te Ika-a-Māui me te taha rāwhiti o Te Waipounamu.

Ka whai hiranga tonu te ngahere, heoi i tahuri rawa rātou ki te patu manu i te korenga ake o te moa, me ngā kāhui kēkeno. I tū tēnei āhuatanga e kotahi rau tau i muri i tō rātou noho taunaha.

He kaupapa nui anō te whai wāhi ki ngā rākau taumatua o te wao mō te tārai waka me te hanga whare. I tipu te kauri ki te tai tokerau o te Ika-a-Māui, me te tōtara ki ngā wāhi katoa.

Ngā kararehe

Ka mau mai hoki te Māori i ana kurī me ana kiore. Ka kaha te tipu o te kiore i ngā ururua, heoi ka noho mōkai te kurī i te taha o te tangata whāngaihia ki te kai.

Ngā wai

Pai kē ake ki te Māori kia noho ki ngā takutai moana, ki tūtata mai o ngā awa, ngā whanga me ngā wahapū. I pēnei tā rātou noho kia huaki ai ki ngā ika wai māori, wai tai hoki me te mātaitai.

Kōhatu

Ko ngā whao, ngā rākau mahi māra me ngā taonga hī ika, ka hangaia katoa mai i te kōhatu. Ko ngā taonga kōhatu nui rawa ko te toki me te whao. Ko ngā toki tōmua he mea hanga i te kara, te adzite (baked argillite) me te ōnewa. Nāwai ka hangaia i te ōnewa ki te Ika-a-Māui me te pounamu ki Te Waipounamu. Ka tauwhitiwhitihia ngā kōhatu whai hiranga nei.

Te noho korara o te iwi

I te taenga mai o te Pākehā, kua korara haere te noho o ngā iwi Māori ki Aotearoa. E 80 ōrau o te taupori i noho ki te tai tokerau o Te Ika-a-Māui, me ngā akau whakateraki atu i Whanganui me Te Matau-a-Māui. E kīia ana tēnei wāhi e ngā pūkenga ko ‘Iwitini’.

15 ōrau o te taupori i noho ki ērā atu takiwā o Te Ika-a-Māui me te tai rāwhiti o Te Waipounamu, mai i Tuhuroa ki te whaitua uru o Hakaroa. I reira ngā mahinga kai a ērā iwi. E karangatia ana tēnei takiwā ko ‘Waenganui’. Ko ērā atu wāhi o Te Waipounamu, kīhai he ahuone. 5 ōrau anake te taupori Māori i noho ki konei.


Iwitini – most populous region

Te rohe o Iwitini

Kōtata ki te 80 ōrau o te taupori Māori i noho ki te rohe e karangatia ana e ngā kaimātai whaipara tangata ko Iwitini. Kapi katoa tēnei rohe i ngā takiwā o te tai tokerau, ngā ākau ahu whakatetonga atu ki Whanganui ki te uru, me Te Matau-a-Māui ki te rāwhiti.

Ahuone

Ka whai hiranga te whakatipu kai ki tēnei wāhi. Ko ētahi o ngā tipu i mauria mai i Hawaiki ko te kūmara, te taro, te uwhi, te hue, te aute me te tī pore. Ka mōmona te tipu o te kūmara ki tēnei rohe, ā, koinei te mahinga kai matua. I tua atu i ngā wāhi tino mahana, kāre te taro e tipu ki waho o tēnei rohe.

E kitea ana te whai hiranga o te mahi ahuone ki te Māori, ina rā e 98 ōrau o ngā pā tūwatawata kei tēnei takiwā hei tautiaki i ngā whenua haumako me ngā mahinga kai.

Matariki

He wā haukai te wā o te hauhake kūmara. Ka kainga ngā kūmara ka tūkinotia i te karinga ake, ā, ka mōmona hoki te pua a Tāne. I orua mai ēnei āhuatanga me te whitinga ake o Matariki, te mātahi o te tau Māori. Tērā te kōrero mō te rahi o te kai i te kōhititanga o Matariki, arā ko ‘Matariki ahunga nui’.

