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Tauranga Moana

by  Te Awanuiārangi Black

Kei te tomokanga ki te whanga o Tauranga i Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi, ko te maunga a Mauao. Kei ōna taketake ngā rohe o Ngāti Ranginui, o Ngāi Te Rangi, o Ngāti Pūkenga. He nui te whanaungatanga i waenganui i ngā iwi i roto i ngā tau – ngā heke, ngā pakanga, ngā hononga tahi. I te tau 1864, i toa ngā iwi nei i tētahi pakanga nui ki ngā hōia Pākehā. Ka noho te pakanga o Pukehinahina hei whakaata i te māia me te mōhio o ngā iwi kaha o Tauranga.


Traditional lands and canoes

Te rohe

Ka tīmata atu te rohe o Tauranga Moana i Ngā Kurī-a-Whārei ahu atu ki Wairākei i Pāpāmoa, hoki whakauta ki Ōtawa, ki Ōtānewainuku, whakapae atu i te pae maunga o Kaimai, heke iho ana ki Ngā Kurī-a-Whārei. Ko Ngāi Te Rangi, ko Ngāti Ranginui, ko Ngāti Pūkenga ngā iwi tāngata whenua o tēnei rohe.

He pūrākau

Ko Mauao (Maunganui) te maunga tapu e tū ana i te wahapū o Te Awanui, e ai ki ngā kōrero, he maunga kore ingoa i ōna wā e noho ana i raro i te maru o ngā maunga teitei o te wao nui o Hautere. Ka whakaparahakotia a ia e te puke ātaahua e Pūwhenua, he hiahia nōna ki a Ōtānewainuku. I te nui o tōna mate kanehe ka tangi atu a ia ki te iwi tūrehu, kia tōia a ia ki te moana kia mutu ake ai te aroha i a ia. Nō te tatanga atu ki te takutai moana, ka tākiri te ata, ka taki rere te iwi tūrehu, nā te mea he mate kei roto i ngā hihi o te rā mō te hunga hanga atua nei. Nō te mautanga i te pūaotanga o te ata, ka whai mana tēnei toka tū-tahi ā, hei whakamaumaharatanga mō te piki o tōna mana, ka tapaa ia ki te ingoa ‘Mau-ao’, hei whakamaharatanga ake ki tōna ‘mautanga i te ao’.

Ngā waka

Te Arawa

Ko Te Arawa tētahi waka ka whai wāhi ki te moana o Tauranga. I a ia e tere ana i waho o Tauranga ka taunahatia e Hei te rohe o Tauranga hei nohonga mō tana tama mō Waitaha. Nō ngā whakatupuranga i muri i a Waitaha i whakaea tēnei kupu āna.

Tākitimu

I te taunga o Tākitimu (ko Takitimu te whakahua ki ngā iwi o Tauranga Moana) ki Tauranga, i reira ko ngā iwi o Ngā Mārama – mai i a Tainui – rātou ko Te Purukupenga, ko ētahi wāhanga o Te Tini-o-Toi. He waka tapu nui a Tākitimu ā, e ai ki te kōrero, ko ngā ariki, ko ngā tohunga anahe ngā tāngata i haere mai mā runga i a ia.

Mataatua

I tau mai a Mataatua ki Te Mānuka-tū-tahi i Kākahoroa (Whakatāne). I haere a Muriwai te tuahine o Toroa ki te moana o Tauranga, i reira ka toremi ana tama tokorua. Koirā te puakitanga o tana kupu whakarāhui i Te Moana-a-Toi mai i Ngā Kurī-a-Whārei i te uru ki Tihirau i te rāwhiti; e mōhiotia nuitia ana ko tēnei te rohe o Mataatua. Heke iho ai i tēnei waka ngā iwi o Ngāi Te Rangi rāua ko Ngāti Pūkenga.


The Tauranga tribes

Ngāti Ranginui

Nā Tamatea-arikinui i hoatu te ingoa ‘Maunganui’ hei ingoa anō mō Mauao, hei whakamaharatanga ake ki tētahi maunga hanga rite i Hawaiki. Ka pikitia te maunga, ka whakatōkia tētahi mauri ki runga ā, kei reira tonu.

I Te Mangatawa tōna kāinga tuatahi, e noho ana ki ana tamariki ki a Whaene rātou ko Ranginui, ko Kahungunu. Nō tōna matenga ka tanumia a ia ki reira.

Te whakaingoa anō i a Maunganui

Nā Tamatea-arikinui (te kaihautū o te waka a Tākitimu) te ingoa o Maunganui i uhi ki te maunga tapu a Mauao. He tohu whakamaumahara te ingoa nei ki tētahi maunga rite kei Hawaiki. Kei te tomokanga ki te whanga o Tauranga te maunga e tū ana. Ka piki a Tamatea i te maunga, ka whakatō i te mauri; kei reira tonu i tēnei rā. Ko tōna nōhanga tuatahi ko Te Mangatawa, he puke, he nōhanga iti kei te taha rāwhiti o Maunganui. I tōna matenga ka tanumia ia ki reira.

Nō tētahi rā ka haere te iwi o Tamatea ki te hao ika i Ōtira, takiwā ki Ōmanu. Nā, ka hapa a Kahungunu i reira, he tiki atu nōna i te tāmure rahi māna i mua i te kawanga. Ka riri a Whaene, ka tāia a Kahungunu ki te tāmure, ka tū i te tara. Ka mate a Kahungunu i te whakamā, ko tana hekenga atu tērā ki Te Tai Rāwhiti. Nā wai ā, ka haere a Whaene ki Taupō, ko Ranginui i noho tonu ki Pukewhanake, ki te tahatika o te awa o Wairoa i Tauranga.

Nā Tamatea-pōkai-whenua ko Ranginui, nā Ranginui ko Ngāti Ranginui nui tonu e noho nei i ngā pāpāringa o te moana o Tauranga me te tuawhenua. He maha ōna marae me ōna hapū.

Ngāi Te Rangi

Ko Ōpōtiki te kāinga o ngā tupuna o Ngāi Te Rangi i mua. Nā te riri ka heke rātou ki Tūranga-nui-a-Kiwa. Kāore i roa i reira ka puta anō te riri, ka heke haere anō te iwi nei mā Tōrere, mā Whakatāne, tau rawa atu ki Te Awa-a-Te-Atua (Matatā). Nō taua wā ka mōhiotia rātou ko Ngāi Te Rangihouhiri.

I a rātou i reira, ka mātoro a Tamapahore ki ōna huānga i Maketū. Ahakoa tukuna mai ana he whenua mō rātou, kāore i roa ka taki pakanga. Ka hinga a Tūtengaehe, te mātāmua a Te Rangihouhiri. I te nui o te aroha ka puta tana kupu ōhākī: ‘Haere rā koe e tama, mōu tai ahiahi, mōku tai ata’.

Aoake ka mate a Te Rangihouhiri ki Poporohuamea i Waihi. I tōna matenga, ka mōhiotia tōna iwi ko ‘Ngāi Te Rangi’, ka tahuri ki te ngaki i tōna mate, ki te raupatu hoki i te takiwā.

Ka toko i konei te hiahia o Ngāi Te Rangi kia whai tūrangawaewae ki te moana o Tauranga, te kāinga o tō rātou tupuna a Whaene. He nui ngā pakanga, nā wai rā ā, ka tūturu te noho i Tauranga Moana, ka tutea a Ngāti Ranginui ki uta.

Ngāti Pūkenga

He iwi toa a Ngāti Pūkenga ki te pakanga, i hau tōna rongo ki tawhiti ā, tono mai ētahi atu iwi ki a rātou hei ringa kaha mō rātou. He nui ngā whenua ka tukua ki a rātou, nā i tēnei rā i tua atu i ngā pānga i Tauranga, kei Manaia i Hauraki, kei Pakikaikutu i Whāngārei, kei Maketū, kei ētahi atu wāhi ōna pānga.

Ko Rūātoki te kāinga tupu o Pūkenga tangata, i mate hoki ia ki reira. E ai ki ngā kōrero, i tae anō a Pūkenga rāua ko tana teina a Te Āhuru ki Tauranga ā, nāna te pae maunga o Kaimai i tapa.

Nō te matenga o Pūkenga ka wehe ōna uri i Rūātoki, ka noho ki Ōpōtiki i raro i te karangatanga o Ngāti Hā. Ka tupu te whanaungatanga ki a Ngāti Te Rangihouhiri, te ingoa tawhito o Ngāti Rangihouhiri. Heoi ka tipu te raruraru ki reira, ka wehe mai a Ngāti Te Rangihouhiri i taua takiwā.

Heoi, ka takatū a Ngāti Te Rangihouhiri ki te whakaeke i a Maketū, ka tono āwhina rātou i a Ngāti Hā. Ko Te Kohokino rāua ko Te Tini-o-Awa ngā rangatira o te taua o Ngāti Hā i haere ki te pakanga. Ka toa rātou. He nui ngā pakanga, ā, kātahi anō ka tau te noho a Ngāti Pūkenga (kua kore kē a Ngāti Hā) ki te takiwā o Rangataua i Tauranga.

Kei Ngāpeke tētahi wāhanga o Ngāti Pūkenga e noho ana ināianei. He whenua tuku tēnei nā Ngāti Hē hapū o Ngāi Te Rangi ki a Ngāti Pūkenga mō tana tautoko i roto i ngā riri. Ko Ngāpeke me Manaia i Hauraki ngā kāinga matua o Ngāti Pūkenga i tēnei rā.