Te whakawātea i te ngahere

He mahi ngātahi te tahu ngahere me te ahuone. He nui ngā whenua mārakerake i whakawāteahia i ōna uru, tae rawa ake ki ngā wāhi takutai moana. Ka whakawāteahia ngā ngāherehere o te takutai mai i Whanganui ki Taranaki, mai i Te Matau-a-Māui ki Te Tai Rāwhiti. He nui anō ngā ngāherehere i whakawāteahia ki Te Moana-a-Toi, ki Moehau, ki Tāmaki me Te Tai Tokerau.

Ngā rawa a Tangaroa

Ko te nuinga o te taupori o tēnei rohe i noho pātata ki ngā takutai moana. He nui ngā whanga, ngā wahapū i pukahu i te ika me te mātaitai, tae rawa ki ngā whenua haumako mō te ahuone me te huaki ki ngā ara o te moana.

Ka korongatia ngā whenua i ngā tahataha o Te Mānuka (Manukau). He tō waka tō te whanga e puta atu ai ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa me te awa o Waikato. He taunga ika nui te whanga kī katoa ana i te tāmure, te pātiki, te kanae me te mātaitai. He nui ngā kāinga i ōna tahataha, ā, ka whakatūhia ngā pā ki ōna puia koeko.

He whanga mōmona anō a Te Whanganui-a-Orotu ki Te Matau-a-Māui. Nā te nui o ōna manawa ā-whenua, ā-moana hoki, he tini te mano o te tangata i noho ki tūtata mai o te whanga.

Ngā rawa kōhatu

He tino kaha te tauwhitiwhiti kōhatu puta noa i te motu, ā, ka whai hiranga ngā tākongakonga kōhatu nei.

I Moehau, ko te tūhua, te ōnewa me te whaiapu. I kitea anō te matā tūhua ki te moutere o Aotea ki te raki, me Tūhua ki Te Moana-a-Toi. I kitea anō te whaiapu ki Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ko ētahi atu kōhatu, pērā i te pounamu i tuwhera rawa mai i ngā mahi tauwhitiwhiti.

Te pua a Tāne

I tipu te kauri ki roto i tēnei rohe, heoi ko tōna whaitua tipu ko Kāwhia ki te uru me Tauranga ki te rāwhiti. Ka whakamahia anō te tōtara hei hanga whare.


Waenganui region

Te rohe o Waenganui

Ki Te Ika-a-Māui, ka tae tēnei rohe ki tua tonga o Tāmaki, tae ake ki ngā takiwā whakatetonga o Whanganui ki te uru, me Te Matau-a-Māui ki te rāwhiti. I Te Waipounamu, ka tae tēnei rohe ki Tukuroa piki ake ki Hakaroa. E 15 ōrau o te taupori Māori i noho ki tēnei rohe. He iti noa iho ngā kai i tipu ki konei, heoi korekore rawa e tipu te taro.

Ahuone

Kāre i taea te whakatipu kai ki te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui, heoi ka whakatōhia te kai ki te takutai o Wairarapa. Ka whakamōmonahia ngā oneone, ka whakatūhia ngā paenga kōhatu. Ka whakawāteahia te ngahere kia wātea ai te whenua mō te whakatō.

Ki Te Waipounamu, e kitea ana ngā taunaki ahuone mai i Tukuroa ki Hakaroa, arā, ko ngā paenga kōhatu, ngā oneone whakamōmona, me ngā kōruarua (he rua i hukea ake ai ngā momo kōhatu).

Ngā manawa ā-whenua

Ko te pākeho me te ōnewa ngā kōhatu whakahirahira ki tēnei rohe. Ka kitea ai te pakohe tino kaha ki te moutere o Rangitoto, ā, he mea tauwhitiwhiti ki ngā motu e rua. I nui anō te kōhatu pākeho.