From Gate Pā to the present

Pukehinahina (Gate Pā)

Nō te marama o Maehe i te tau 1864 ka werohia e ngā iwi o te moana o Tauranga ngā hōia Pākehā e puni ana i Te Papa kia riri. I reira ngā hōia hei aukati i ngā iwi ka tautoko i te Kīngitanga ki Waikato. Kāore i arohia e ngā hōia te wero a ngā iwi, nō reira ka nekehia e ngā Māori te pae o te riri kia tata ake ki ngā hōia; whāia, ka tū tō rātou pā ki Pukehinahina.

Ko Rāwiri Puhirake o Ngāi Te Rangi te rangatira i Pukehinahina, ko Hēnare Taratoa te minita Karaitiana nāna ngā tikanga mō te pakanga i whakatakoto, inarā he whakahau i ngā kaiwawao kia manaakitia te hoariri, kia kauaka ngā kaiākiko e tūkinotia.

Ka pakaru mai te riri i te 29 o Āperira 1864. E 1700 ngā hōia, e 230 ngā toa Māori. Ka takapapa te pā i te mahi a ngā pū repo, ka tomo ngā hōia e 300 ki roto; e huna ana ngā toa i ngā maioro. Ka parekuratia ngā hōia, ka mauri rere ngā mōrehu. Ka whakarērea e ngā toa Māori te pā i toa ai rātou.

Ko te utu o ngā hōia mō Pukehinahina, ko Te Ranga. I te 21 o Hune 1864, ka kōkiritia e rātou te pā o Te Ranga. I ngā Māori e hanga ana i tō rātou pā, ka mau i te whana tukutahi a ngā hōia, ka parekuratia rātou. Ki te whakaaro Māori, he patu kōhuru tēnei, nā te mea i manaakitia e ngā Māori ngā kaiākiko Pākehā i taotu ki Pukehinahina.

Koinei te mutunga o ngā pakanga i Tauranga Moana, me te tīmatanga o te raupatu a te Karauna i ngā rau mano eka. Kua roa e tohe ana te iwi kāinga kia whakatikangia tēnei hē.

Te toanga i Pukehinahina

Ko te riri ki Pukehinahina tētahi o ngā pakanga torutoru i toa te Māori i nga whawhai ki te Pākehā mō te whenua. I tatari ngā toa Māori i ō ratou rua, kia mutu rā anō te pakū o te pū repo. I hangaia te pā ki te whakawai i ngā hōia Pākehā kia kuhu. I te mutunga o ngā pakanga, tikina atu ai e ngā Pākehā ngā maioro o te pā o Pukehinahina hei tauira mō ō rātou pakanga ka whai. Inarā, ka kitea tōna whakamahinga i te pakanga tuatahi o te ao.

Ngā iwi o te moana o Tauranga i ēnei rā

Kia tae ki te tau 2013, e 24,066 ngā tāngata o ngā iwi o te moana o Tauranga. Kei te ngana tonu rātou ki te pupuri i ngā taonga tuku iho a ngā tūpuna, ki te hāpai hoki i ngā āhuatanga o te iwi o nāianei. He uaua anō tēnei mahi nā te kaha o te waipuke o te ao Pākehā. Ko Tauranga Moana tētahi o ngā tāone nui o Aotearoa, tere ake tōna tipu i ō ētahi atu, nō reira ia rā ka nui haere ngā taumahatanga e tāmi nei i te whenua, te moana, te tangata, ngā taonga katoa e toe nei. Kei te kaha tonu te iwi kia whakatikangia ngā hē o mua, kia ora anō te reo, kia whakamutua rawatia te takahi i te mana o ngā iwi.

Inā te pepeha hei whakamanawanui i a rātou:

Ko Mauao te maunga
Ko Tauranga te moana
Ko Ngāi Te Rangi, ko Ngāti Ranginui, ko Ngāti Pūkenga ngā iwi.

Hei whakamaumahara i ngā iwi o Te Moana, rite tonu rātou ki ō rātou maunga, wai – e kore e ngaro.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō ngā iwi o Tauranga Moana (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Ngāi Te Rangi

  • tatauranga o 1991: 6,321
  • tatauranga o 2001: 9,561
  • tatauranga o 2006: 12,201
  • tatauranga o 2013: 12,924

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Te Moana a Toi: 5,304
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 2,616

Ngāti Pūkenga

  • tatauranga o 1991: 576
  • tatauranga o 2001: 1,137
  • tatauranga o 2006: 1,788
  • tatauranga o 2013: 2,175

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Te Moana a Toi: 921
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 465
  • Waikato: 321

Ngāti Ranginui

  • tatauranga o 1991: 4,476
  • tatauranga o 2001: 6,120
  • tatauranga o 2006: 7,644
  • tatauranga o 2013: 8,967

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Te Moana a Toi: 4,641
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 1,434

 


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Te Awanuiārangi Black, 'Tauranga Moana', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/tauranga-moana/print (accessed 26 February 2020)

He kōrero nā Te Awanuiārangi Black, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 1 Mar 2017