Ka tauwhitiwhitihia ngā kōhatu o ētahi atu rohe. Kua kitea iho ngā matā o Tūhua, o Moehau, o te Tai Tokerau me te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui ki tētahi wāhi whaipara ki Wairarapa.

Te whakawātea i te ngahere

Ki te pito raki o tēnei rohe, he nui ngā ngāherehere e karapoti ana i a Taupō Moana me ngā roto o te takiwā o Rotorua i te hūnga o Kaharoa. Ko ētahi i āta tahuna mō te ahuone. Ki te tonga, he nui ngā ngahere o Wairarapa i whakawāteahia. Ki Te Waipounamu, ka whakawāteahia te ngahere i Whakatū, i Wairau ā tae noa ki Hakaroa.

Ngā moa me ngā kēkeno

He tino kai te moa me te kēkeno ki tēnei rohe. Ka patua katoa ngā moa, ā, ka tere te nunumi atu o ngā kēkeno. E kitea ana ngā taunaki patu kēkeno, patu moa hoki ki te ākau o Te Whanganui-a-Tara me Whakatū ki Te Waipounamu. Kua kitea iho ngā wāhi patu moa tino nunui ki Hakaroa me Wairau.


Te Wāhi Pounamu – hunting and gathering

Te Wāhi Pounamu

Ko Te Wāhi Pounamu te rohe o Te Waipounamu atu i Te Tau Ihu o te Waka me te tai rāwhiti tae noa ki Hakaroa.

Kāre i taea te whakatipu kai ki konei, nā reira i tahuri ngā iwi o tēnei rohe ki te hopu me te kohi kai. Kāre i tino ora te tangata i konei, nā reira e 5 ōrau noa iho o te taupori i noho ki tēnei rohe.

Ngā moa me ngā kēkeno

He nui ngā wāhi patu moa kua tūhurahia mai i te pito raki o Waitaha ki Murihiku. He whakahirahira te patu kēkeno ki Ōtākou me Murihiku.

Murihiku

Nō te korenga ake o te moa, me te patua haerehia o ngā kēkeno, ka tahuri ngā iwi i Murihiku ki ētahi atu kai hou. Ko ngā kai whai hiranga ko te tuna, te mangā, te tī kōuka, te weka me te tītī. He mea hopu ēnei i ngā marama tika.

Ngā tipu

Ki te tai rāwhiti, ka whakawāteahia katoa te ngahere, hāunga anō ngā ngahere i Te Tai Poutini i noho urutapu. Ko ngā rau o te tī kōuka ka whakamahia hei whatu kākahu. He kai te hue, he tahā pupuri kai hoki, heoi kīhai tēnei i tipu ki tēnei rohe, nā reira ka whakamahia te rimurapa hei mahi pōhā, kia pai ai te huahua i ngā manu me ngā tuna ki tō rātou anō hinu.

Te Tai Poutini

He whenua uaua Te Tai Poutini ki te whai oranga. Tērā pea ko te kōiti anake i noho ki konei. Ko te tuna, te ūpokororo, te īnanga, te weka, te kākāpō, te kererū, te kākā me te tūī ngā tino kai o tēnei rohe. Ka whakatutungia ngā manu me ngā tuna ki roto pōhā. Ko ngā ika me ngā īnanga ka pāwharahia. Nā te pohepohe o ngā wai o tōna takutai, he uaua te hī ika. Ko ngā kai hua rākau ko te hua o te kahikatea me te rimu tae atu ki te uho o te mamaku.

Ngā rawa kōhatu

He nui ngā momo kōhatu ka kitea ki tēnei rohe, tae atu ki te karā, te silcrete, te porcellanite, te matā o Pahutāne, te ōnewa me te pakohe. Ko te kōhatu nui rawa ko te pounamu. Ko ngā taonga pounamu, pērā i te mere pounamu me te toki pou tangata ka noho hei tohu rangatira. Ka paraia ngā huarahi pounamu hei whakawhiti i te pounamu mai i Te Tai Poutini ki te tai rāwhiti o te moutere. Atu i reira, kua mararatia te pounamu ki te motu whānui.


Rēkohu – Chatham Islands

I te takiwā o te tau 1500, ka nunumi atu ngā tīpuna Moriori i Te Waipounamu ka noho ki Rēkohu, e 800 kiromita te tawhiti atu ki te rāwhiti. Ka tūpono rātou ki ngā tāero nui i pā ki ō rātou tīpuna Māori i te taenga ake ki Te Ika-a-Māui me Te Waipounamu: arā ko te urutau ki tētahi āhuarangi rerekē, me ngā rawa whenua hou.

Ngā tipu me ngā kararehe kōkuhu

Akene pea i mauria te kūmara me te taro ki Rēkohu, heoi kīhai i tipu. Ko ngā tipu katoa i mauria mai e te Māori i Hawaiki kāre i tipu ki reira, nā te mātao o te huarere. Heoi anō ka tipu te karaka, ā, ka kainga ōna hua, e kīia ana he kopi. E whakaarotia ana i mauria tēnei rākau i Aotearoa.

Akene tonu pea ka heria te kurī me te kiore ki Rēkohu, heoi ko te kiore anake i ora. I hopukina ngā kiore ki ngā ngāherehere pāpāuma i ngā wā o te ngahuru.

Ko ētahi atu kai nō taua moutere, nō ōna moana rānei hoki.

Ngā tipu

Ko ngā tipu i kainga e te Moriori ko ngā kano o te kopi, ngā hua rākau iti, ngā pua nīkau me te aruhe. Ka whakamahia te harakeke mō te hanga pūweru.

Ngā ika me ngā mātaitai

Ina te pukahu o te kai mātaitai, ā, ka haohia ngā ika o ngā whanga ki te kupenga. He nui ngā ika wai māori, engari ko te tuna te tino kai.

Kēkeno

He nui ngā ihupuku ki Rēkohu me ngā kāhui whakawhānau ki ōna moutere. Ko ngā kēkeno mōmona e tīraharaha ana i runga i te tātahi ngā mea pai, māmā ki te hopu – he kai pūmua, he kai mōmona, ā, ka whakamahia te kiri hei kākahu. He wā kua āia ngā tohorā ki uta, ā, ka patua hoki ngā kēkeno leapord, ngā sea lions, ngā kēkeno arewhana.

Ngā manu

Noho rawa ai ngā manu nui, māmā hoki ki te hopu ki ngā ngahere pāpāuma, pērā i te kererū, te kōmako me te tūī. Noho ai te moho ki ngā whenua hūrepo i ngā tahataha o ngā wao. He huhua ngā rakiraki ki ngā repo me ngā roto, ā, he māmā ki te hopu i te wāhanga whakamāunu o te tau. 16 te rahi o ngā momo kororā me ngā manu topa moana i taupae ki Rēkohu ki te whakawhānau, ki te whakamāunu rānei. He ngāwari te hopu i ngā pīpī, heoi kāre i kitea ngā kātua. He mōmona te manu i te roanga o te tau, tae rawa ki ngā takiwā o te hōtoke me te raumati.

Te hahau waka

Kāre i tipu ngā rākau nunui ki te tārai waka. Nā tēnei āhuatanga ka urutau te Moriori i ōna tikanga hahau waka. Anō nei te rite o ēnei waka ki ngā mōkihi. I hangaia ēnei waka i te kōrari, te rākau māpou me te rimurapa kia rewa ake ai.

Ngā rawa kōhatu

Kua huraina ake ngā mata tūhua o Tūhua, o Aotea, o Rotorua me Taupō, tae atu ki te Pakohe o Whakatū ki Rēkohu. E whakaarotia ana nā ngā kainoho tōmua i heri ki reira. Ko ētahi kōhatu ka kitea i tērā moutere, ko te paru Takatika, te dolomite me te whaiapu.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Basil Keane, 'Te ohanga onamata a rohe', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/te-ohanga-onamata-a-rohe/print (accessed 19 August 2019)

Story by Basil Keane, published 11 Mar 2010